Takarda Wadda Aka Gabatar A Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Sani Na Ƙasa Da Ƙasa, A Kan Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali Domin Girmama Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, Wanda Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Fassara da Hikimomin Al’umma Tare da Haɗin Guiwar Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya da na Kimiyyar Harshe da Harsunan Ƙetare, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano. 15th zuwa 17th ga watan Satumba, 2019.

ibrahim narambada tubali

Nazarin Salon Zuga A Wasu Waƙoƙin Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali

 

Ibrahim Baba (Nayaya[1])

Postgraduate Students, Bauchi State Uniɓersity, Gaɗau, Bauchi

(Masters in View)

Ibrahimba182@gmail.com

07066366586, 08125351694

 

Da

 

Laraba Manga Misau

A.D. Rufa’i College of Legal and Islamic Studies,

P.M.B. 004 Misau, Bauchi State

Larabamanga15@gmail.com

08065404313

 

Da

 

Amina Musa

Demonstration Primary School, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare

aminakirfi@yahoo.com

07030390949

Tsakure

Zuga hanya ce ta kambamawa da gwarzanta mutum, a wani lokaci ta amfani da kalmomin da suka dace da shi, wato ta amfani da zahirin halayya ko ɗabi’arsa, a wani lokacin kuma akasin haka, wato a zuga shi ta abin da ba ya tare da shi. Mawaƙa na cikin sahun farko a jerin masu yin zuga, ko dai su zuga wani ko kuma su zuga kawunansu. Cikin wannan takarda, an yi nazarci salon zuga a cikin waƙoƙin Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali. An yi wannan aiki kuwa ta hanyar nazartar waƙoƙi goma cikin ɗimbin waƙoƙinsa, inda a ciki aka kalato wannan zugar da ya yi wa wasu rukunai na mutane mabambanta. Wannan aiki, ya wakana ne ta hanyar sauraron waƙoƙinsa, da kuma karanta rubuce-rubucen da aka yi a kansa, ko kuma da suka shafi waƙa da zuga, da kuma ziyartar masana domin ƙarin bincike.

1.0 Gabatarwa

            Mawaƙan baka sun jima suna zuga mutane a cikin waƙoƙinsu, wanda hakan yakan sanya waɗanda ake yi wa zugar jin daɗi har ma su aikata abin da ba su yi niyya ba, shin wannan abin mai kyau ne ko kishiyarsa. A yayin gabatar da wannan zugar, sukan ambaci kalamai na gaskiya da ƙarya kan wanda suke yi wa zugar; ta hanyar amfani da kayan kaɗe-kaɗe, bushe-bushe ko kaɗawa ko kuma jijjigawa da gogawa.

            Idan muka waiwayi ma’anar waƙar baka, za mu ga masana sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu wajen bayyana ma'anar waƙar baka. Misali, Sa’id (1981:235) ya bayyana ma’anar waƙa da cewa, “Waƙar baka ita ce wadda ake rerawa don jin daɗi, a ajiye ta a ka, a kuma yaɗa ta a baka”. Gusau (2003:ƊIII) kuwa, yana ganin “Waƙar baka wani zance ne shiryayye cikin hikima da azanci da yake zuwa gaɓa-gaɓa bisa ƙa’idojin tsari da daidaitawa, a rere cikin sautin murya da amsa-amo na kari da kiɗa, sau da yawa kuma a tare da amshi”. Ɗangambo (2011:6) ya bayyana waƙa da cewa, “Waƙa wani saƙo ne da aka gina shi kan tsararriyar ƙa’ida ta baiti, ɗango, rerawa, kari (bahari), amsa-amo (ƙafiya), da sauran ƙa’idojin da suka shafi daidaita kalmomi, zaɓensu da amfani da su cikin sigogin da ba lalle ne haka suke a maganar baka ba”.

1.1 Ma’anar Zuga

            Masana sun bayyana ta da cewa, kalmomi ne masu tunzura mutum don ya aikata wani abu na bajinta ko na assha, wanda a haka salin-alin ba zai yi su ba in ba an zuga shi ba. Akan zuga mutum ta hanyar buga masa take ko yi masa waƙa domin a ƙara masa ƙarfin guiwa a kan aikin da yake yi yau da gobe.

            Bisa waɗannan bayanai da suka gabata, za mu fahimci zuga wasu ‘yan kalmomi ne da ake ambata su ga mutane domin a tsuma su, a tunzura su, hakan sai ya sanya su aikata abin dab a su yi niyyar aikatawa ba walau mai kyau ko maras kyau.

           Mawaƙa suna cikin sahun farko cikin jerin mazuga a Ƙasar Hausa, wanda suna yi wannan zuga tasu a cikin waƙoƙinsu, inda suke zuga gwanayensu ko waɗanda suke yi wa waƙa. Cikin waɗannan mawaƙa waɗanda suka kasance kuma tushe ko mafari na mawaƙan baka a Ƙasar Hausa akwai Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali, wanda a wannan takarda aka nazarci salon zuga a cikin wasu waƙoƙinsa.

 

 

2.0 Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Ibrahim Narambaɗa Tubali

           An samu maganganu mabambanta dangane da shekarar da aka haifi Ibrahim Narambaɗa, sai dai Bunza (2009:8) bayan ya kawo ra’ayoyin magabata, misali Karatu (1995), wanda ya nuna an haifi Narambaɗa a shekarar 1894, Rabi’u Hassan Shinkafi (2003), Sule Isma’il Shinkafi (1998), Bello Alhassan Sodangi (1979), Gusau (1987), sai ya bayyana na shi ra’ayin da kuma shekarun da ake hasashe ya yi a duniya.

           Bunza (2009:13) ya bayyana cewa, an haifi Narambaɗa a wajajen shekarar 1890, a garin Tubali cikin unguwar Dembo, sai dai ban samu tantance ranar haihuwarsa da watan haihuwarsa ba. Mahaifinsa Buhari da aka fi sani da Maidangwale1 ya sa masa suna Ibrahimu. Da wannan suna aka san shi har ya yi ƙuruciyarsa da sunan.

           Da samartaka ta fara kama shi aka yi masa laƙabi da sunan mahaifiyarsa ‘Iro Na Riba’, wato Iro ɗan Riba. An ce an yi masa wannan laƙabi ne saboda irin shaƙuwar da ya yi da mahaifiyarsa. Ga al’ada, idan yaro ya shaƙu da mahaifiya ko mahaifi, akan yi masa laƙabi das hi ko akasin haka. To! Ibrahim na farko ya samu, wato Iro na Riba (Iro Nariba). Taƙaita sunan Ibrahimu zuwa ‘Iro’ wata daɗaɗɗiyar al’ada ce a sunayen Hausawan Ƙasar Hausa. Wataƙila saboda baƙin sunaye ne sai aka sarrafa su yadda Bahaushe bai jin nauyinsu a harshensa don haka ake samun irin su:

Idrisu  -  Idi

Muhammadu  -  Mamman

Abdullahi      -   Audu

Maimunatu   -    Muna

A’ishatu       -    A'i                 (Bunza, 2009:13).

           Laƙabin Narambaɗa kuwa, ya samu ne a dalilin sunan karyarsa2 wadda yake kira da Rambaɗa. An ce har wata ganga gare shi ta yi wa karyarsa kiɗa da kirari. Idan za a fita farauta da kirari ake fita da Rambaɗa, idan aka koro dabba kirarin ya fi amo sosai. Dalili da wannan kusanci da birgewa aka yi masa laƙabi da ‘Narambaɗa’, wato ubangijin karya Rambaɗa. (Bunza, 2009:14).

          Baya ga farauta da aka shaidi Narambaɗa da tashi da ita, ya kasance noma da kokawa da tauri da karatun allo ya buɗe ido a kan su, kuma duk ya yi su, har ma ya hardace Alƙur'ani a hannun Malam Shu'aibu, ya kuma ratsa cikin ilimin Furu'a, har ma ya cancanci a kira shi Malam, domin yana da hazaƙa da riƙon harda, da fahimtar nassi sosai (Bunza, 2009: 15-16).

           Narambaɗa mutum ne wanda ya ƙi zinace-zinace da sauran munanan ayyuka, ga shi da tsare mutuncinsa da dattako. Bunza (2009:18) ya juyi hira da aka yi da yaron Narambaɗa; Maisa'a inda ya tabbatar da cewa Narambaɗa ya ƙi jinin zina da mazinata. Don haka duk garin da ya je wasa da yaransa a ɗaki ɗaya ake kwantawa gudun kada wani ya je hirar banza ya yo ɓarna ya kwaso musu zunubi. Yaransa sukan ce a koyaushe yana cewa, "Ku bar mu da zunubin kiɗi kar ku kwaso mini zunubin zina". Da ya tuhumi yaro da ɓanna kai tsaye yake rabuwa da shi tun ba a dawo gida ba.

           Narambaɗa ya yi aurensa na farko a Tubali, inda ya auri Hana ɗiyar Ila Kanti a ƙofar Yamma. Sai matarsa ta biyu Yaƙƙaya ɗiyar Karohi a garin Zamangira. Haka kuma an ce ya auri wata mata Kande. Allah ya azurta Narambaɗa da 'ya'ya da yawa maza da mata, waɗanda suka makara aka san da su akwai: Namoriki, Kurma (Sada), 'Yakkwaraka (Inno), Hajo da Shu'aibu (Bunza, 2009:16).

           A fagen waƙa kuwa, Narambaɗa gadon ta ya yi, amma ba a wurin Uba ba, ya sha a nonon Mamansa ne, (ma’ana ya gado ne a wurin Kakansa ta hanyar Mahaifiyarsa). Kakan Narambaɗa, wato mahaifin mahaifiyarsa Sarkin makaɗan Badarawa ne, da ya rasu mahaifiyar Narambaɗa Riba aka bai wa kayan kiɗansa da kotso da sauransu. Da kayan ta shigo gidan mahaifin Narambaɗa har Allah ya ba ta Ibrahim ya taras da kayan jibge a ɗakin mahaifiyarsa. Sha'awar da suka ba Ibrahimu shi ya sa ya ƙirƙiro koyon waƙa yana ɗan jarraba su, sannu a hankali har ya zaƙe a ciki. (Bunza, 2009:23).

           Ibrahim Narambaɗa kasancewarsa mawaƙi, Allah ya azurta shi da yara waɗanda ke aiki a ƙarƙashinsa, ko dai su yi masa waƙa, ko kuma kiɗa ko amshi, ko wanin waɗannan Fitattu daga cikin yaransa akwai: Auta Audu, Bawa Anne, Bakwai Durumbu, Barmo Barade, Mamman Daudu, Zaki da Maisa'a. Narambaɗa ya yi tafiye-tafiye a ciki da wajen Ƙasarsa, kuma ya yi wa sarakuna, hakimai, fadawa da sauran mutane waƙoƙi da dama.

           A ranar Juma'a 31 ga watan Disamba na shekarar 1963 Allah ya yi wa Ibrahim Narambaɗa rasuwa, duk da ya kasance wata riwaya ta nuna ya rasu a ranar 30 ga watan Disamba 1963. An danganta rasuwar Narambaɗa da abubuwa da dama, wasu sun ce rashin lafiya ce, wasu kuma sun ce haɗarin mota suka yi, yayin da wasu suka ce gamo ya yi, wasu kuma suka ce sammu aka yi masa. Amma magana sahihiyagame da wannan rasuwa ita ce, bayan dawowarsa daga Shinkafi wajen yi w Sarkin Kudu hira, ruwan da ya ƙetara ya yi subba zuwa Tubali, duk abin da ya same shi; daga nan ya same shi, ya maraita gida cikin jin jiki mai nauyi, har zuwa ranar da Allah ya asa rasuwa, wato ranar Juma'a bayan La'asar. (Bunza, 2009:34).

3.0 Salon Zuga A Waƙoƙin Narambaɗa

          Kamar yadda masana suka bayyana ma'anar salo da cewa, "Hanyar gudanar da abu, wato furuci ko rubutu. Sannan abubuwan da aka yi amfani da su wajen ƙawata furuci ko rubutu; salo ne, kuma da su ne ake adanta harshe da aka amfani da shi. Hikimomi da hanyoyin kaifafa zance ko ma'ana da dabarun sarrafa harshe da sauransu, duk abubuwa ne masu tallafa ko ayyana salo a furuci da rubutu" (Yahya, 2001:1).

          Bisa wannan ma'ana, za mu fahimci hanya ce da mawaƙi ke bi domin isar da saƙwanninsa a cikin waƙa. Kowane mawaƙi yana da irin na shi salon wajen isar da saƙon dake cikin waƙarsa, imma ta hanyar amfani da salo mai armashi ne ko akasinsa. Ibrahim Narambaɗa na da salon zuga a cikin waƙoƙinsa inda a wasu lokutan yakan yi amfani da kalmomin dabbantawa wajen zuga mutum, ko siffantawa, ko mutuntawa ko kuma ya yi amfani da kalmomin kamantawa domin ya zuga wani. A nan, za mu duba wasu cikin zugar da aka yi ta hanyar amfani da waɗansu cikin waɗannan abubuwa da muka ambata.

3.1 Zuga A Waƙar Mai Gusau

              Jagora:                      Halayen mayana,

                                                Zaki ɗan Bubakar.

          A wannan ɗiya da ya gabata, ya yi zuga da kalmar Zaki, wanda Zaki dabba ce mai ƙarfi a dawa, wadda ta gagari sauran dabbobi, kuma ma shi ne shugaban dabbobin dawa. To idan ana so a zuga mutum ta hanyar gwarzanta ƙarfinsa ko izzar mulkinsa, akan yi amfani da sunan Zaki, kamar yadda shi ma a nan ya zuga Abubakar Mai Gusau ta hanyar dabbantawa. Ken an, wannan ɗaya ne daga cikin salon zuga a wurinsa, wato yin amfani da salon dabbantawa.

          A wani ɗiya kuma sai ya ce,

              Jagora:                         Ba raggo ba na,

                                                   Halin Basharu na Isa ya kai,

                                                   Gwarzon Bube.

           A nan kuma, ya zuga shi da kalmar Gwarzo, wadda ke nufin “jarumin mutum” (CNHN, 2006: 183). Duk wanda aka ambace shi da 'Gwarzo', to kusan an masa zuga da babban suna ta fuskar ƙarfi. Don haka a nan, sai ya yi amfani da salon bayyana ƙarfi wajen nuna jarumtar Basharu na Isa.

3.2  Waƙar Abdu Ƙanen Maidaga

                  Jagora:               Duk sarkin da kas sani,

                                             Basaraken da kas sani,

                                             Amadu ya hi su ƙane shiryayye.

          A nan ma, ya yi zugarsa ce ta hanyar fifiko, fifikon kuwa ta fuskar kyawun hali da shiryuwa, inda yake zuga ƙanin Amadu da cewa, ya fi duk ƙanin duk wani sarki shiriya.

3.3 Waƙar Ahmadu Bello, mai taken Bello Mai Tawakkali,

                  Jagora:               Ƙashin bugun ƙashi Ahmadu Bello

           Idan aka ce ƙashi, shi ne “wani farin abu mai ƙarfi gaɓa-gaɓa wanda tsoka ke rufe da shi jikin mutum ko dabba” (CNHN, 2006:278). A ɗabi’a, ƙashi na da tauri ta yadda ba ma a iya tauna shi, kuma idan aka bugi abu da shi, to wannan abin kan iya karyewa ko kuma ya fashe. To a nan, domin ƙoƙarin zuga Ahmadu Bello, sai ya yi amfani da salon gwarzantawa ta hanyar bayyana taurin jikinsa irin yadda ƙashi ke da tauri, ta yadda ko mene ne ya haɗu da shi sai dai ya karye.

3.4 Waƙar Hawo na Shirin Yaƙi

                   Jagora:                  Manyan maza na Jekada

 

                   Yara:                     Ko dauri mazan gabas

 

                   Jagora:                 Su ba su cin amanar sarki.

           A waɗannan ɗiya kuwa, ya yi amfani da nuna halayya da siffantawa wajen yin zuga, inda ya nuna ba mai cin amana ba ne, sannan ba ƙaramin mutum ba ne, babba ba ta fuskar gangar jiki ba, babba a fuskar dattako. Mutumin da ya kasance ana danganta masa kalmar ‘manya’ a fagen zuga, to ana nufin wanda bay a ashararanci ko maganar ƙarya ko sauran dangogin munanan halaye.

3.5 Waƙar Sarkin Ƙayan Maradun

                  Jagora:                      Ya buwayi maza,

                                                    Ginshiƙin Tama na Amadu,

                                                    Garba ƙi gudu ɗan Moyi

                                                    Mai halin mazan jiya.

          A nan ma, ya yi zuga da kalmomin halayya, inda ya siffanta shi da halayyar mazan jiya. Halayyar mazan jiya na nufin gaskiya, riƙon amana, rashin tsoro, rashin rowa, son jama'a, zumunci da sauran kyawawan ɗabi'u da halaye.

          Lafazin ‘ƙi-gudu’, na nufin wanda ba ya juya baya a fagen yaƙi koda kuwa za a cim masa. To don haka a nan, bayan waɗancan halaye da ya Garba da su, sannan sai ya tabbatar da jarumtarsa koda a fagen yaƙi ne.  

3.6 Waƙar Mai Daga na Abdu

              Jagora:                Kowak kwan Maradun Abu ka ba shi doki,

                                          Gamda'aren Joɗi babban Kada ya taushe gurbi,

                                          Buwai maza na Maifada,

                                          Mai daga na Abdu.

          A wannan ɗiya kuwa, ya yi amfani da salo na bayyana kyauta a matsayin zuga. Idan aka kalli ɗiyan, za a riski bayanin kyautarsa ga al’umma wadda hart a kai ga an kambama tat a hanyar zuga. Wato a nan, ya yi amfani da salon kambama kyauta a yayin aiwatar da zuga.

3.7 Waƙar Gagarau Jikan Garba

                    Jagora:                  Ginjimin Halliru uban zagi,

                                                  Na Malam Isa,

                                                  Gagarau jikan Garba,

                                                  Iro mai Shanawa.

   

                    Yara:                    Gagarau jikan Garba,

                                                  Iro Toron Giwa.

           A waɗannan baituka, ya yi zuga da kalmar 'Gagarau' wato laƙabin da ake yi wa Abubakar ko kuma wani jarumi, ko mawuyaci (CNHN, 2006:149). Toro kuma na nufin ‘gawurtaccen namijin giwa ko namijin ɓauna ko na agwawa’. Amma a nan, sai aka keɓe shi da ‘Toron Giwa. Ke nan a nan, ya zuga shit a hanyar dabbantawa da kuma ɗaukakawa, misali inda y ace ‘mai shanawa’. Gagarau, da Toron Giwa kalmomi ne na kambama mutum da zuga shi wajen nuna iyaka a fagen ƙarfi. Don haka shi ma a nan sai ya yi amfani da waɗannan sunayen wajen bayyana matuƙar ƙarfin Iro jikan Garba.

3.8 Waƙar Iyan Zazzau Ɗan Abubakar

               Jagora:                     Mai Nuhwawa, mai Yarbawa,

                                                Iya rabonka da kyauta kwana.

    

                                              Yanzun nan na gane halin Iya,

                                              Abin da ad dai-dai duka ya sani,

                                              Abin da ak kyawon ɗan Sarki,

                                              Ya zan ka lura da manyan duniya.

 

                  Yara:                   Iya na Zariya mai dunhwar maza,

                                              Don kai ni kai ɗan Amadu,

           Nuhwawa na nufin Nufawa wadda al’umma ce da ke zaune a ƙasar Nufe, kuma harshensu shi ne Nufe. Yarabawa kuwa su ma al’umma ce da ke zaune a ƙasar Yarabawa, wato ƙasashen Edo, Ondo da sauransu. Zuga ta farko da ya yi a nan, sai ya danganta waɗannan harsuna guda biyu zuwa ga Iya na Zariya, sannan sai ya kambama shi da kyauta wadda idan har ka ga ya dakata da yin kyauta; to barci yake yi, to wannan shi ke raba shi da kyauta. Sannan a ƙoƙarin ci gaba da wannan zugar, sai ya bayyana wasu halaye na dattako gare shi, wato duk abin da yake daidai ne, to ya sani, haka akasin daidai. 

           Idan aka lura dai, za a ga ya yi zuga ta farko ta hanyar alaƙantawa, wato kamara yadda ya alaƙanta shi da harsunan dab a nasa ba, kuma y ace nasa ne, hakan kuwa ya biyo bayan kyawawan halayensa wanda har ya sanya ya janyo mutanen da ba nasa ba sun zama nasa.

3.9 Waƙar Alƙali Abubakar

           A cikin waƙar Alƙali Abubakar, akwai inda ya masa zuga da cewa:

                  Jagora:             An tafiya da Giwa da Zaki,

                                           Su biyu ɗin ga su ad da daji.

           Giwa dabbar dawa da tafi kowace dabba girma, mai haure biyu dogaye da hanci mai kama da hannu da manya-manyan kunnuwa (CNHN, 2006:168). Zaki shi ma dabba ne wanda yake bai kai giwa girma ba, amma yana da matuƙar ƙarfi wanda wannan ya sanya ya zama sarki ga namomin daji a dawa.

            To wajen salon wannan zugar, sai ya yi amfani da waɗannan dabbobi manya kuma shugabanni wajen kambama ƙarfin iko da jarumtaka ta Alƙali Abubakar, wato ya yi salon zuga ta hanyar dabbantawa.     

3.10 Waƙar Aliyu Labbo

            Cikin wannan waƙar ma ta Sarki Aliyu Labbo, ya yi masa wata zuga, a inda ya ce:

                  Jagora:         Ba shawagi sa maza yawon duniya.

                  Yara:            Suna sai da abin hwaɗi ga ‘yan’uwa.

                  Jagora:          Ko gobe kai sarauta wada duk akai ka yi,

                                        Wasu sun shekare goma sarki.

                  Yara:             Ba su yi irin da kay yi ba.

           Har wa yau, a waɗannan ɗiya, ya yi ƙoƙarin yin zuga ta hanyar kyawawan halayensa da kuma kyauta ga talakawansa da kyawun halinsa ga al’umma ta yadda sarautarsa ta kwana guda ta fi sarautar wasu ta shekaru goma.

4.0 Kammalawa

           Daga cikin abin da ya gabata a wannan takarda, an bayyana taƙaitaccen tarihin Ibrahim Narambaɗa daga haihuwa, raɗa suna, kasancewarsa a wasu fagage na jarumta da karatu, da kuma shigarsa harkar waƙa. Har wa yau, an bayyana aurensa da 'ya'yansa da kuma wasu cikin hashahuran yaransa, da kuma halayyarsa da rasuwarsa. Cikin takardar, an tsamo wasu wasu waƙoƙi cikin waɗanda ya yi zuga a cikinsu, sannan aka ciro inda aka yi wannan zugar tare da yin taƙaitaccen bayani. Takardar ta nuna lalle Narambaɗa ya yi zuga cikin waƙoƙinsa, wannan ne ma ya bayar da damar ciro wuraren da ya yi zugar a cikin waƙoƙin nasa.

 

1Dalilin da ya sa ake masa laƙabi da wannan suna kuwa shi ne, shi ya zo da sana’ar alewa a Tubali. Idan ya jay a ƙare zai aza wa yara talla sai y ace, “Kawo in dangwala maka”, ko “Bari in dangwala maka” ko “Na nawa za a dangwala maka?”. Da dai ire-iren Kalmar da dangwale ke fitowa a cikinsu. Yawaita faɗar Kalmar ‘dangwale’ shi ya sa yara ke kiran sa da ‘Baba Maidangwale’. (Bunza, 2009:10).

2 Ya kasance yana fita farauta, to a wancan lokaci kowa na da kirarin da yake yi wa karensa, to shi kirarin karyarsa, shi ne ‘Rambaɗa’.

 

Manazarta

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[1] Ya fi shahara da wannan suna Ibrahim Garba Nayaya