Kundin Binciken Neman Digirin Farko (B.A Hausa) Wanda Aka Gabatar A Sashen Harsuna Da Al’adu Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau.

Karin Harshen Zamfarci (Musamman A Garin Gusau) (5)

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BASHIRU HARUNA 

Karin harshe

BABI NA HUƊU

KARIN HARSHEN GARIN GUSAU DA DAIDAITACCIYAR HAUSA

4.0 SHIFIƊA

A babin da ya gabata an yi magana ne a kan ma’anar harshe da ma’anar karin harshe da dalilin samuwar karin harshe. Bugu da ƙari, an yi tsokaci a kan rabe-raben karin harshe da karin harshen gabas da karin harshen yamma. A wannan babin na huɗu za a yi bayanin karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa da tsarin sauti da ƙirar kalma da ma’anar kalmomi da ginin jumla.

4.1 KARIN HARSHEN GARIN GUSAU

Kamar yadda masana da manazarta suka yi bayanin cewa, karin harshe yana faruwa ne daga wasu bambance-bambance a lafazi da kalmomi da jimloli ko a dukkansu tsakanin sassan ƙasa ko a rukunin al’umma. Don haka, idan muka yi la’akari da waɗannan bayanai za mu iya cewa karin harshen garin Gusau, shi ne karin harshen da ya keɓanta ga Gusau da kewayenta. Wannan karin harshe da shi ne mutanen garin Gusau  suke amfani wajen gudanar da rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum.

Karin harshen garin Gusau ya yi kama da karin harshen Katsina ta fuskoku da dama, wata kila ma wannan shi ya sa da yawa manazarta kan kalle shi a matsayin karin harshen yamma, amma a wani ƙauli, ko kusa ba su zama abu ɗaya ba. Saboda haka, idan muka dubi karin harshen garin Gusau za mu ga cewa wani karin harshe ne, keɓaɓɓe wanda al’ummar garin Gusau ke amfani da shi ta fuskar kasuwanci da sauran hulɗa irin ta sadarwa tsakaninsu da sauran kare-karen harsunan Hausa, ba tare da wata maatsala ba. Don haka, idan aka kwatanta Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen garin Gusau za a ga lalle sun bambanta ta hanyoyi daban-daban kamar haka:

1.      Hanya ta farko da ta bambanta Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen garin Gusau ita ce, Daidaitacciyar Hausa wata tsararriyar hanya ce da hukuma ta gina tare da wasu ɗa’idoji ko dokoki.

2.      Hanya ta biyu masana da dama sun yi rubuce-rubuce, inda suka ƙara jaddada ƙa’idojin rubutu don samar da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, Daidaitacciyar Hausa ta ginu ne a kan kare-karen gabas tare da wasu gyare-gyare, misali. Ginin kalmomi da nahawu da wakilin suna, yayin da karin harshen garin Gusau ya ginu ne akan kare-karen yamma.

4.2 DAIDAITACCIYAR HAUSA

Daidaitacciyar Hausa, ita ce Hausa wadda aka tace ta kuma masana ilimin  harshe a tarurruka daban-daban suka amince a yi amfani da ita. A shekara ta (1912) an kafa harshe na Daidaitacciyar Hausa a ƙarƙashin Ɗan Hausa (Hans ɓischer) kuma an ci gaba da ƙarfafa shi har zuwa shekara ta (1988) lokcain da hukumar harshen Hausa ta tabbatar da shi.

Daga ranar (28) ga watan Fabrairu zuwa (5) ga watan Maris na shekarar ta (1966) an yi taron a Bamako na ƙasar Mali. An yi kuma taro na biyu a ranar (21) ga watan Yuni shekarar (1970) a jama’ar Ahmadu Bello Zariya. Taro na uku kuwa, an yi shi ne a cikin watan Satumba, shekarar (1972) a cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Najeriya ta Jami’ar Bayaro  Kano.

An yi dukan wabɗannan taruruka domin amincewa da kalmomin harshen Hausa waɗanda za a riƙa amfani da su da kumarubuta su. Haka kuma, Daidaitacciyar Hausa ita ce Hausar da ake amfani da ita a wajen rubuta ƙasidu da littattafai, sannan kuma a wajen sadarwa ta yau da kullum  ta zama ita ce ake amfani da ita.

“Daidaitacciyar Hausa ita ce nau’o’in Hausar da ake amfani da ita wajen koyar da harshe wajen karaanta labarai a rediyo ko talabijin, ko wajen buga littatafai ko jaridu da mujallu da sauran klamurarn da suka shafi aikin hukuma”. Sani (1999).

            “Daidaitacciyar Hausa kasancewarta hanya ce ta baiɗaya da al’ummar Hausawa ke magana ko rubutu, to dole ne al’ummar ta kasance tana magana baiɗaya wajen ayyana manufofinta da ƙudororinta ga ‘yan baya da ma sauran al’ummar Duniya wato tamkar fitila ce ga al’umma’. Zarruk (1990)

“Daidaitacciyar Hausa ita ce Hausa wadda aka tace ta kuma masana ilimin harshe a tarurruka daban-daban suka amince da yin amfani da ita. Ya ƙara da cewa Daidaitacciyar Hausa, harshe ne na wallafa wanda masana ke amfani da ita weajen koyarwa da rubuta litattafai da ƙasidu da kuma mujallu”. Wurma (2006:36).

“Daidaitacciyar Hausa samfuri ne na salon magana da dukkan Hausawa suka yi tarayya a kan sa. Wannan samfuri kuwa kari ne da aka zaɓa aka daidaita masa ƙa’idojin rubutu da na nahawu, kuma aka adana su cikin litattafai da ƙamusoshi”. Zarruk da wasu (1990:93)

4.3 TSARIN SAUTI

“Ilimin tsarin sauti ya shafi yadda harshen ke harhaɗa sautukansa bisa ƙa’ida ya samar da ma’ana. Kwararre a wannan fage na ilimi ana ce da shi masanin  sauti n tsarin sauti” (Sani 1999).

Ƙwayar sau na iya kasancewa baƙi ne ko wasali mai ziza ko marar ziza” sannan akwai hanyoyi uku da ake amfani da su wajen sifanta kowane irin baƙin sauti kamar haka:

i-                   Yanayin furuci

ii-                 Wurin furuci

iii-               Matsayin furuci (M.A.Z Sani 2003:17)

Shima karin harshen garin Gusau ya kan yi amfani da waɗannan ƙwayoyin sautuka na Daidaitacciyar hausa sai dai wani lokaci karin garin Gusau ya kan yi amfani da wasu keɓantattun ƙwayoyin sauti da suka bambanta da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa.

Sautin / /marar ziza, baleɓe, zuzau, na Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sauya zuwa leɓantanciiyar hamza /hw/ ko /h/ musamman idan wasalin /a/.

D H                            K.H.G

Gwa   a                       Gwahwa

 aanka                         Hwaanka

 arka               Hwalka

Shikka  a                    Shinkahwa

  aatsa             Hwatsa

  anni              Hwaarko

  anni                          Hwanni

  anni              Hwanni

  aɗii                            Hwaɗii

 aarashi                      Hwaarashi

  uari                           Hwaari

  arinjini                     Hwarinjini

  anke              Hwanke

  arinciki                     Hwarinciki

  ar  aaɗiya     Hwarhwaɗiya

Ma   arki                    Mahwarki

  atalwa                      Hwatalwa

Sautin /   / marar ziza, baleɓe, zuzau na  Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sauya a garin Gusau /   /                   /h/     /i/                 

D. H                           K. H. G

 itina                           Hitina

  injirewa                    Hinjirewa

Lissa   i                       Lissahi

Shin   iɗa                    Shinhiɗa

La   iya                       lahiya

 Koo  hi                      koohi

  itsara                        Hitsara

Kii   i                           Kiihi

 isga                            Hisga

Da  i                            Dahi

Ta   i                           Tahi

Sha   i             Shahi

Mar  i              Marhi

Sautin /ts/ marar ziza, ɗan bayan hanƙa zuzau na Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sauya zuwa saytin /tc/ marar ziza, ɗan bayan hanƙa, ɗan atishawa, idan wasalin /i/ ya biyo /ts/ kaitsaye.

/ts/    /tc/                /i/                              K. H. G

Tsinbirewa                                                    Ƙcnbirewa

Tsinuwa                                                         Ƙcintuwa

Tsinkaya                                                        Tcinkaya

Tsibi                                                               Tcibi

Tsiyaya                                                          Tciyaya

Sautimn /ts/ marar ziza, ɗan bayan hanƙa, zuzau na Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sauya zuwa sautin /tc/ marar ziza, ɗan bayan hanƙa, ɗan atishawa, idan wasalin /e/ ya biyo shi.

/ts/          /tc/          /e/

D. H                                        K. H. G

Matsewa                                Matcewa

Tarwatsewa                           Tarwatcewa

Kitsewa                                  Kitciwa

Sautin /   / marar ziza, baleɓe, zuzau na Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sauya zuwa /h/ marar ziza, hamza, zuzai. Idan wasalin gaba na tsakiya marar kewaya wato wasalin /e/

/  /                 /h/     /e/

D. H                                        K. H. G

eenti                           Heennti

Kwaaa   e                               kwahe

Gee   ee                                  Gechee

 ecee                                       Hecee

 eeso                                       Heeso

yaɗee                          heeɗe

Daa   ee                                  Daahee

Leɓantattun ƙwayoyin sautuka a garin gusau sautin /s/ marar ziza, bakanƙe, zuzau, na Daidaitacciyar Hausa a kan leɓantashi a karin harshen garin Gusau zuwa /sw/

D. H                                        K. H. G

Sacewa                                   Swaacewa

Saaɓa                          Swaaɓa

 Saaata                                    Swaata

Sutin /Ɗ/ mai ziza, naɗe-harshe, haɗiyau ya kan sauya zuw /Ɗw/ mai ziza, doron harshe, haɗiyaa a karin harshen garin Gusau.

/Ɗ/    /Ɗw/             a                      K. H. G

Ɗaaɗii                                     Ɗwaaɗi

Sautin /z/ mai ziza, ɗan dasashi, zuzau na Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan sanya zuwa /zw/ mai ziza bahanƙe, zuzau,

/Z/     /zw/  a                                  K. H. G

Zaage                                                 Zwage

Zaarii                                                 Zwarii

NASO A KARIN HARSHEN GARIN GUSAU:

“Ya bayyana ma’anar naso de cewa lokacin da sautuka suka haɗu da juna a cikin ko jimla, ɗayansu na iya ɗaukar kamannun ɗaya yadda bambancin furucinsu zai ragu, wato su ƙara kama da juna, sautin na iaya ɗaukar wata siafa ta wani sautin da ke kusa da shai” (Bagari 1986)

            “Naso shi ne tasirin sauti  a kan lafazin wani sauti daban cikin kalma , a sakamakon haka kuma, sautukan biyu ko dai su yi ɗibi da juna ko su zamo iri ɗaya. Ma’ana sauti guda kan nashe gudia a wannan lamari. Baƙi kan nashe baƙi baƙi kan nashe wasali, wasali kan nashe baƙi, wasali kuma kan nashe wasali.

Shi ma haka karin harshen garin Gusau ya yi tasiri a kan wabni baƙi, wato baƙi kan nashe baƙi. Misali:

D. H                                                    K. H. G

Barni                                                   Banni

Sarda                                                  Sadda

Yarda                                     Yadda

Firda                                                   Hidda

Karian harshen garin Gusau ya kan ratge wasu baƙaƙe a maimakomn yadda suke a daidaitacciyar Hausa, wannan yana faruwa ne da ƙa’idojin rikiɗe-rikiɗen da ake samucikin ilimin furuci. Misali kamar haka:             

D. H                                        K.H.G

Sanar da                                 Sanad da

Samar da                               Samad da

Kamar da                               Kamad da

Mayar da                               Mayad da

Shayar da                              Shayad da

Shiryar da                              Shiryad da

Komar da                              Komad da

Tayar da                                Tayad da

Karkatar da                           Karkatad da

Daga cikin kalmomin garin Gusau, akwai naso inda harafin /k/ ke nashe harafin /r/ na Daidaitacciyar Hausa, ya yin nuna abin da aka mallaka. Misali:

D. H                                        K.H.G

Gonarka                                 Gonakka

Jikkarka                                 Jikkakka

Hularka                                 Hulakka

Muryarka                              Muryakka

Kujerarka                               Kujerakka

MALLAKA

Sigarsa ta fuskar ginin jimla. Nahawu fannin ilimi ne na kimiyar harshe wanda ya danganci ginin jimla. Jima kuma magana ce cikakkiya mai ma’ana wadda aka gina bisa wasu ƙa’idojin harshe na musamman. Ginin jimla kuwa kalmomi ne daban-daban da ake harhaɗawa wuri guda a samar hda jimla. (Sani 1999).

Karin harshen garin Gusau kamar yadda sauran karuruwan harsunan Hausa suke amfani da kalmomi dabn-daban su ba da jimla mai ma’ana. Mallaka taa kasu gida biyu kamar haka:

1.      Doguwar mallaka

2.      Gajerar mallaka

Doguwar mallaka, a karin harshen garin Gusau a kan samu doguwar mallama “nai” a jinsin namiji, da “tai’ a jinsin mace. A Daidaitaciyar Hausa kuwa, akwai “nasa” dka “tasa”. Misali kamar haka:

“Nasa” ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa ya kan koma “nai” a karin harshen garin Gusau.

D. H                                        K.H.G

Shanu nasa                            Shanu nai 

Faɗi nasa                                Faɗi nai

Hanci nasa                            Hanci nai

Baki nasa                               Baki nai

Haure naksa             Haure nai

Madubi nasa                         Madubi nai

Cokali nasa                            Cokali nai

Ruwa nasa                             Ruwa nai

Wando nasa             Wando nai

Littafi nasa                            Littafi nai

Haka kuma a doguwar mallaka “tasa” ta jinsin mace ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa “tai’ a karin harshen Gusau.

Tasa                Tai

D. H                                        K.H.G

Ƙafa tasa                                Ƙafa tai

Hanya tasa                            Hanya tai

Fanke tasa                             Fanke tai

Ana samun wani bambanci tsakanin Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen garin Gusau, wannan kuwa shine, wajen da ake amfani da “wa” a Daidaitacciyar Hausa, inda take komawa “ma” a karin harshen garin Gusau. Misali:

D. H

Ta yi wa ɗiyar ta wanka

Ya yi wa motarsa gyara

Sun yi wa kansu aiki

Ya ɗunka wa Musa riga

Ya saya wa yaro gilas

Ta sa wa Abu wando                      

A karin harshen garin Gusau, kuwa waɗannan kamlomi za su koma kamar haka:

K.H.G

Ta yi ma ɗiyar ta wanka

Ya yi wa motarsa gyara

Sun yi ma kansu aiki

Ya ɗunka ma Musa riga

Ya saya ma yaro gilas

Ta sa ma Abu wando                     

GAJERAR MALLAKA

A karin harshen garin Gusau babu wani bambanci tsakanin doguwar mallaka dia gajeruwar mallaka, a gajeruwar mallaka a kwai “nai” da “tai’ na karin harshen garin Gusau, a mai makon “nsa” da “rsa” Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Misali:

“nsa”              “nsa”

D. H                                                                K.H.G

Bakinsa                                                          Bakinai

Takalminsa                                                   Takalminai

Littafinsa                                                       Littafinai

Rediyonsa                                                     Rediyonai

Jakinsa                                                           Jakinai

Hancinsa                                                        Hancinai

Ruwansa                                                        Ruwanai

Ɗakinsa                                                          Ɗakinai

Haƙorinsa                                                      Haƙorinai

Batgonsa                                                        Bargonai

Kekensa                                                         Kekenai

Dokinsa                                                         Dokinai

“rsa”               “tai”

 

 

D.H                                                                 K.H.G

Amaryarsa                                                     Amaryatai

Wuƙarsa                                                        Wuƙatai

Wayarsa                                                         Wayatai

Kujerarsa                                                       Kujeratai

Matarsa                                                          Matatai

Takardarsa                                                    Takardatai

Hularsa                                                          Hulatai

4.4 GININ KALMA

“Nazari ne wanda ya shafi ginuwa ta kalma wato yadda kalma ke “kumbura” ta bada wata ma’ana wato ta kumbura daga tilo zuwa jam’i ko kuma ta kumbura daga jinsin namiji zuwa mace haka kuma nazarin ginin kalma nazari ne wanda ya shafi “tsira” wato yadda kalma ke tsira daga aikatau zuwa suna ko daga suna zuwa sifa”. Mamman (2006) .

“Idan aka ce ginin kalma, saboda ana rusa kalmomi nazari a ƙwanƙwance da kuma daidaitasu” Alhassan (2005).

“Ya bayyana tasarifi da ƙirar kalma da ke nazarin ƙwayoyin ma’ana a harshen da tushen kalmomi da ƙa’idojin kumburar akalmomi da na tsirar kalmomi da kuma li’irabin kalmomi”Fagge (2013: 3)

A Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen garin Gusau babu wani bambanci tsakani hanyoyin da ake amfani da su wajen samar da kalma sai da bambanci na ɗafi da ake samu wajen samar da jam’in kalma. Misali:

Jam’in ɗafi – aye

Tushe                         Ɗafi                Cikakkiyar kalma ta jam’i

Beb ...              ...aye               Bebaye

Bok ...             ... aye Bokaye

Jaj ...                            ...aye               Jajaye

Dog ...             ...aye               Dogaye

Rag ....            ..aye                Ragaye

Jam’in Ɗafin ukka

Tushe                                     Ɗafi                Cikakkiyar kalma ta Jam’i

May ....                                   Ukka               Mayukka

Ray ...                         ukka               Rayukka

Karn ...                                   ukka               Karnukka

Shaf....                         ukka               Shafukka

Mar ....                                    ukka               Shafukka

Tsar ...                        ukka               Tsarukka

Jam’in Ɗafin UNA

Tushe                                     Ɗafi                            Cikakkiyar kalma ta Jam’i

Zak ....                        una                             Zakuna

Kaw...                         una                             kawuna

Rag ...                         una                             Raguna

Hul...                                      una                             Huluna

Inj ...                                        una                             Injuna

Kog....                         una                             Koguna

4.5 MA’ANAR KALMOMI

Karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa na da kalmomi masu ma’ana iri ɗaya amma sun banbanta ta hanyar furuci.

D.H                                                     K.H.G

Saƙo                                                    Satto

Tsami                                     Yami

Masassara/Zazzaɓi             Jamti

Cokali                                                 Cabi

Wari                                                   Ɗwai

Dankali                                              Kudaku

Nema                                     Biɗa

Ɗauri                                                  Ƙunshi

Ganewa                                             Lura

Sanyi                                                  Ɗari

Ɗimame                                             Zahwahe

Zo                                                       Taho

Ɗawainiya                                         Takalihu

Koɓewa                                              Yauɗi/guro

Tafiaya                                               Ɗar zazowa

Anguwa                                             Shiya

Safe                                                     Sammako/Dongo-dungo

Anin/maɓalli                                    Boti

Ido                                                      Ijiya

Shara/Bola                                        Juji

Faɗa                                                    Hitina

Bashi                                                  Rance

Akwati                                               Hontimoti

Ƙarya                                      Zuƙi ta malle

Sama                                                  bisa

Riga                                                    Taggowa

Goshi                                      Suma

Ƙofa/Ƙyaure                                     Gambu

 Rauni                                                 Jimuwa

Tasbi                                                   Tauzaha

Yamutsi                                             Hargitsi

Ƙabaria                                               Koshewa

Rediyo                                               Radi’u

Wara/gala                                         Ƙwai da ƙwai

Maganin sauro                                 Igiyar lehwa

Koko                                                   Kunu

Wari                                                   Zarni

4.6 GININ JUMLA

Jumla kamar yadda aka harhaɗa ƙwayoyin ma’ana a samar da kalma haka ake harhaɗa kalmomi su ba da jimla mai ma’ana bisa ga tsarin dokokin nahawu.

“Jumla ta ƙunshi sauna da abinda aka faɗa game da suna. Saboda haka a kan sami wata jumla da ba ta ɗauke da aikatau, sannan jimla tana iya zuwa sassauƙa ko harɗaɗɗiya ko sarƙaƙƙiya dangane da zubinta ko kuma tsarinta”. Amfani (2013).

“Jimla magana ce cikakkiya mai ma’ana wadda aka gina bisa wasu ƙa’idojin harshe na musamman”. sani (1999).

A karin harshen garin Gusau tsarin ginin jumla ɗaya ne da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa, sai dai wani ɗan bambance – bambance da ake samu na dokokin ginin jumla. Misali kamar haka:

D. H

1.      Rigar Kande ce

2.      Matar Audu ce, ta zo jiya

3.      Wata magana ce, Abu ya yi

4.      Hassabn ya zauna cikin damshin ruwa

5.      Musa ya fita da safe

6.      An sake buɗe makaranta sda yamma

7.      Amina ta kamu da zazzaɓi mai zafi jiya

8.      Sadiya ta yi wa ɗanta wanka

9.      Ɗalibai ba su yi wa kansu abin kirki ba

10.  Butar Aude ce, Abu ya fashe

11.  Aminu ya saya wa ɗansa kaya

 

 

K. H. G

1.      Rigar Hauwa ta

2.      Matar Audu ce, tat zo jiya

3.      Wata magana ta Abu yayyi

4.      Hassan ya zamna cikin damshin ruwa

5.      Musa ya hita ton da sassafe

6.      An sake buɗe makaranta da marece

7.      Amina ta kamu da masassara, mai zahi jiya

8.      Sadiya ta yima ɗanta wanka

9.      Ɗalibai ba su yi ma kansu abin kirki ba

10.  Butar Aude ce, Abu ya hwashe

11.  Aminu ya sa ya ma ɗansa kaya.

Idan aka dubi waɗannan kwatance da misalai da aka yi tsakanin Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen Zamfarci musamman a garin Gusau, za a ga cewa ɗan bambancin kaɗan ne doa aka samu. Wannan ya ƙara nuna muna yadda masana da manazarta suka sa ido a kan Daidauitacciyar Hausa, don samar da Daidaitaccen harshen a ƙasa.

Amma duk da haka, akwai kyakkawar fahimta tsakanin Daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen Zamfarci musmman a garin Gusau, domin ko wane na fahimtar wani ba tare da wata matsala ba.

 

NAƊEWA

A wannan babi anyi magana a kan karin harshen garin Gusau da Daidaitacciyar Hausa da tsarin sauti da ginin kalma da ma’anar kalmomi da ginin jumla. Waɗannan muhimman abubuwa su ne aka tattauna a wannan babi na huɗu. A babin da zai biyo baya kuwa shi ne na biyar taƙaitawa, hasashe da kammalawa.