Kundin Binciken Neman Digirin Farko (B.A Hausa) Wanda Aka Gabatar A Sashen Harsuna Da Al’adu Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau.

Karin Harshen Zamfarci (Musamman A Garin Gusau) (4)

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BASHIRU HARUNA

 

Walwalar Harshe

BABI NA UKU

3.0  SHIMFIƊA

Babin da ya gabata ya yi magana ne a kan taƙaitaccen tarihin ƙasar Hausa da taƙaitaccen tarihin ƙasar Zamfara da taƙaitaccen tarihin garin Gusau.A wannan babi za a yi magana a kan ma’anar harshe, da ma’anar karin harshe da dalilin samuwar karin harshe. Haka kuma za a yi bayani a kan rabe – raben karin harshe,daga bisani a yi tsokaci a kan karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma.

3.1 MA’ANAR HARSHE

Akwai masana da dama da suka ba da ma’anar harshe da kuma abubuwa da suka dangance shi, dangane da misalai da kuma bunƙasarsa. Masana irin su Fagge (1982) da Salim (1986) da Anderson (1973) da sauransu duk sun bayyana ma’anar harshe ta hanyoyi daban–danan kamar haka:

“Harshe wata hanyar sadarwa ce da take amfani da sauti da kuma ma’anar al’umma da take da dokoki, ta hanyar harshe ne al’umma take sanar ta kuma fahimci abubuwan da ke ƙunshe a zukatan jama’a kamar aƙida da ra’ayi da tunani da sunayen abubuwa”. (Fagge, 1982).

“Harshe wata hanya ce ta furta wasu sautuka masu ma’ana wadda ɗan Adam kan yi amfani da ita domin sadar da wani saƙo” (Salim, 1986).

Ba kowace halitta ba ce za ta iya koyon harshe koda irin dabbobi masu hazaƙar gaske, kamar biri da aku da alhudahuda (Anderson, 1973). A fahimtarsa, “Harshe na nufin wata hanya ce da ke isar da saƙo a tsakanin juna wato Ɗan Adam”.

“Harshe shi ne tunanin da ɗan Adam wanda yake bayyanawa da bakinsa ko a rubuce”. (Zarruk, R. M da wasu, 1996).

“Harshe na nufin samar da sauti wanda zai bayar da ma’anar da za a iya fahimta, ko a iyafassara wani sauti da wasu suka samar”. (Frankin, 1974:76). Haka kuma ta ci gaba da cewa “Harshe wani tsari ne da ke danganta sauti da ma’ana wanda take ganin cewa duk wannan dangane da waɗannan ma’anoni guda biyu a iya cewa harshe wasu zantuka ne da ke ƙunshe a zuciyar mutum wanda yake ko suke zama magana mai ma’ana har wani mai saurare ya fahimci abin da mai magana yake faɗi”.

“Harshe wani basira ne da Allah ya sanya wa ɗan Adam, ta hanyar furta sauti mai ma’ana ta bakinsa, ku a fahimce shi”. (Ahmad, 2005).

“Harshe tunani ne na ɗan Adam da yake daga huhunsa zuwa maƙogwaro don fitar da sauti ta hanyar musgunawa iskar baki don haifar da kalmomi da jimloli da mu’amala”. (Olubode, 2009).

“Harshe wata hanya ce ta bayyana kai da hulɗa tsakanin mutane wadda dabbobi ba su da irin ta”. (Sapir, 1956).

“Shi harshe ya zama shi ne rai ko zuciya duk wani tunani da aiki na ɗan –Adam musamman dangane da abin da mutum ke ji game da ƙabilarsa ko ƙasarsa, ko addininsa ko kuma yadda shi kansa ya ɗauki kansa”. (Lado, 1964:11).

“Harshe wani muhimmin abu ne da ya bambanta mutane da dabbobi. Wannan ya shafi iya magana ta hanayar amfani da sautuka wajen sadarwa tsakanin mutane domin fahimtar juna. Haka kuma harshe na iya kasancewa duk wani tunani na ɗan Adam wanda yake bayyanawa da bakinsa ko da rubutunsa”. (Yakasai, 2013).

Jones (1981) kamar yadda Yakasai (1999) ya bayyana harshe da “wani yanayi mai sassauyawa cikin dangantakar al’umma, wato harshe abu ne da kowa yake amfani da shi a yanayi guda ba”.

“Wannan shi ya sa aka ɗauka cewa kalmomi ba wasu abubuwa ba ne illa tubalin ginin tunane – tunane da kuma ayyukan da ‘yan – Adam ke tsarawa domin samun damar yadda za su iya fahimta, su kuma iya sarrafa mazaununsu” (Lenneberg, 1967).

“Harshe wata kafa ce ta shimfiɗa da kuma tabbatar da ɗaurewar dangantaka tsakanin al’umma”. (Trudgil, 1983).

Langacker, (1972) ya ɗau harshe ne “tamkar jerin ma’ana cikin tsarin sauti”.

Bloomfield, (1933) ya daɗe yana kallo harshe a  matsayin “wani tsari ko dokoki”.

“Harshe baiwa ce da ɗaukaka wanda Allah ya ba ɗan Adam, da mutum yake sadar da mu’amala. Mutum kaɗai yake da fasahar sa da nishaɗinsa ta hanyar harshe. Ya kan yi waƙa ko wani wani azanci kamar karin magana ko kirari ko zambo, harshen duniya irinsu Ingilishi da Larabci da Yarbanci da sauransu, suna amfani  da wannan baiwa ta fasaha”. (Rabi’u Zarruk).

Surajo, R. Ibrahim (2007). A cikin kundinsa na neman digiri na farko ya bayyana ma’anar harshe kamar haka “Harshe shi ne ya bambanta ɗan Adam da sauran dabbobi”.

Shi harshe, wani ɗaukaka ne wanda Allah ya yi wa ɗan Adam, wanda a cikin dukkan halittu ɗan Adam kawai ya samu wannan “Ɗaukaka”. Wannan ɗaukaka ita ta bambanta mutum da dabba. Masana sun yi ittifaƙin cewa ba wani abu ne ya sa ya ɗaukaka ɗan Adam bisa sauran halittu ba, illa basirar iya magana, kuma a fahimce shi. Ta magana ne ɗan Adam ke baddala tunaninsa, a fahimce shi ya sami biyan buƙatar  abin da yake nema, har ya ɗaukaka ya zama zaƙakori a cikin al’ummarsa. Wannan shi ya sa ma ba a iya rabewa tsakanin harshe da al’ada, kuma wasu masana ma sun yar da cewa harshe shi ne “AL’ADAH” sannan al’ada shi ne “HARSHE”.

3.2 MA’ANAR KARIN HARSHE

“Karin harshe yana nufin bambance – bambance da ake samu a cikin harshe, ta fannin kalmomi, nahawu da furuci” (Trudgil, 1974:17).

Trudgill, (2004). A cikin aikinsa ya yi bayani mai tsawo a karin harshen Ingilishi kamar sauran harsuna na duniya yana da bambance – bambance ne tsakanin yankuna masu magana da harshe ɗaya da kuma rukunin al’umma.

“Karin harshe wani harshe ne daban, amma ba harshe ba ne, ya ƙara da cewa, duk harshe yana da karin harshe mai yawan gaske kamar Hausa” (Skinner, 1977).

“Karin harshe wani bambanci ne da ake samu a cikin harshe wanda wani ɓangaren na mutane suke amfani da shi. Bambancin ya shafi kalmomi da nahawu da kuma furuci wanda hakan ya bambanta shi da wani karin harshen a wannan harshe” (Encyclopedia ɓolume 4; 15th editon, 1934).

“Karin harshe shi ne ‘yan bambance – bambancen  lafazi da kalmomi da jimloli da ake samu tsakanin rukunnan al’umma ko shiyoyin ƙasa mai harshe ɗaya” (Zarruk, 1995:9).

R. M Zarruk da ‘yanuwansa, malam Abubakar kafin Hausa da malam Bello Al – Hassan suka ce, a cikin littafinsu mai suna, Sabuwar Hanyar Nazarin Hausa “Karin harshe yana da ‘yan bambance – bambancen lafazi ne da ke akwai cikin kalmomi da jimloli tsakanin rukunin al’umma ko shiyoyin ƙasa mai harshe ɗaya”. Ta la’akari da wannan tarihi da masana tarihin harshe suka yi bayani a cikin littattafansu daban – daban zamu iya cewa, lalle tarihin karin harshe galibinsa kwatance ne na alaƙa ko bambance – bambance tsakanin kare – kare, musamman a fagen ƙirar harshe, kamar furuci da kalmomi. Idan aka kwatanta wannan tarihi na kare – karen harshen Hausa, za mu ga cewa karin harshe yana faruwa ne daga wasu bambace – bambance a lafazi, ko a kalmomi ko jimloli ko dukkansu tsakanin sassan ƙasa ko rukunnin al’umma”. (R. M. Zarruk, 2001).

“Karin harshe na nufin yanayin harshe da ake amfani da shi a ƙasar Hausa a kwai karin harshe daban – daban waɗanda suka haɗa da Zazzaganci da Kananci da Katsinanci da Sakkwatanci da Dauranci da dai sauransu”. (Yakawada, 1987).

“Karin harshe ko dai na yanki ko rukuni, shi ne na’uin magana na harshe wanda ake iya ganewa ta wasu kalmomi da  tsarin harshe (Nahawu). Karin harshe mafi yawa ya na da tsarin furuci ko nau’in magana da  ya bambanta” (Crystal, 2008:142).

“Karin harshe na nufin duk wani nau’in magana na harshe musamman kuma wanda ake magana da shi a wani sashe na ƙasa”. (Mathews, 1977:56).

“Karin harshe nau’i ne daga cikin nau’o’in harshe guda wanda ake  amfani da shi musamman a wani sashe na al’umma”. (Sani, 2009:02).

“Karin harshe na nufin yadda mutum ya saba yin magana a cikin gungun al’umma da yawa masu harshe ɗaya”. (Adeyenju, 1989:39).

Nazarin karin harshe (Dialectology) shi ne “nazarin yanayin magana na harshen mutane ɗaya, waɗanda ke fahimtar juna, kuma suna da alaƙar hulɗa ta magana”. (Amfani, 1993:02).

A dunƙule, karin harshe shi ne wasu bambance – bambance da ake samu tsakanin mutane masu harshe ɗaya. Bambancin yakan zo ta fuskar lafazi ko magana, idan har masu harshen suna fahimtar junansu, amma in har ba su fahimtar junansu to wannan ya koma yare kenan. Karin harshe dai a wata ma’anar  na nufin wata hanya ta yin magana daban da wata wajen furuci da nahawu a cikin harshe ɗaya.

3.3 DALILIN SAMUWAR KARIN HARSHE

Akwai wasu daga cikin masana da suka ba da ƙarin bayani a kan abubuwan da suka haifar da rabuwar karuruwan harshen Hausa.

“Tun da can ƙasar Hausa a rarrabe take da dauloli daban – daban masu zaman kansu, har ma akan samu ‘yan yaƙe – yaƙe a tsakaninsu”. (Zarruk da wasu, 1990).

“Karin harshen Hausa ya samu ne ta dalilin yawan tashin hankula da yaƙe – yaƙe da nisa a tsakanin garuruwa da koguna (Gulabe) da dazuzzuka da makamantan abubuwa irin su, da kan tallafa wajen samuwar karin harshe”. (Dantumbushi, 2005).  Ga bayanin kaɗan daga cikin dalilan da suka haifar da samuwar karin harshe a Hausa da suka haɗa da tashin hankali da yaƙe – yaƙe da kuma nisa da dazuzzuka.

i.                    Dazuzzuka da Koguna

Ƙasar Hausa cike take da dazuzzuka kamar dajin Rugu a Katsina da dajin Gwamna a Sakkwato/Zamfara da dajin Yankari a Bauci da dajin Falgori a Kano da makamantansu a ƙasar Hausa. Dangane da koguna (Gulabe) kuwa akwai, kogin Bunsuru, da kogin Rima, da kogin Kwara, da kogin Haɗeja/Jama’are da makamantansu da dama a cikin ƙasar Hausa sun taka irin ta su muhimmiyar rawa wajen samuwar karin harshen Hausa. Saboda irin dazuzzukan cike suke da ɓarayi da ‘yan fashi da kuma namun daji waɗanda kan tare mutane da rage masu tafiye – tafiye da kuma ziyarce – ziyarce a tsakanin garuruwan ƙasar Hausa ta fuskar koguna. Sannan kuma ya fi yin tasiri ne a zamanin da ƙasar Hausa ba ta samu yalwatuwar hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani ba da kuma hanyoyin sufuri kamar su motoci da jirage.

ii.                 Nisa

Ƙasar Hausa, ƙasa ce mai albarka da kuma yalwa da faɗi in aka ɗauko gabas (Bauci) zuwa sashen yamma (Yawuri) da kuma sashen kudu (Zariya) har zuwa sashen arewa wato (Ƙasar Nijer) to za a tarar akwai wata tazara mai yawan gaske a tsakanin garuruwan waɗanda hakan kan haifar da tafiye – tafiye da kuma yawace – yawace su yi a tsakanin Hausawa. Wato mutanen nan garin za su ɗauki lokaci ba su haɗu da na wancan gari ba, ballantana a samu sadarwa a kai – a – kai tsakaninsu, wanda hakan kan haifar da samun bambance – bambance ta fuskar karin sauti.

iii.              Tashin Hankali da Yaƙe – Yaƙe

Haka kuma yawan tashin hankula da kuma yawan yaƙe – yaƙe da kuma hare – haren da manyan daulolin ƙasar Hausa musamman masu ƙarfi daga cikinsu kankai kan haddasa ita daular  da bata da ƙarfi ta yi ƙaura domin sauya muhalli zuwa wani wuri daban, domin samun kwanciyar hankali da natsuwa wanda tashinsu da kuma zuwansu wannan sabon muhalli kan haifar da samun baƙin abubuwa waɗanda dole ne sai an same su a cikin wannan mutane wanda babu shi a wancan muhalli da suka baro (Dantumbishi, 2005).

iv.               Annoba

Haka kuma annoba ta kansa mutane yin hijira daga inda suke zuwa wani waje  na daban, shi ma wannan na kawo karin harshe.

v.                  Sace – Sace

Yawan sata na kawo yin ƙaura domin barin wurin da aka saba zuwa wani wuri na daban.

vi.               Fari

Fari na rashin ruwan sama shi ma yakan kawo ƙaura domin sauya muhalli zuwa wuri mai yalwa.

3.4 RABE – RABEN KARIN HARSHE

            Masana da dama sun kawo rabe – raben karin ahrshen Hausa, kamar su Ahmad da Daura (1970) Bergery (1934) Liman (1978) Amfani (1980, 1993), Zaria (1992), Sani (2003) da Malka (1978) ya kawo karin harshe guda goma sha huɗu (14) waɗanda ake amfani da su a Nijeriya da kuma Jamhuriyar Nijer, ga rabe – rabensu kamar haka:

Karin Harshen a Nijeriya (Malka, 1975)

1.      Kananci

2.      Katsinanci

3.      Dauranci

4.      Bausanci

5.      Zazzaganci

6.      Sakkwatanci

7.      Zamfaranci

Karin Harshen a Jamhuriyar Nijer (Malka, 1975)

1.      Damagaranci

2.      Arewanci

3.      Adaranci

4.      Langanci

5.      Agadanci

6.      Kurfayanci

7.      Gobiranci

Masana ilimin harshe kamar su Zarruk, (1978), Liman, (1978) sun kasa karin harshe zuwa gida biyu kamar haka:

1.      Karin harshen Gabas

2.      Karin harshen Yamma

“Karuruwan da suka faɗa a cikin kashi gabas sun yi kama da juna ta fannin kalmomi, furuci da nahawu. Haka kuma na yamma sun yi kama da ‘yan’uwansu ta wannan fanni. Misali /ø/ ta daidaitacciyar Hausa baleɓiya kuma tsayau, takan kama da /hw/ a farkon kalma idan ta biyo wasalin /a/ a karin harshen yamma, amma tana a matsayin /ø/ a karin harshen gabas”. (Amfani, A. H. 1983).

Hausa wadda ake amfani da ita a arewacin Nijeriya tana da kare – karen harsuna guda bakwai (7) ga ɗaiɗaikunsu ko kuma guda biyar a rukuni. Masana sun yi matsaya a kan kasa karin harshen zuwa gida biyu kamar yadda zamu gani.

3.4.1 KARIN HARHSEN GABAS

Karin harshen gabas shi ne Hausar da  yankin gabas suke amfani da ita. Idan ko aka dubi karin harshen Hausa a ɗaiɗaiku za a iya samun shiyoyi kamar haka:

i.                    Kananci: Karin harshen da ake amfani da shi a jihar Kano da kewayenta.

ii.                  Bausanci: Karin harshen da ake amfani da shi a jihar  Bauci da kewayenta.

iii.               Dauranci: Karin harshen Daura.

iv.               Guduranci: Karin harshen da ake amfani da shi a Haɗeja, jihar Jigawa da kewayenta.

v.                  Zazzaganci: Karin harshen mutanen Zazzau a jihar Kaduna da kewayenta.

3.4.2 KARIN HARSHEN YAMMA

Karin harshen yamma shi ne Hausar da mutanen yamma ke amfani da ita kamar Sakkwato da maƙwabtanta da jihar Katsina da kewayenta, Zamfara da Kebbi da kewayenta.

i.                    Arewa: Karin harshen mutanen dogon (Dutsi) a cikin Jamhuriyar Nijer.

ii.                  Kurfayanci: Karin harshen mutanen Filinge a Jamhuriyar Nijer.

iii.               Gobiranci: Karin harshen Tsibiri, Jamhuriyar Niger.

NAƊEWA

            A wannan babi mun yi magana ne a kan ma’anar harshe, da ma’anar karin harshe, da dalilin samuwar karin harshe da karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma. Waɗannan abubuwa su ne aka tattauna a wannan babi na uku. Babin da zai biyo baya shi ne na huɗu; karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa.