Harshen Hausa harshe ne mai yalwa da faɗi a cikin jerin harsuna iyalin cadi. Yana da kalmomin da ke ƙunshe da ma’anoni masu ɗauke da saƙonni masu ratsa zuciya a duk lokacin da aka yi amfani da su. Taken wannan takarda shi ne, “Gurbin Ashe! a cikin harshen Hausa”. Takarda za ta dubi matsayin wannan kalma da wuraren da take da tasiri idan ta fito a bakin ko furucin mutane. Za a kalli kalmar a guraben tausayi, da mamaki, da tsawatawa, da tambaya, da kuma faɗakarwa. Sau da yawa mutane suna jin Hausawa suna amfani da wannan kalma, amma kaɗan daga cikinsu ke fahimtar saƙonnin da take dauke da shi. Wannan dalili ya sa za a fayyace dalla-dalla amfanin da take yi a maganganun yau da kullum tsakanin jama’a.

harshe

Gurbin Ashe! A Harshen Hausa Iyalin Cadi

 

ALIYU RABI’U ƊANGULBI

GSM NO. 07032567689

E-mail: aliyurabiu83@gmail.cim

1.0 GABATARWA

Harshen Hausa yana daga cikin jerin gwanon harsunan iyalin Chadi, kamar yadda sauran harsuna suka taka rawa wajen yin amfani da kalmomi domin sadarwa tsakaninsu da sauran al’ummomi, haka ita ma Hausa take, za a ji cewa Hausawa suna amfani da wasu kalmomi a cikin maganganunsu na yau da kullum waɗanda ba kasafai waɗanda ba su ji harshen Hausa ba suke gane/ fahimtar manufar yin amfani da su cikin magana ba. Wannan takarda mai taken “Gurbin Ashe a cikin harshen Hausa” takarda ce da za ta yi magana a kan matsayin wannan kalma da yadda ake amfani da ita a cikin maganganun yau da kullum a harshen Hausa.

 

Duba ga yadda kowace al’umma ta duniya ke da wasu kalmomi da suke amfani da su don tsawatarwa ko horo da hani ga barin wasu ayyuka ko ɗabi’u da ba su dace ba, ya sa wannan takarda ta ɗauki kalmar “Ashe” mai nuna alamar damuwa ko ɓacin rai ta yi nazari rawar da take takawa wajen bayyana, tausayi ko mamaki ko tsawatarwa ko tambaya ko faɗakarwa ko gargaɗi ga wasu ɗabi’u ko ayyuka da suka saɓawa al’adar Bahaushe

 

1.1 DABARUN BINCIKE

An bi hanyar tattaunawa da mutane dangane da fahimtarsu a kan amfani da kalmar ‘Ashe’ a maganganunsu na yau da kullum. Haka kuma an binciki wasu littattafai musamman na kirkirarrun labarai da suke magana game da tarbiyar ‘ya’yan Hausawa. An kuma dubi kamusun Hausa da na English Hausa da kuma Hausa English na Bargery.

 

1.2 RA’IN BINCIKE

An ɗora wannan bincike bisa ga ra’in Jacob Grinn, wani masani wanda ya yi amfani da mazhabar kirkirarrun labarai wadda ta shafi nazarin hikimomin ɗan’Adam ta fuskar labaran gargajiya. Wannan mazhaba ta samu magoya baya da suka haɗa da George Laurance Gomme Baingile wanda ya tasirantu da mazhabar kuma ya yi ƙoƙarin raba al’adun al’umma da suka taɓa zama a wuri ɗaya ta hanyar nazarin labarunsu na gargajiya.

 

1.3 HARSHE

“Harshe wata muhimmiyar kafa ce da ake amfani da ita wajen furuci domin a isar da saƙo kai tsaye ko a fakaice” (Yakasai: 2012). Domin ganin irin yadda harshe yake taka rawa wajen sadarwa a tsakanin mutane, masana da manazarta sun yi tsokaci daban-daban a kan ma’anar shi kanshi harshen. Banjo (1971) da Bloom (1933) da Langacker (1972) da Egbe (1978) da Lohrrey (1986) da sauransu, sun bayyana harshe a matsayin “abin da yake sadar da saƙonni daban-daban ga al’ummomin duniya. Harshe shi ne ya bambanta ɗan’Adam da dabba ta fuskar sadarwa”.

 

Har wa yau masana da dama sun bayyana harshe da cewa, wata hanya ce ta sadarwa da ke amfani da sauti bisa ga tsarin dokokin da nazarin kimiyar harshe ta tanada. Fage (1982) ya bayyana cewa ta hanyar “Harshe ne al’umma takan samar da damar isar da saƙon da ke ƙunshe a cikin zukatan al’umma da suka haɗa da aƙida da ra’ayi da kuma tunani”.

 

Haka kuma, Salim (1986:1) ya ce “Harshe wata hanya ce ta furta wasu sautuka masu ma’ana da ɗan’Adam ke amfani da ita domin sadar da wani muhimmin saƙo” Shi kuwa Anderson (1973) ya ce “Harshe shi ke bambanta ɗan’Adam (mutum) da sauran halittu wajen koyon harshe ko da kuwa irin dabbobi da tsuntsayen nan masu hazaƙar fahimtar magana, kamar Biri da Aku da Alhuda-huda”. Zaruk (1996) ya bayyana “Harshe a matsayin tunanin ɗan’Adam da yake bayyanawa a baki ko rubuce”.

 

Bisa ga tawa fahimta, harshe yana nufin wata hanya ce da ake amfani da ita domin a sadar da saƙo ga masu sauraro ko masu karatu a tsakanin al’umma. Don haka bisa ga la’akari da ra’ayoyin masana daban-daban ya san a yi tunanin in yi tsokai a kan matsayin kalmar ‘Ashe’ a harshen Hausa da bagiroran da ake amfani da ita.

 

1.4 ASHE!

Ashe kalma ce da ta samo asali daga kalmar ‘Ash’ da ke nufin kore wani tsuntsu ko dabba da ba ta iya magana. Amma Bahaushe sai ya yi wa wannan kalma ta ‘Ash’ ƙarin wasalin ‘e’ ta koma ‘Ashe’ don ta sauya ma’ana da aiki daga kore zuwa kalmar mamaki, Tausayi, gargaɗi da tsawatarwa, tambaya da kuma faɗakarwa, masu ɗauke da alamar motsin rai. Bergery (1933) ta kasa wannan kalma gida biyu:

a.      Ashe – Mai cin gashin kanta (Standing independently)

b.      Ashe- Mai bayyana mamaki ko kokonto (An eɗpression of surprise or incredulity)

 

Bargery ya bayyana ko fassara kalmar ‘Ashe’ standing independently”, da kuma Ashe, an eɗpression of Surprise or incredulity’. Idan aka dubi kalmomin na Turanci kamar yadda sabon kamusun Hausa ya kawo cewa.

a.      Ashe   - eɗpresses surprise of doubt

b.      Ashe - eɗpresses confirmation of something

 

Wato kalmomin Inglishi suna nuna cewa ‘Surprise’, da ‘doubt’ suna nuna mamaki da kokonto ne. waɗannan bayanai sun bayyana yadda ake amfani da kalmar a harshen Hausa. Sai dai a tawa fahimta kalmar, ‘Ashe’ tana tabbatar da abu ko musanta shi, ko kokonton faruwar shi. Haka kuma tana tsawatarwa ga hana aikata wani aiki da ya saɓawa al’adar mutanen da ake magana a kansu. Misali.

 

1.5 ‘ASHE’ A MATSAYIN TABBATARWA

Wannan yana zuwa ne a farkon jimla, ko ƙarshenta, tare da tabbatar da ƙudurin da jimlar take magana a kanshi. Wani lokaci yakan zo a matsayin mai cin gashin kanta, a jimlar, kamar:

a.      Ashe Sarki ya tafi

b.      Ashe ɗalibai sun tafi

c.       Ashe motarka ta lalace

 

Haka kuma yakan zo tare da ‘yan sassan ƙarfafawa, ko da ‘mo’, da dai da fa. Misali:

a.      Ashe ma sarki baya gida

b.      Ashe ko binta ta tafi

c.       Ashe dai Ali ya gudu

 

Idan aka dubi yadda waɗannan jimloli suka kasance, za a taras cewa da ‘Ashe’ na jimla ta ɗaya – ta uku a misali na farko da kuma ‘Ashe’ na ɗaya – na huɗu a misali na biyu dukansu suna ƙoƙarin tabbatar da ƙudurin jimlolin ne na ayyukan da aka gabatar.

 

1.6 ASHE NA MAMAKI/MUSU

Irin wannan ‘Ashe’ na mamaki idan mutum ya faɗe shi to yana mamakin faruwar abun da aka faɗa masa, wato bai aminta da maganar ba ko yana mamakin yadda abin ya kasace haka. Wannan ‘Ashe’ yakan zo shi kaɗai (independent) ko tare da ‘yan rakiya (Pre-position); misali.

 


 

1.6.1 ASHE (INDEPENDENT)

a.      Ashe Musa ya aikata haka!

b.      Ashe Bilkisu ta iya karatu haka!

c.       Ashe ba su suka shiga gidan ba!

 

A duk lokacin da mai ba da labari ya ji wanda ake baiwa labarin ya faɗi irin wannan ‘Ashe’, sai mai ba da labari ya ce ‘kana mamamki ne’, ko ya, ‘masu ke nan’ sau da yawa irin wannan ‘Ashe’ ana kiransa musu/mamaki.

 

1.6.2 ASHE KO DAI MA (PRE-POSITION)

a.      Ashe ko akwai yaƙi

b.      Ashe ma bai gane ba

c.       Ashe dai tsoro gare shi

 

Shi ma yana daga cikin ashen a mamaki.

 

1.6.3 ASHE NA KOKONTO

Shi kuwa wannan ‘ashe’ na kokonto ko turaddadi shi ne wanda ake faɗa wa magana ya nuna ba ta kwanta masa a rai ba. Wato yana kokonton faruwar lamarin. Kokonto kamar musu ne, sai dai shi ma yakan zo ashen a tambaya.

Shima wannan ashe yana zuwa a farkon jimla ko ƙarshe, kuma yakan zo tare da ɗaya daga cikin ‘yan sassan ƙarfafawa kamar ‘ko’ da ‘ma’ da dai tare da alamar tambaya. Misali

Farkon Jimla:

a.      Ashe sarki ya dawo?

b.      Ashe ko Sarki ya dawo?

c.       Ashe ma Sarki ya dawo?

d.     Ashe dai sarki ya dawo?

Ƙarshen Jimla

a.      Sarki ya dawo ashe?

b.      Sarki ya dawo ashe ma?

c.       Sarki ya dawo ashe ko?

d.     Sarki ya dawo ashe dai?

 

Irin wannan ashe, mai faɗarsa yana da birbishin masaniya a kan abin da yake tambaya, wato yana so ne ya ƙara samun tabbacin dawowar sarki tare da ‘yan sassan ƙarfafawa na ‘ko’ da ‘dai’ da ‘ma’ kamar yadda musuntawa ya zo da su. Wannan ‘Ashe’ idan aka faɗe shi a kan biyo shi da wata jimla ko wani sashe na jimla wadda za ta ƙara tabbatar da ingancin kokonton maganar. Misali.

a.      Ashe da kyau dai

b.      Ashe ko da wuya

c.       Ashe dai ba ni zato

 

1.6.4 ASHE NA HANI

Wannan ‘ashe’ shi kaɗai ya ke zuwa, amma alamar motsin rai kan biyo baya. Mafi yawa an fi yin amfani da wannan ‘ashe’ idan yaro yana aikata wani abu maras kyau, wani lokaci makiyaya dabbobi na amfani da shi domin hana dabba shiga wuri da ba a so, kamar shiga gona ko ɗaki. Misali – Ashe!.

 

A duk lokacin da yaro yake aikata wani abu, wanda ba a so sai a yi amfani da kalmar ‘ashe!’ to zai san cewa ba a son abu da yake yi, sai ka ga ya daina. Dalilin haka yasa ake kiran wannan “Ashe” ‘hani’. Shi wannan ‘ashe’ na hani ba a faye amfani da shi ba a waƙoƙin baka ko rubutattu ba, sai dai a maganganun yau da kullum.

 

 

1.6.5 “ASHE NA TAUSAYI”

Wani lokaci irin wannan ‘ashe’ yakan zo cikin sigar mamaki sai dai ba mamaki ba ne domin yana ɗauke da jimla mai nuna tausayawa. Misali

a.      Ashe Musa ya rasu!

b.      Ashe gobara ta ƙone gidanka!

c.       Ashe Isah yana asibiti!

d.     Ashe saniyarka ta kasa!

 

1.7 KAMMALAWA

Amfani da kalmomi na matsayin rai a cikin wasu maganganu na yau da kullum abu ne da ba a iya kauce masa tun ba a tsakanin mutanen gida ko al’ummar da ke zaune a unguwa ɗaya ba. Kalmar ‘Ashe’ kalma ce ke da matsayi daban-daban a cikin maganganun Hausa na yau da kullum.

 

Sakamakon wannan bincike ya bayyana mana cewa ‘ashe’ kalma ce wadda ba a ɗauke ta da wani matsayi ba, amma kuma tana koyar da darussa na iya zamantakewa mai kyau a tsakanin al’umma musamman Hausawa. Saboda haka ‘Ashe’ kalma ce da take taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen faɗakarwa da gyara zamantakewar al’umma daga miyagun ɗabi’u zuwa ga kyawawa.

 

MANAZARTA

Tuntuɓi mai takarda.