Wannan shi ne harshen da ya keɓanta ga rukunin masu wani aiki ko kasuwanci. Misali, kamar aikin ɗansanda (police). Suna da kalmomi da suke amfani da su a tsakaninsu. Su ne kamar: a jiƙa masa jiki (a doki mai laifi), a yi gabas (a sallami mai laifi), akwai wuƙa (akwai kuɗi), ran ƙwai (masu shaye-shaye), roja (cin hanci) da sauransu...


Kare-Karen Harshe

Abdul’aziz Sa’idu
07066557745

1.0 Gabatarwa
Karin harshe wata hanya ce da ake iya ganin bambanci a cikin harshe ɗaya. Ana iya samun ‘yan bambance-bambance tsakanin masu magana da harshe ɗaya. Babban abin burgewa shi ne, bambancin da yake tsakani bai haifar da rashin fahimta a tsakanin waɗannan rukunnan al’umma ba.
2.0 Harshe
Masana da dama sun bayar da ma’anar harshe. Kowanne daga cikinsu da yadda yake kallon harshe. Bagari, 1986) ya kalli harshe a matsahin: “Hanya ce ta sadarwa, kuma ana amfnai da shi wajen sadarwa ta hanyoyi guda biyu.” Sai kuma Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero (2006) ya kalli harshe da cewa: “Harshe hanyar magana ce sakanin al’umma.”
2.1 Karin Harshe
Masana sun bayar dagagarumin gudummuwa wajen bayar da ma’anar karin harshe. Greenberg (1915) ya ce: “Kari harshe shi ne wanda ya saɓa wa daidaitaccen harshen da ake rubutawa.” Sai kuma Skinner, (1977) da ya ce za a iya kallon karin harshe “a matsayin wani nau’in magana a cikin harshe ɗaya wanda ba shi ne ainihin harshen ba.”
Karuruwan harshen Hausa sun rabu gida goma sha huɗu (14). Guda bakwai (7) a Nijeriya, sannan kuma guda bakwai (7) a jamhuriyar Nijar. Misali, a cikin Nijeriya akwai Kananci, Kasinanci, Sakwkatanci, Zazzaganci da sauransu. Sai kuma waɗanda suke cikin Nijar akwai: Adaranci, Arwanci, Damagaranci da sauransu.
3.0 Amfani da Harshe (Use of Language)
Wannan fage yana bayani ne game da yadda ake amfani da harshe a cikin al’umma da kuma tsari da ya wanzu a sakamakon sauyawar zamani da kuam samuwar sabbin sana’o’i.
3.1 Bambance-Bambance
Wannan shi ne bambance-bambancen da ake samu a tsakanin rukunin al’umma masu amfani da harshe ɗaya. Wannan bambance-bambancen ya ƙunshi:
i.                   Sauti
ii.                 Kalma
iii.              Jumla
3.1.1 Sauti
Bambanci ne da yake gudana a sautuka a tsakanin rukunin al’umma masu amfani da harshe ɗaya. Wato, abin da ake nufi a nan shi ne, akan samu karuruwan harshen da suke amfani da sautuka daban-daban. Amma kuma, ma’anar guda ce. Misali:
Garwaya – gauraya
Taƙama – tamaƙa
Aure – amre
Ƙwabri – ƙwauri da sauransu
3.1.2 Kalma
Kalma lafazi ne mai dunƙulalliyar ma’ana wadda ake nunawa a rubuce ta hanayr barin fili a tsakaninta da ‘yar uwarta. Don haka, wannan bambancin yana faruwa a cikin kalmomi a tsakanin al’mma masu harshe guda. Misali:
Ƙofa – garka
Wannan – wanga
Ce – ta
Ne – na da sauransu
3.1.3 Jumla
Kamar yadda aka zayyana a baya, shi wannan bambance-bambancen ya shafi jumla. Misali:
i.                   Zai zo ya ba ka kuɗi – Yana zuwa yana ba ka kuɗi.
ii.                 Shi sarki ne – Shi sarki nah.
iii.              Wallahi ƙarya ce – Wallahi ƙarya ta.
3.2 Canje-Canje
Wannan kuma canji ne da ake samu na lokuta dangane da kalmomi. Ferdinan da Saussure, (Father of Modern Linguistics) (1916), wanda shi ne ya assasa ilimin kimiyyar harsuna na zamani, ya raba wannan canje-canjen lokuta zuwa gdia biyu (2). Sun haɗa da dogon lokaci (diachronic change) da na yau da kullum (synchronic change).
3.2.1 Dogon Lokaci (Diachronic Change)
Wannan shi ne canje-canje da ake samu na kalmomi a sakamakon ɗaukan lokaci mai tsawo da aka samu (long time change), Fardinand da Saussure a cikin aikinsa na Kimiyyar nazarin harsuna 116 (General Linguistics) ya bayyana cewa: “Dogon lokaci (diachronic change) shi en, wuce lokaci ko kuma duk abin da ya shafi harshe mai ɗauke da ɗaruruwan lokaci ana shekaru (centuries). A wani ƙaulin kuma, ana kiran shi da “Histocial Linguistics.” Misalin wannan shi ne kamar mu ɗauki lokacin zamanin Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo. Yawancin kalmomin da suke yin amfani da su na Hausa a yanzu sn ɓace. Wasu kuma suna nan. Amma an bar amfani da su a ƙa’idance.

3.2.2 Na Yau da Kullum (Synchronic Change)
Wannan nau’in canji ne na kalmomi a cikin harshe wanda yakan faru daga lokaci zuwa lokaci ba tare da ya ɗauki lokaci mai tsawo ba. Fardinan da Saussure 1916 (Father of Modern Linguistics), ya kira shi da suna “Synchronic Change” saboda shi canje-canje ne na yau da kullum (Synchoronic), yana magana ne a kan harsunan da suka shuɗe (endangered languages) kamar Latin da kuma haɓakar harsuna lokaci zuwa lokaci. Misali idan muka ɗauki kamar nau’in kuɗin ƙsar Nijeriya, za m ga cewa, da farko an fara amfani ne da Wuri, sannan kuma daga baya Sule, Sisi da kuma Kwabo. To yanzu kuma an dawo kan Nera.
Har ila yau, yana magana a kan karin harshen da ke tsakanin al’umma mai amfani da harshe guda.
3.3 Tashi da Harshe (Language Acƙuisition)
Tashi da harshe wani yanayi ne da yaro yake tasowa da harshensa na uwa (mother tongue). Wato abin da ake nufi a nan shi ne, yanayin da yaro yake tasowa da harshen da ya ji ana yi a gidansu. Har ila yau, tashi da harshe yana ɗauke da nahawu, tsari da kuma dokokin harshe wajen sadarwa.
3.3 Koyon Harshe (Language Learning)
Wannan nau’i ne na koyon harshe wanda yake sa ɗan’adam ya haɓaka harshensa na biyu (second langauge) wajen sadarwa (communication). Wannan ya ƙunshi:
1.     Koyon harshe na musamman (for special purpose): Wannan shi yake bayani dangane da al’adu da adabi da tasrihi da siyasa a matakin digiri na farko (B.A.) ko na biyu (M.A.).
2.     Koyon harshe ba na musamman ba (language learning for non specialist or serɓice language): Wannan shi ne wanda ake koyon harshe a matsayin zaɓi a wajen ɗalibai don karantawa. Misali harshen Hausa, Jamusanci, Faransanci da sauransu.
3.     Koyon harshe na umurni (Language for Instruction): Wannan shi ne wanda ake koyon harshe don ita ce harshen da hukuma take bayar da umurni a ciki. Misali, jami’o’I da ma’aikatu da kwaleji-kwaleji na ilimi da sauransu.
4.     Koyon harshe na wata manufa (Language for special purpose): Wannan shi ne ake koyon harshe don a cim ma wata manufa na rayuwa daban. Misali, koyon harshen wata ƙasa don kasuwanci ko zuwa karatu da sauransu.
3.5 Sadarwa ta Yau da Kullum (Social Comuniation)
Wannan ita ce nau’in sadarwa ta rukunin zaman jama’a. misali:
i.                   Rukunin siyasa
ii.                 Rukunin addini
iii.              Rukunin kasuwanci
Rukunin Siyasa
Wannan nau’in magana ko kalma ce da ta keɓanta ga ‘yan siyasa. Misali tazarce (continuity), sak (uniformity), a-kasa-a-tsare (to cast a ɓote and make sure ɓote is protected) da sauransu.
Rukunin Addini
Wannan kuma shi ne wanda ya ƙunshi addini. Misali, Musululmi Muhammadawa (Pious Person), Ahli Ɗariƙa (brothers in Ɗariƙa sect), Wahabiyawa (‘Yan Izala) da sauransu.
Rukunin Ksuwanci/Aiki
Wannan shi ne harshen da ya keɓanta ga rukunin masu wani aiki ko kasuwanci. Misali, kamar aikin ɗansanda (police). Suna da kalmomi da suke amfani da su a tsakaninsu. Su ne kamar: a jiƙa masa jiki (a doki mai laifi), a yi gabas (a sallami mai laifi), akwai wuƙa (akwai kuɗi), ran ƙwai (masu shaye-shaye), roja (cin hanci) da sauransu.
Daga ƙarshe, karin harshe yana ɗaya daga cikin muhimman baututwa da ake nazarin su a cikin harshe. Wannan na faruwa ne a dalilin rawar da yake takawa wajen kawo canje-canjen harshe da kuma bunƙasarsa.