Kundin Binciken Neman Digirin Farko (B.A Hausa) Wanda Aka Gabatar A Sashen Harsuna Da Al’adu Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau

Karin Harshen Zamfarci (Musamman A Garin Gusau) (3)

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BASHIRU HARUNA

 

Karin harshe

BABI NA BIYU

ƘASAR HAUSA

2.0 SHIMFIƊA

A babin da ya gabata an yi ƙoƙarin kawo bitar ayyukan da suka gabata, da gudummuwar aikin ga ilimi da dalilin yin bincike da tsarin gabatar da aikin. A wannan babi na biyu za mu yi bayanin tarihin ƙasar Hausa da taƙaitaccen tarihin Zamfara da tarihin garin Gusau daha ƙarshe naɗewa.

2.1 TAƘAITACCEN TARIHIN ƘASAR HAUSA

            Ƙasar Hausa tana da girma ƙwarai da gaske ta miƙe daga Arewa zuwa Kudu, ƙasar Hausa ta fara daga Azbin zuwa kusurwar arewa maso gabas ta tsaunukan Jos. Daga nan kuma sai a buga ta yi arewa maso yamma har  ta dangane da wani ƙato kwari na Gulbin Kebbi. Daga wannan wuri sai ta karakata ta nufi arewa maso gabas har Azbin”. Wannan zagaye shi ya nuna iyakokin ƙasar Hausa a gabas da yamma da kudu da arewa. Sannan kuma ƙasar Hausa da waɗannan iyakokin suka yi iyaka da ita har zuwa yau, wannan ƙasar watau ƙasar Hausa ita ce mazaunin Hausawa. Duk da haka waɗannan abubuwan sun faru waɗanda suka kawo ƙasar Hausa. Ire – iren abubuwan sun haɗa da nashe waɗansu al’umma waɗanda asalinsu ba Hausawa ba ne, kamar mutanen Songhai. Tarihin ya nuna cewa akwai wani yunƙuri da Hausawa suka yi na neman mallake maƙwabtansu waɗanda ba Hausawa ba a yunƙurin sun ci nasarar mallake ƙabilu kamar Kambari da AciPawa da Dakarkari da kuma Anya da Gwari”.(Amfani, 1980).

            Hausa harshe ne na Hausawa, su kuwa Hausawa wasu al’umma ne da suke zaune a ƙasar Hausa a cikin yankin Afrika ta yamma. Kuma su Hausawa mutane ne baƙaƙe, wato baƙar fata ba farar fata ba, kodayake a kan samu ‘yan farare jefi – jefi a cikinsu musamman in aka samu auratayya da wata ƙabila tsakaninsu. Hausawa mutane ne masu tsananin riƙon al’adunsu na gargajiya musamman wajen tufafi da abinci, al’amurran sana’a ko kasuwanci ko neman ilimi dasauransu.

            Hausawa mutane ne waɗanda suka ɗauki noma babbar sana’a, haka kuma suna da waɗansu sana’o’i na al’adu kamar su ƙira da jima da fawa da dukancida wanzanci da sauransu. A yanzu yawancin Hausawa musulmai ne, saboda haka mafi yawancin al’adunsu waɗanda suka shafi aure da haihuwa da mutuwa duk sun dogara ne ga yadda addini ya shar’anta. Sai dai ɗan abinda baka rasa ba na al’adun gargajiya musamman a wajen Maguzawa.

2.2 TAƘAITACCEN TARIHIN ƘASAR ZAMFARA

            Tarihi ya nuna cewa masarautar Zamfara tana da babban matsayi tun kafuwar daular Usmaniyya. Masarautar Zamfara ta fara daga ƙarni na goma sha biyar. Masarautar Zamfara na ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffin masarautun Ƙasar Hausa. Daga ƙarni na goma sha shida masarautar Zamfara ta fara tsarin irin na sarakuna. Daga nan aka fara kiran sarakunanta da sunan “Sarkin Zamfara”. Wurin da aka fara kafawa a matsayin babban birinin Zamfara, shi ne Dutsi. Sarakuna maza da mata sun yi zamani a Dutsi. Ganin irin hare – haren da ake kawo masu a wannan wuri na Dutsi, sai aka ɗauke babban birnin daga Dutsi aka mayar da shi Kuyanbana. Dalilin wannan sauyi shi ne Kuyanbana wuri ne mai duhun itatuwa. Kodayake yanzu ba kowa a Kuyanbana sai kufai, wurin yana nan kusa da garin Ɗansadau a ƙaramar hukumar mulkin Maru.

            Daga lokacin da aka dawo kuyanbana, sai zaman lafiya da ci gaba suka wanzu a masarautar Zamfara. Daga bisani, hare – hare a kan wannan birni na Kuyanbana sun sa Zamfarawa sun sake babban birni wato Birnin Zamfara wanda yanzu yake a ƙaramar hukumar Isa ta jihar Sakkwato. Bugu da ƙari, an zauna zaman wuccin gadi a wurare da dama, kamar su Kiyawa da Morai da Sabon Gari. A ƙarshe an yi mazauni na din – din – dim a Anka a cikin ƙarni na goma sha tara, (1815).

Asalin kalmar ‘Zamfara’ta samo asali ne daga ɗiyar Sarkin Gobir mai suna ‘Fara’. Yadda labarin ya zo mana shi ne, wannan ɗiyar sarkin, an tilasta mata ta auri wanda ba ta so. Ganin haka sai ta gudu, ta bar gida, ta shiga dokar daji. A wannan dajin ta ɓata, daga baya ne wasu mafarauta suka tsince ta suka je da ita gidansu a unguwar maza da ke  kusa da ƙauyen Dutsi.

            Sakamakon jin daɗin zaman da ‘Fara’ ta yi da waɗannan mutane, ya sanya ta yanke shawarar ta auri ƙaraminsu. A cikin wannan halin ne ta samu juna biyu da wannan mijin nata mafarauci. Ganin haka ya sa mafarautan suka yanke shawarar kai ta don ta yi goyon ciki wajen mahaifinta Sarkin Gobir a gida.

            Bayan watanni kaɗan sai ta haifu, wannan al’amari  ya farantawa mahaifinta (wato Sarkin Gobir). Sai ya yi masu godiya, sannan ya yi masu kyautar yankin unguwar ‘maza’.

            Daga nan ne aka fara kiran yankin da suna ‘ƙasar mazanfara’. Daga ƙarshe aka maida shi ‘Birnin Zamfara’. Da tafiya tayi nisasai aka yarda kalmar birni daga sunan, don haka sai kawai aka ce ‘Zamfara’. Wannan shi ne asalin kalmar Zamfara.

            A lokacin mulkin sarkin Zamfara Abarshi ne, mujaddadi Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo ya shigo ƙasar Zamfara domin yaɗa addinin Musulunci, ana cikin daula sai Nasara (Bature)ya zo, ya kafa mulkin mallaka a Nijeriya ta Arewa, ya kasa arewa lardi – lardi.

            Zamfara ta yi iyaka da jihar Sakkwato ta Arewa, jihar Katsina kuwa, ta yi iyaka ne ta gabas, sannan ta yi iyaka da jihar Kaduna ta ɓangaren kudu, daga ƙarshe, ta yi iyaka da jihar Neja da jihar Kebbi a ɓangaren yamma.

            A ɓangaren faɗin ƙasa kuwa, jihar Zamfara ta mamaye marabba’in kilomita dubu talatin da takwas da ɗari huɗu da arba’in da takwas (38,448). Kamar yadda sauran jihohin arewacin Nijeriya suke, itama jihar Zamfara tana da yanayi huɗu a shekara. Akwai yanayin ‘rani’ dana ‘hunturu’ wanda ke farawa a watan Nuwamba zuwa watan Mayu. Sai kuma yanayin ‘kaka’ da na ‘damuna’ da kan fara daga watan Yuli zuwa watan Oktoba.

            Jihar Zamfara tana da manyan gulabe guda huɗu. Gulaben su ne, gulbin Bunsuru da gulbin Ka, da gulbin Zamfara da gulbin Gagare. Haka kuma akwai manyan tafkuna guda biyu. Tafkunan su ne, tafkin gulbin Kakate da tafkin Bakura Natu. Baya ga waɗannan manyan tafkuna, akwai ƙananan tafkuna irin su tafkin Saru, a cikin ƙaramar hukumar Gummi, da tafkin Jena a ƙaramar hukumar Zurmi. A ƙaramar hukuma ta Maradun akwai babban dam da ake kira dam ɗin Bakalori.

 


 

TASWIRAR JIHAT ZAMFARA


 

2.3 TAƘAITACCEN TARIHIN GUSAU

            Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata an kafa garin Gusau ne shekara ta (1811) bayan tasowa daga ‘Yandoto a shekara ta (1806) (Gusau, S. M 1984). Garin Gusau na ɗaya daga cikin manyan garuruwan jahar Sakkwato, kafin daga bisani ya zama baban birnin jihar Zamfara a shekara ta (1996), kamar yadda kundin bayanin tarihin ƙasa na (1920) ya nuna.Garin yana bisa kan titin Sakkwato zuwa Zariya  ne, kilomita 179 tsakaninsa da Zariya, kilomita 210 tsakaninsa da Sakkwato. Daga arewa kuma ya yi iyaka da ƙasar Ƙaura. A yayin da ya yi wata iyakar daga yamma da Bunguɗu, ta ɓangaren kudu kuma ya yi iyaka da  garin Ɗansadau da Tsafe (Gusau, 1984:7).

            Kasancewar almajirin Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo wato malan Sambo Ɗan’ashafa ya kafa Gusau, wanda yake shi da jama’arsa ba ruwansu da duk harkokin da suka shafi bautar iskoki da tsafi, irin wanda Hausawa ke yi kafin zuwan addinin Musulunci,ma’ana garin Gusau ba ya  da tarihin jahiliyya.

            Haka ta sa duk al’adun Gusawa,  al’adu ne irin na Musulunci. Kuma shigowar wasu mutane, wato baƙi a Gusau, ba ta gurɓata waɗannan kyawawan al’adu ba, don kuwa mafi yawan baƙin da ke tasowa, malamai ne na Musulunci da almajirai.

            Ta ɓangaren fada kuwa, duk umurnin da zai fito daga can zai kasance ne dai dai da abinda Musulunci ya yarda da shi na kyawawan ɗabi’u da al’adu. Musamman kuma da yake, kusan duk sarakunan da aka yi a garin malamai ne na addinin Musulunci masu taƙawa da  tawali’u.  Da wannan shimfiɗa ce al’adun Gusawa ke gudana daidai da koyarwar addinin Musulunci da kyawawan al’adu irin na Fulbe da na Hausawa, waɗanda ba suci karo da shari’a ba.

            Irin wancan yanayi na kwararowar baƙi da ƙungiyoyin mutane daban – daban musamman a zamanin Sarkin Katsinan Gusau Malan Muhammadu Modibbo (1876M/1282H – 1877M/1291H) ya sa garin ya sami bunƙasa a cikin ɗan ƙanƙanin lokaci.

            A bisa ƙididdiga da taƙaitawa garin Gusau a dai – dai lokacin da ake gudanar da wannan bincike yana da masarauta ɗaya  (1), babban sarki ɗaya (1), ‘yan majalisa goma sha takwas (18), uwayen ƙasa goma sha uku (13). Sarautun fada kuma akwai kimanin ɗari da huɗu (104). A yayin da ake da manyan malaman addinin Musulunci guda sittin da biyar (65).

            Daga kuma lokacin da aka kafa wannan gari na Gusau, an yi sarakuna kamar haka:

i.                    Malam Muhammadu Sambo               (1806 – 1827)

ii.                  Malam Abdulƙadir                                            (1827 – 1867)

iii.               Malam Muhammadu Modibbo                       (1867 – 1876)

iv.               Malam Muhammadu Tuburi               (1876 – 1877)

v.                  Malam Muhammadu Giɗe                               (1887 – 1900)

vi.               Malam Muhammadu Murtala                         (1900 –1916)

vii.             Malam Muhammadu Ɗangida                        (1916 – 1917)

Waɗanda suka yi sarautar Gusau ba daga gidan malam Sambo ba, kamar haka:

i.                    Malam Ummaru Malam                                   (1917 – 1929)

ii.                  Malam Muhammad Mai Akawai                    (1929 – 1943)

iii.               Malam Usman Ɗan Sama’ila                (1943 – 1945)

iv.               Ibrahim Marafa                                      (1945 – 1948)

v.                  Muhammad Sarki Kudu                                   (1948 – 1951)

vi.               Alhaji Sulaiman Isah                                         (1951 – 1984)

Dawowar sarauta gida

i.                    Alhaji Muhammad Kabir Ɗanbaba     (1984 – 2016)

ii.                  Alhaji Ibrahim Bello                                          (2016 zuwa yanzu)

2.4 NAƊEWA

            Wannan babi kuwa an yi magana ne akan taƙaitaccen tarihin ƙasar Hausa da tarihin ƙasar Zamfara da kuma taƙaitaccen tarihin garin Gusau da kuma naɗewa. Babin da zai biyo baya shi ne kare – karen harsuna.