Kundin Binciken Neman Digirin Farko (B.A Hausa) Wanda Aka Gabatar A Sashen Harsuna Da Al’adu Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau

Karin Harshen Zamfarci (Musamman A Garin Gusau) (2)

NA

BASHIRU HARUNA

Walwalar Harshe

BABI NA ƊAYA

GABATARWA

1.0    SHIMFIƊA

Duk wani harshe da ya cancanta da a kira shi da suna harshe saboda bunƙasarsa to, za a iya tarar da ana samun bambance – bambance ta fuskar tsarin sauti da ƙirar kalma da ginin jimla, dangane da mutanen yankuna daban-daban da ke amfani da wannan harshe. Ganin yadda wannan harshe ke da kare-karen harshe, shi yasa wannan bincike ya yi aniyar nazarin karin harshen Zamfarci (musamman a garin Gusau). A babi na ɗaya mai suna gabatarwa za a kawo shimfiɗa da bitar ayukan da suka gabata da gudunmawar aiki ga ilimi. Bugu da ƙari, an yi tsokaci a kan dalilin yin bincike da tsarin gabatar da aiki sai ƙarshe naɗewa. A babi na biyu mai suna Ƙasar Hausa, za a kawo shimfiɗa da taƙaitaccen tarihin Ƙasar Hausa, sai taƙaitaccen tarihin ƙasar Zamfara  da taƙaitaccen tarihin garin Gusau, na ƙarshe naɗewa. Babi na uku, mai suna kare – karen Hausa, za a kawo shimfiɗa, da ma’anar harshe da ma’anar, karin harshe.Haka kuma dalilin samuwar karin harshe da kuma rabe – raben karin harshe da karin harshen gabas, da kuma karin harshen yamma. Daga ƙarshe naɗewa. Babi na huɗu, mai suna karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa.Wannan babi shi ne zuciyar aikin, ya fara da shimfiɗa da karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, Haka kuma an yi bayanin tsarin sauti da ƙirar kalma da ma’anar kalmomi da ginin jimla, tare da kwatanta su da Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Daga ƙarshe an rufe da babin da naɗewa. A babi na biyar mai suna, taƙaitawa da kammalawa, an fara da shimfiɗa sai taƙaitawa da kuma hasashe na ƙarshe naɗewa.

1.1 AYYUKAN DA SUKA GABATA

Masana da manazarta harshe sun yi rubuce – rubuce da dama akan karin harshe a shekaru masu yawa da suka wuce, kuma suna da yaƙinin cewa nazarin bambanci da ake samu a harshe a tsakanin mazauna. Yankuna daban-daban wani abu ne mai muhimmanci. A kwai kundayen binciken digiri da wallafaffun littattafai da maƙaloli da dama da aka gabatar waɗanda suke magana a kan harshe da karin harshe da wanzuwarsa.Saboda haka, wannan babi zai yi bitar ayyukan da suka gabata.

Zagga (1986) A cikin aikinsa mai suna (Bambancin karin harshe da sakkwatanci ta fuskar ginin kalma) ya gudanar  da nasa bincike ne kan harshen nahiya, ya kawo bambancin karin harshen Kananci da Sakkwatanci ta fuskar ginin kalma da tsarin kalmomi da kuma shigar da wata kalma cikin karin harshe, misali ya bayyana cewa a wajen ƙirƙirar kalmar jinsin mace, Sakkwatanci ya bambanta da karin harshen Kananci kamar haka:

Saiwar kalma                                   Kananci                                 Sakkwatanci

Kan -                                                   Ba – kan – oo                         Ba – ka– nee (namiji)

Kan -                                                   Ba – kan  – uwa                    Ba – ka – naa (mace)

Dakkar -                                             Ba – dakkar – iyaa    Ba – dakkar – aa (mace)

Haus -                                                Ba – haush – iyaa                 Ba – haus – aa (mace)

            Babu shakka, ko ba a faɗa ba, wannan aiki zai yi jagora wajen wannan bincike, domin shi ma kwatanci ne, ta ɓangaren ginin kalma a wannan bincike ya shafi karin harshe, sai dai wannan bincike ya shafi karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Amfani (1980) ya yi nasa aiki mai suna nazari a kan bambance – bambance tsakanin Zazzaganci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa. A kundin digirinsa na farko a jami’ar Ahmadu Bello Zaria, ya kawo bambance – bambancen da ake samu tsakanin Zazzaganci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa ta fuskar Turanci. Misali a Zazzaganci a kan samu bambancin furucin wasali /a/ maimakon /u/a Daidaitacciyar Hausa ko ‘/a/ Ungulu’ maimakon ‘/u/ angulu.’ Haka kuma ya ci gaba da kawo misali inda ya ce a Zazzaganci a kan ce ‘lefee’ maimakon ‘laife’ ko ‘leema’ maimakon ‘laima’ ko ‘reeno’ maimakon ‘raino’ a Daidaitacciyar Hausa.Har ila yau, a Zazzaganci a kan samu bambanci a wajen jam’intawa, misali a Zazzaganci a kan ce ‘almukusa’ mai maikon ‘almakasai’ a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Haka kuma ya ƙara kawo misali ta bambanci da ake samu a ɓangaren tsarin jimla sannan daga ƙarshe ya kawo jerin kalmomin Zazzaganci da takororinsu na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan bincike na da alaƙa sosai ta fuskar karin harshe, don haka, zaiyi jagora wajen wannan bincike. Domin wannan bincike ya shafi karin Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Sani (1988) ya gudanar da bincikensa a cikin aikinsa mai suna bambance – bambance tsakanin Kananci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa ta fuskar furuci da ƙirar kalmomi da masu ma’ana ɗaya da tsarin jimloli. Kundin digiri na ɗaya. Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello Zaria ya kawo bambance – bambancen da ake samu ta fusar furuci da ƙirar kalma da kuma kalmomi masu ma’ana ɗaya, misali ana samun bambance–bambance wajen furucin wasulla da baƙaƙe tsakanin Kananci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, misali a karin harshen Kananci a kan furta ‘dutsan’ maimakon ‘dutsen’ a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da ‘daran’ a maimakon ‘daren’ da kuma ‘wajan’ a maimakon ‘wajen’. Haka kuma, wajen furucin baƙaƙe ana samun bambanci a tsakanin Kananci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, misali wajen furucin /n/ maimakon /m/ da /sh/ maimakon /s/ da /y/ maimakon /ɗ/da sauransu. Misali a Kananci a kan furta ‘malan’ a maimakon ‘malam’ da ‘jingin’ a maimakon ‘jingim’, duk a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Duk da kasancewar aikin ya shafi Kananci ne da kuma Daidaitacciyar Hausa, wannan aikin zai ba da haske ga wannan bincike, don haka aikin ya shafi karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Iro, R. (1980). A cikin aikinsa mai suna Katsinanci. Kundin digiri na ɗaya. Ya karkasa yankin Katsina zuwa yan kin mulki guda bakwai, wato ƙananan hukumomi bakwai na tsohuwar jihar Kaduna, sannan ya kawo irin bambance – bambance da ake samu tsakaninsu waɗannan yankunan mulki, musamman ta ɓagaren arewa da kudanci da kuma lardin Katsina ta fuskar furuci da ƙirar kalma da tsarin jimloli. Misali akwai wurin da /u/ kan koma /m/ ko /b/ wato /u/ /u/ b/ kamar yadda ya kawo, Katsinanci a kan ce ‘kamri’ maimakon ‘kauri’ a Didaitacciyar Hausa da ‘amre’ maimakon ‘aure’ da ‘samrayi’ maimakon ‘saurayi’ da ‘dabshe’ maimakon ‘daushe’ da ‘tabshi’ maimakon ‘taushi’, duk a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan aiki na Iro (1980) ya na alaƙa da wannan aiki, duk da cewa shi wannan bincike a kan karin harshen Katsinanci. Don haka zai ba da haske ga wannan bincike, domin shi za a yi shi ne a kan karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a  garin Gusau.

Ɗankama (1981). A aikinsa mai suna, Hausar Garuruwan Kan – iyakar Nijeriya da Janhuriyar Nijar (Ɓangaren Nijeriya) kundin digiri na ɗaya. A cikin binciken sa wanda ya shafi karin harshen nahiya inda ya yi ƙoƙarin fito da yanayin Hausar garuruwan kan iyaka ta ɓangaren yankin Sakkwato da yankin Daura da yankin Katsina da Kano duk a  tsakaninsu da janhuriyar Nijar. Sannan ya kawo misali a kan bambance – bambance da ake samu ta tsakanin fuskar furuci da ƙirar kalma da tsarin jimla a kan Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Kamar yadda ya ba da misali da cewa a garuruwan kan iyakar yankin Daura a kan yi amfani da furucin wasali /i/ maimakon /a/ kamar haka, ‘bin yarda ba’, maimakon ‘ban yarda ba’. Haka kuma suna amfani da furuci /l/, maimakon /r/ wajen nuna nasaba kamar haka ‘motal Habibu’, maimakon ‘motar Habibu’, ko ‘ƙofal Mazugal’ maimakon ‘ƙofar Mazugal’. Saboda haka, wannan aiki ya shafi karin harshen nahiya ne kawai saboda haka zai yi wa wannan bincike amfani na karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Kabir, M. (2008), A nasa bincike mai suna Karin Harshen Zazzaganci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, kundin digiri na ɗaya da ya gudanar, ya kawo ma’anar karin harshe da ire – irensa wanda daga baya ya ci gaba da kawo karin harshen Zazzaganci da inda  ya bambanta da Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan bincike yana da alaƙa ta fuskar karin harshe domin zai zama jagora ga wannan aiki na karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Ibrahim, A (2006), A bincike mai suna Kwatanta Daidaitacciyar Hausa da Hausar Gusau da kuma yamma. Kundin digiri na farko. Da ta gudanar, inda ta fara kawo bayanai masu muhimmanci ga wannan bincike da ta gudanar inda ta yi ƙoƙarin kwatanta Daidaitacciyar Hausa da Hausar gabas da kuma Hausar yamma. Wannan aiki yana da kusanci ta fuskar karin harshen gabas da kuma karin harshen yamma domin haka zai zama jagora ga wannan bincike ne na karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Jibril, S. (2006) A cikin aikinsa mai suna Kwatanta Hausar mutanen Eggon da Daidaitacciyar  Hausa. Ya kawo ma’anar harshe da karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma sai kuma Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan bincike yana da alaƙa da wannan aikin, bambancin wannan bincike da nawa shi ne yayi bayanin karin harshen mutanen Eggon da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, wanda ni kuma nawa yake bayani akan karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Sulaiman, (2016) ya yi a kan, Tasirin Zamfarci da Katsinanci a kan juna a wani ɓangare na jihar Zamfara. Inda ya yi bayanin ƙasar Hausa da ma’anar karin harshe da dalilin samuwar karin harshe da karin harshen yamma da karin harshen gabas da furuci da ƙirar kalma da ginin jimla. Wannan bincike na da kusanci sosai ta fuskar karin harshe, don haka zai yi jagora wajen wannan bincike, domin aikin ya shafi karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Adamu, S. (2006). A kundin digirinsa na farko, sashen nazarin harshen Hausa, jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo da ke Sakkwato. Ya yi bincike a  kan Dangantakar Katsinanci da Zamfarci a ƙasar Tsafe. Don haka wannan bincike zai taimaka ta fuskar Zamfarci, don nawa ya shafi karin harshen Zamfarci, musamman a garin Gusau.

Muhammad, (2006). A kundin digirinsa na farko a Shashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo Sakkwato, ya yi bayani akan irin bambanci da ke faruwa tsakanin karin harshen Zamfarci da Sakkwatanci ta fuskar furuci da ƙirar kalmada tsarin jimla da kuma zai taimaka wajen gudanar da wannan aiki.

Maharazu da wasu, (2008). Dukkansu a kundin digirinsu na farko wanda suka gabatar a Shashen koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, a aiki mai taken “Zamfarci”. Wannan aikin shi ma anyi shi ne domin tattara wasu sigogin da ake samu a cikin karin harshen Zamfarci da kuma bambancinsa da Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Wannan bincike na da alaƙa ta ƙuda–da ƙud da wannan aiki domin za a yi shi ne a karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Gambo, (2014). A kundin digirinsa na farko wanda ya gabatar a Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo da ke Sakkwato, mai taken “Karin harshen gamayya; Nazari a kan Hausar Garewa ta garin Tsafe”. Wannan aiki zai ba da gudunmuwa wajen wannan bincike mai taken karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Abbas, (2000). A kundin digirinsa na farko a Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo da ke Sakkwato, ya yi aikinsa a kan “Zamfarci.” Ba shakka wannan aiki nasa ya taimaka wajen ɗoura mu a kan hanyar gudanar da wannan bincike.

Bello, A. (1992). A littafinsa mai suna Karin Harshen Hausa (The dialects of Hausa) ya yi bayani a kan karin harshe da kuma yadda dangantaka take a karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma ta fuskar bambancinsu da kamanninsu a furuci da tsarin sauti da ginin kalma da tsarin jimla, tare da kwatantasu da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, kamar yadda ya ba da misali a karin harshen yamma ne ake samun furucin /hw/ maimakon /f/ ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Haka kuma ya kawo misalin yadda ake amfani da ɓirɓishin /m/ a karin harshe yamma maimakon /w/ na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Misali, a yamma ana gina jimla “Na saya maBala,” amma a Daidaitacciyar Hausa ana cewa “Na saya wa Bala”. Haka kuma a karin harshen yamma ne ake samu tagwan baƙaƙe kamar yadda ya ba da misali a karin harshen yamma ana cewa “mallam” maimakon “malan” a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Don haka wannan bincike ba zai rasa alaƙa da wannan ba, sai dai inda suka bambanta shi wannan aiki zai fi karkata ne a kan karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Wurma, A. G. (2005). A cikin littafinsa mai suna “Daidaitacciyar Hausa da ƙa’idoji rubutu.” Inda ya kasa aikinsa babi – babi har babi goma, a babi na farko akwai Daidaitacciyar Hausa, sai ya gabatar da muhimmancinta da ci gabanta, sannan kuma ya kawo ma’anar Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Bugu da ƙari ya ƙara da cewa wuraren da yanzu ake amfani da Daidaitacciyar Hausa inda ya kawo kafofin yaɗa labarai, rediyo da talabijin da jaridu da mujallu da kuma littafai da yanar gizo da komfuta da koyarwa a makarantu da sadarwa da tarurruka. Haka kuma, ya ci gaba da kawo muhimman abubuwa a cikin littafinsa a kowane babi. Wannan shi ne salon da malamin ya bi wajen karkasa littafinsa.Haka kuma wannan littafin na da kusanci da wannan aiki, domin ya tattara muhimman abubuwa da suka shafi wannan bincike na karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

Aliyu Musa, (2002). Wannan aiki an yi shi a cikin harshen Ingilishi mai taken “Issues in Hausa Dialects Boundaries”. Shi ma wannan bincike zai ƙara a za mu ga hanya wajen gudanar da wannan aikin mai taken harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau.

1.2 GUDUMMUWAR AIKIN GA ILIMI

Duk abin da ka ga Ɗan Adam ya yi aiki a kansa ko bincike na ilimi to ya kamata ya sami gudummuwa ga ilimi daidai gwargwado. Bugu da ƙari, masana irinsu Sani, (2001) da sauransu sun yi ƙoƙarin kasa kare – karen harshen Hausa zuwa guda biyu. Wato karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma. Karin harshen gabas, karin harshe ne da mutanen gabacin ƙasar Hausa ke amfani da shi. Haka kuma karin harshen yamma, karin harshe ne da mutanen  yammacin ƙasar Hausa ke amfani da shi. Masana da ɗalibai sun yi ta rubuce – rubuce a kan abin da ya shafi karin harshen yamma musammankarin harshen Zamfarci, sai aka fahimci ba a yi aikia kan abin da ya shafi karin harshen garin Gusau ba. Wannan ya ba da dama domin a bayar da gudummuwa musamman domin masu nazari da kuma ɗalibai ‘yan’uwa.

1.3 DALILIN YIN BINCIKE

Wannan bincike yana da muhimmanci matuƙa, domin kuwa ya tattara wasu sigogi da ake samu a cikin karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau. Da kuma bambance – bambance da ake samu tsakanin Daidaitacciyar Hausa da kuma karin harshen garin Gusau. Manazarta da ɗalibai sun gudanar da bincikensu da nazari a kan karin harshen Hausa amma babu mutum ɗaya da muka ci karo da shi,babu wani ɗalibi da ya gudanar da bincike a kan karin harshen ‘garin Gusau’. Haka kuma wannan aiki zai yi amfani ga masu nazari da kuma sha’awar sanin yadda karin harshen garin Gusau ke gudanar da tsarin ƙirar kalma da tsarin sauti da ma’anar kalmomi da ginin jimloli.

Haka kuma wani dalili shi ne domin samar da ƙaruwar kundayen bincike da faɗaɗa ɗakunan karatu ta yadda za a sami sauƙin yin nazari a kan wannan fanni na karin harshe tare kuma da jawo hankalin manazarta da su riƙa yin wallafe – wallafe na littafai da mujallu domin ƙara samun sauƙin nazari a wannan ɓangare na karin harshe. Don haka wannan dalilai ne ya sa sha’awar yin bincike a kan wannan fanni na karin harshe, domin a ƙara fito da karin harshen Zamfarci (musamman a garin Gusau).

1.4 TSARIN GABATAR DA AIKI

Tsarin da aka bi wajen gudanar da wannan bincike, tun daga farkon fara wannan aiki, an nazarci littattafai da kuma kundayen neman digiri na farko da na biyu da na uku da kuma muƙalu da ziyartar ɗakunan bincike (library) na jami’o’i domin samun muhimman bayanai, da kuma tattaunawa da jama’a domin samun shawarwari da kuma yin tambayoyi domin samun ingancin bincike. Haka kuma an tsara wannan aikin babi – babi har babi biyar, domin fito da aikin dalla – dalla. A babi na ɗaya gabatar da aiki ne, babi na biyu kuma Ƙasar Hausa.Babi na uku kuwa Kare – Karen Hausa.Bugu da ƙari, babi na huɗu karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa.Sai babi na ƙarshe shi ne na biyar taƙaitawa da hasashe da kammalawa. Wannan tsari shi aka bi wajen gabatar da aiki.

1.5 NAƊEWA

Wannan babi ya fara da wasu muhimman abubuwa waɗanda bisa ga al’ada ta binike dole a yi bayani game da su. Waɗannan abubuwan su ne; shimfiɗa, bitar ayyukan da suka gabata, da gudummuwar aiki ga ilimi. Haka kuma idan aka nutsa a cikin babin an yi bayanin dalilin yin bincike da tsarin gabatar da aiki. Waɗannnan abubuwa su ne aka aike a kansu a babi na ɗaya. Babin da zai biyo baya shi ne na biyu; Ƙasar Hausa.