Monday, 14 October 2019

Gurbin Harshen Fashin Baƙi Ga Mai Tafsiri



Addinin Musulunci ya yi fiye da shekaru aru-aru da leƙo Afirka idan aka yi la’akari da ɓullar addinin a Makka da tarihin Hijira ta farko da ta biyu[1]. A hasashen tarihi, daulolin ƙasar Hausa maƙil suke da mutane a zamanin da Musulunci ya bayyana a duniya.  Tarihin yadda ya shigo ƙasar Hausa abin kirdado ne tsakanin Daular Borno da Daular Mali da Daulolin Larabawan Sahara da kuma ɗaiɗaikun ‘yan kasuwa…
Gurbin Harshen Fashin Baƙi Ga Mai Tafsiri

Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Sashen Harsuna da Al’adu
Tsangayar Fasaha Da Ilimi
Jami’ar Tarayya Gusau
Afrilu, 2018


Tsakure
Tafsiri shi ne fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani daga Larabci zuwa harshen Hausa. A fagen tafsiri, harsuna biyu ake kokuwa da su: Harshen da ake karanto kulkin baƙi da harshen da ake fashin baƙi da shi. Dole ne ga mai tafsiri ya naƙalci harsunan biyu tare da sanin al’adunsu da adabinsu. Mai tafsiri ma’ana yake ƙoƙarin bayarwa, don haka dole ya tunkari ma’anar kurum. Harshen Hausa fitaccen harshe ne a addinin Musulunci domin Musulunci ya fi shekara dubu a ƙasar Hausa. Daɗewar da addinin ya yi ciki wani makami ne ga mai tafsiri ya yi taka tsantsan wajen isar da saƙo cikin kyakkyawar Hausa, da zaɓen kalmomi, da kula da al’adun masu karɓar saƙo. Takardar ta yi ɗan share fage kan Tarjamomin da aka wallafa na Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa (na Kabara da Gummi da Sa’idu da wasu). La’akari da yawan Hausawa a duniya da daulolinsu da dangoginsu da kashe-kashen karuruwan harshen Hausa, babu dole ga mai fashin baƙi na zaɓen wani daga cikin karuruwan harshe ya yi ƙuƙe-na-ƙuƙe. Binciken ya gano buƙatar a samu ayyukan magabata na Hadisi a taskace shi kamar yadda aka taskace tarjamomin. An ɗora binciken kan fasula haɗi da naɗewa domin warware bakin zaren matashiyar muƙalar.


Gabatarwa
          Tunanin saƙon wannan bincike shi ne, lurar da gogan fashin baƙi (Malamin Tafsirin Alƙur’ani) yadda zai sarrafa harshen gado da yake fashin baƙi da shi domin masu sauraronsa su amfana da shi sosai. Hikimomi da fasahohi da ke cikin harshen suna cikin jikin duk wani ma’aboci harshe, kuma su ne wayonsa na yin awo da ƙima ga abubuwan da ya tunkara, da waɗanda suke tunkararsa, da waɗanda ya gani, da waɗanda ya ji, da waɗanda yake karantawa, da waɗanda ake karanta masa. Waɗannan abubuwa suka tilasta wa duk wanda zai yi fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani da harshen Hausa a ƙasar Hausa, kuma ga Bahaushe ko mai jin Hausa, dole ya yi hattara sosai domin Hausawa cewa suka yi, ‘Magana zarar bunu ce, da ta fita sai gyaran zama na baya ga walle’; wanda bai dace ba ga mai fashin baƙin nassoshin addini.

Tarihin Fashn Baƙin Nassoshin Alƙur’ani (Tafsiri) a Ƙasar Hausa
          Addinin Musulunci ya yi fiye da shekaru aru-aru da leƙo Afirka idan aka yi la’akari da ɓullar addinin a Makka da tarihin Hijira ta farko da ta biyu[2]. A hasashen tarihi, daulolin ƙasar Hausa maƙil suke da mutane a zamanin da Musulunci ya bayyana a duniya.  Tarihin yadda ya shigo ƙasar Hausa abin kirdado ne tsakanin Daular Borno da Daular Mali da Daulolin Larabawan Sahara da kuma ɗaiɗaikun ‘yan kasuwa[3]. Gabanin saduwar Bahaushe da cikakken Alƙur’ani wasu littattafai na furu’a da yabon Manzo da Salatai suka fara bayyana. Can da, a watan azumi, a kan taru a yi addu’o’i da karatun salati da waƙe-waƙen yabon Annabin rahama (SAW) cikin Larabci. Da Alƙur’ani ya bayyana, ba a daina ba domin a tunanin Hausawan farko Musulmi, Alƙur’ani ba ya fassaruwa da kowane harshe na duniya in ba Larabci ba[4]. Don haka, hidimomin watan azumi na wancan zamani ya tsaya ga ibadojin gaɓɓai, karance-karancen ƙissoshin yaƙe-yaƙe da tarihin fiyayyen bayi Muhammadu (SAW). Da abin ya ƙara haɓaka aka fara karatun Ashafa ta Alƙali Iyadh da Ishiriniyya da Alburda da Dala’ilul Khairati[5]. Ga alama, tafsiri ya fara wakana ƙasar Hausa wajajen ƙarni na 16 zuwa na 17, bisa la’akari da ƙwazon Malaman ‘Yandoto da ƙwazon Malam Jibril bn Umar[6]. Bisa ga wannan kirdado an fi kimanin shekara ɗari shida (600) ana fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani mai tsarki a ƙasar Hausa.

Matsayin Harshen Hausa a Addinin Musulunci
          Harshen Hausa wani gwarzo ne daga cikin gwarajen da suka yi wa Musulunci jihadi, da babu malamin da ya yi kamarsa. A Afirka harshen addini ne, domin kashi tis’in da bakwai (97%) ko tis’in da takwas (98%) na Hausawa Musulmai ne[7]. Shi ne harshen da ya fi kowane amo a duniyar baƙar fata[8]. Shi ne harshe na 11 daga cikin ƙididdigar harsunan duniya 7000 mafi yawan jama’a da ke magana da shi. Hausawa ne ƙabilar da ta fi kowace ƙabila tasiri a cibiyar Musuluncin Duniya (Saudiyya) don haka harshen Hausa ya yi fice hatta cikin hidimomin cikin Hajji harshen Hausa ne na farko a cikin harsunan Afirka da ake yin sanarwa da shi a Jimra (Shaiɗan ƙarami da Shaiɗan babba)[9]. Bahaushe ne na farkon karɓar kyautar duniya ta sanin luggar Larabci Shaikh Nasiru Kabara (fayyace sunayen doki ɗari) a Masar[10]. Harshen Hausa ne harshen farko na Afirka da aka tarjama Alƙur’ani ciki a rubuce (Shaikh Abubakar Mahmud Gummi)[11]. Bahaushe ne na farko da ya karɓi kyautar duniya na hardace Ƙur’ani kulkin baƙi da fashin baƙinsa a Larabci (Shaikh Jafar Muhamud Adam)[12]. Sanin wannan ga mai fashin baƙi wata hujja ce ta daidaita masa akala na ba da muhimmanci ga harshen Hausa da yake fashin baƙi da shi. Ashe mai tafsiri cikin Hausa da duniyar Musulmi yake magana, dole ya yi zaɓen kalmomin da za a fahimce shi. Hausa na da gurbi cikin Majalisar Ƙoli da Fiƙihun Musulunci na duniya da ke da cibiya a Jedda.

Ilimin Fashin Baƙi da Naƙalinsa
          Ana amfani da kalmomi da dama domin su ba da makusanciyar ma’ana ta fashin baƙi. Daɗaɗɗiyar kalmar da aka fi sani ita ce “mayau”. Mayau shi ne, wanda ake yawo da shi ko aka aje shi domin da an samu wani wanda ba a jin harshensa kamar Balarabe da Bature, shi yana jin harshen sai ya mayar da gami ga waɗanda ba su ji. Kalmar fassara ta fara bunƙasa a karatun zaure na littattafan ilmi wanda Bahaushe ke cewa “karatun sani”. Littattafan da ake karanta masa ma’anonin nassoshinsu shi ne “fassara”. Haka abin ya zo ga aikin boko da jarida. A wajen Alƙur’ani a can da, nan kaɗai ake amfani da kalmar “fashin baƙi” domin irin tatarniya da taka-tsantsan da kaffa-kaffa da tsantseni da ake wajen fayyace maganar Allah ga bayinSa cikin wani harshe da ba da shi Allah Ya yi magana ba, don haka ake kiransa “fashin baƙi”, kuma a koyaushe aka gama sai mai fashin baƙin ya ce: Allah masani, Allah Ya sa mun dace.
          A fagen fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani sunan fassarar da ake ita ce “fassarar nan take” irin wadda ake a tarukan Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya da manyan tarukan ilmi na ƙasa da ƙasa. Irin wannan fassarar ta fi komai wuya, sai gogaggu ga nahawun harsunan kuma ƙwararru ga iya magana. Mai fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani ya kyautu ya kalli waɗannan salailai na fashin baƙi guda uku:
i.                   Fashin baƙin ba ni in ba ka fassara.
ii.                 Fashin baƙin kalma da kalma.
iii.              Fashin baƙi mai ‘yanci.

Fashin baƙin ba ni baƙi in ba ka fassara shi ne wanda ake yi a tafsirin da, mai jan nassi ba nassin gaba ɗaya zuwa aya zai jawo ba. Zai tsakuro kowane baƙi ɗai bayan ɗaya goga na fashewa; misali:

Wa minas naasi man ya ƙuulu aamanna bil laahi.
Daga cikin su mutune mai cewa imaanina ga abin bauta

·        Fashin baƙin kalma da kalma ya fi sha’fuwar mai karatu shi kaɗai a wani lokaci ko da ja masa baƙi ake yi. Yana da siga kamar haka:

Lil Laahi mulkus samaawaati wal ardhi yakhluƙu maa yashaa’u

Lallai ga abin bauta mulkin sammai da ƙassai yana halitta abin da ya so.

Idan an duba wannan fassarar ta fi ta farko sake jiki, amma ma’ana ta ƙuru-ƙuru ta maƙale.

·        Fashin baƙi mai ‘yanci shi ne, fashin baƙin da goga zai yi tsayin daka ya saka dukkanin kalmomin da Bahaushiyar ma’ana za ta sadu da Bahaushe. Yana da ‘yancin hararar nassin a kaikaice yadda ma’anarsa za ta fito ƙuru-ƙuru. Misali:
Laisa ka mishlihi shai’un wa Huwa sami’un ali mun

Bai yi kama da komai ba, kuma ta tabbata mai ji ne da cikakken ilmi.

A wajen fashin baƙi da Hausa fasara mai ‘yanci ta fi karɓuwa da isar da saƙo sosai. Fashi baƙin da ya fi kusantar da ma’ana shi za a zaɓa. Kamar kalmar “Waabilun” ta nassin Alƙur’ani ba za a fassara ta ba da: “ruwan bisa”, ko “manyan ruwa”, ko “ruwa”, ko “ruwa da iska da tsawa”, ko “ruwa ka-in-da-na-in”, duk a luga ba a fassara wa Bahaushe abin da ya sani kuma ya yi daidai da “waabilun” na Larabci ba. A nan, mai fashin baƙi na da ‘yancin shiga al’ada ya fassara ta da: “ruwa kama da bakin ƙwarya”. Ƙaddara idan da Turanci kalmar ta zo, Bature zai fasara ta da: “It rains cats and dogs”, ai ba za ka ce: “An yi ruwan kyanwowi da karnuka ba”?

Kashedi ga Mai Fashin Baƙi
          Nassin Alƙur’ani ya ce, a isar da saƙo kuma bai ayyana harshen da dole da  shi za a isar ba. Kulkin baƙi ya yi gargaɗi cewa, saƙon da za a isar a fassara shi cikin hikima da daɗin baki. A tsarin addininmu, fashin baƙi ba na katoɓara ne da soki burutsu ba. Ya kyautu mai fashin baƙi ya kula da abu uku da za su ba shi haske ga abubuwa goma: Na farko, a harshen da yake tafsiri akwai waɗanda suka fi shi saninsa da fahimtarsa. Na biyu, akwai waɗanda fahimtarsa da su zozo-zozo take. Na uku, akwai waɗanda ke ƙasa da shi ga fahimta. Don haka ya riƙa magana da waɗanda ke ƙasa da shi sannan za su fahimce shi. Tilas wajen zaɓen kalmomin a kula da wannan a sa masa ido sosai don a amfana a amfanar.
          Abubuwa goma da waɗancan abubuwa uku za su haifar a fafitikar fashin baƙi su ne:
1.     Kula da hankalin masu sauraron fassararsa.
2.     Sa lura ga wayewar kansu ga kalmomin isar da saƙo.
3.     Natsuwa da gurbin ilminsu wajen ba su fassara.
4.     Tuni da addinin da suka fito da wanda suke ciki dole ne.
5.     Martaba al’adunsu da ba su yi taho-mu-gama da aƙida ba.
6.     Lura da irin zamanin da ake ciki wata kwalliya ce ga fassara.
7.     Kaffa-kaffa da aƙidojin waɗanda ake yi wa tafsiri abin so ne.
8.     Ba da tazara ga fahimtocinsu wajen fashin baƙi salon jawo hankalinsu ne.
9.     Dole a kiyaye da siyasarsu wajen luguden kalmomin fassara.
10. Tarihinsu wani makami ne daga cikin makaman da mai tafsiri ya kamata ya tanada.

A kowane hali mai tafsiri ya so ya sarrafa harshe wajen fashin baƙin kuramen kalmomin nassoshin buwayayyen littafi in bai harari waɗannan abubuwa da kyau ba, yana rasa ‘yan sauraro nagartattu.

Da Tsohuwar Zuma Ake Magani
          Ƙur’anin da za a yi fashin baƙinsa ya ce, a tambayi masana ga abin da ba a sani ba[13]. Haka kuma, ya tabbatar da cewa, saɓanin harsunan da aka ƙaddaro mu da shi, domin mu san kanmu ne ba don bugun gaba ba[14]. Dalilin da ya sa Allah Ya aiko manzonsa da harshe ɗaya tattare da sanin bayinSa ba harshe ɗaya kawai suke magana da shi ba, ita ce babbar hujjarmu ta cewa, fassara wata farfajiya ce babba cikin addini da dole sai da ita saƙon addini zai barbazu kamar yadda wanda ya aiko addinin Ya yi umurni. Mai tafsiri ya sani cewa, komai za ya fassara an riga shi, shi bita ce kawai zai yi. Don haka, ka da ya ƙirƙiro fassararsa da salon harshensa kawai wai don ya ji harshen asali na littafin Allah.
          Daga cikin masu tafsiri a Arewacin Nijeriya yau a iya saninmu, fiye da kashi (85% - 90%) ba su koye shi tun farkonsa har ƙarshensa gun wani malami ba. Wasu ta hanyar zuwa sauraron tafsirin wasu, wasu a kaset na rediyo da bidiyo, wasu daga fahimtar fassarar littattafan furu’a Iziyya, Risala, da Askari. Manya-manya daga masu tafsiri a ƙungiyoyinmu na Musulunci Tarjamar Ma’nonin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa na Shaikh Abubakar Gummi, ya shaihuntar da su. Akwai wasu malamai da suka yi tarjamar Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa cikin kyakkyawar Hausa, da ya kyautu a ce an nazarce su domin ƙarin gudunmuwa. Idan aka yi guzuri da wasu daga cikin waɗannan za a amfana sosai.
1.     Tarjamar Ma’anonin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa na Shaikh Nasiru Kabara.
2.     Tarjamar Ma’anonin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa na Shaikh Abubakar Gummi.
3.     Tarjama da Tafsirin Alƙur’ani cikin Hausa na Farfesa Bello Sa’id da wasu Indiyawa.
4.     Tarjamar Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa na Wani/wasu da ba suna.
5.     Sabon Tarjamar Alƙur’ani da Gyare-gyare wanda wasu ɗaliban Ilmi suka yi kan fassarar Shaikh Gummi.

A ɗan nawa bincike, idan mai tafsiri ya tanadi waɗannan, zai ƙara samun haske sosai. Dalili kuwa za a ga wani Bakano ya yi shi, wani Basakkwace ya yi shi, wani kuma ɗaliban ilmi ne na zamani suka soko muryoyinsu. Duk da yake muna ganin fassarar waɗanda suka yi wa Shaikh Abubakar Gummi gyara ba ta zauna ba, abin kamar shigar ƙadangare shantu ne, babu laifi duk dai a karanta domin ko ɓata ƙara sanin daji ne.

Harshen Tarjama
          Mai tarjama ana son ya ƙoshi da abubuwa sosai da sosai. Harshen matanin da ake fashin baƙi, da harshen da yake miƙa saƙonsa a cikin a lugude su sosai. Sanin nahawun harsunan kaɗai bai wadatarwa sai an naƙalci adabinsu da al’adunsu. Kowane ɗaya aka yi wa raggon kaya daga ciki za a ji fassarar bambarkwai ba wani nauyi a ma’ana kamar hakin da guguwa ya ɗauko. Wanda duk ya ɗauki ɗawainiyar fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa ya kiyaye da harshen da yake fassarar kamar haka:
1.     Amfani da sanannun kalmomi gama-gari da aka saba ji. Babu laifi a faɗi tsohuwar kalma a gwama ta da sabuwa domin a fahimce ka kamar kalmomi: ruɓushi/hasara, kushewa/kabari, kasanki/likkafani, rausuwa/sakin aure, kububuwa/majici, kashindo/kayan sata, zakara/Ladan, cissawai/ragar rana, Dandu/Asibi, gogarma/Sarki, kushili/luwaɗi.
2.     Kiraye haramtattun kalmomi. Fashin baƙin littafin Allah ibada ne, dole ne a yi shi cikin natsuwa da ƙanƙan-da-kai da kunya da ladabi da biyayya. Allah ba Ya jin kunyar bayyana wa bayinSa,[15] amma kuma Ya yabi masu jin kunya ga hulɗoɗinsu[16]. Mai tafsiri rungume da Alƙur’ani yake, bambancin maganar Allah da ta bayi, kamar tazarar da ke tsakanin bayi da Allah ne[17]. Abubuwan da suka shafi al’adun kunya ana yi musu lulluɓi kamar haka:
i.                   Abin da ya shafi tsiraici: A ce al’aura, ko farji, ko gaba, ko baya.
ii.                 Abin da ya shafi hulɗa da iyali: a ce, biyan buƙata, ko kwanciya, ko taki, ko saduwa ko kusanta ko bi da sauransu.

3.     Kiyayewa da taƙadarun sassan adabi: Kowane harshe na da wasu abubuwa daga cikin adabinsa da ba su dace a gayyato su wajen fashin baƙi ba. Duk abin da ya shafi izgili ko tsokana ko wautar da wata ƙabila ko wani mutum ko ke iya tsirar da ƙabilanci da rashin tsoron Allah a zuci a kiyaye da shi wajen tafsiri. A dubi waɗannan misalai a gani:
i.                   Sai na ga abin da ya ture wa Buzu naɗi.
ii.                 Muna wasa ne, Gwari ya ba da magani an sha an mutu.
iii.              Cinike! Inyamuri ya sha mari.
iv.               Mun goga don Allah, Ɗanfulani a masallacin Yola.
v.                 Kangali Kano ƙwaari minna, in ji Ɗanbarno da ya sha gora a ka.

Addini na kowa ne, duk wanda ya ba da gaskiya a kansa na iya zuwa ya saurari malami mai fashin baƙi. Idan ya koma na cin fuska, da cin zarafin wasu, ko muzanta su, wani abu ya shiga ciki. 
4.     A kiyaye sosai da yin ingausa a fashin baƙi: Ingausa shi ne, surka wani harshe cikin wani yayin fashin baƙi. Mun san babu makawa ga mai fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani dole a ji surkin kalmomin Larabci ciki jefi-jefi amma ka da abin ya kasance daɓa-daɓa, har sai ɗaliban sani kawai ke fahimtarka. Idan ingausar Larabci ta yi yawa tana ɓatar da ma’anar fassara. Haka yake wajen ingausar Turanci da bai ko kai matsayin mustahabbi ba, ga mai tafsiri cikin Hausa. Waɗannan abubuwa sukan bijiro wa mai tafsiri musamman idan an shiga cikin hukunce-hukuncen shari’a na rabon gado da aure da cinikayya da aikin hajji da zakka da sauransu. Ba dole ne sai mai fashin baƙi ya samo ma’anar kowace kalma cikin Hausa ba, ai sunan tafsiri “fashin baƙi” abin da ake cewa “fashi” kuwa shi ne “bayani” a lugude kalma luƙui-luƙui har sai mai harshen ya gane abin da ake nufi.

A fuskantar nassoshin rabon gado za a ci karo da kalmomin fannu da yawa alal misali: mas’ala, asibi ko asibci, tadakuli, tabayuni, tawafuƙi, da tamasuli ga su nan dai. Da mai tafsiri ya kusanci yadda magabata suka fassara su a tafsirai da tarjamomin da suka yi wa Alƙur’ani cikin Hausa domin samun daidaiton tarjama. Ka tuna, masu sauraronka sun sha sauraron wasu ba kai ba.

Nahawun Tarjama
          A tsarin ilmin harsuna, cikin harshe nahawu ke bayyana. Nahawu shi ne, daidaiton kalmomi da ‘yan rakiyarsu cikin magana tare da sassaɓawarsu na lokuta da zamani da rarrabe jinsi da sigar yadda kalmomin za su yi tunkuɗeɗeniya da sassaka a lafazance domin fitar da ma’ana. Mai tafsiri cikin Hausa ya san Hausa ce yake yi kuma da masu jin harshen Hausa yake magana. Idan haka ne, ya kula, zurfafa cikin bayanin ilimin Larabci ga abin da ya shafi nahawu da balaga da manɗiƙi da sarfu da li’irabin jimlolin ayoyi, a makaranta ya kamata a yi shi can cikin ɗaliban ilimi. A dandalin tafsiri idan aka ce a yi shi, za a cinye lokaci kuma kaɗan daga cikin masu sauraro kawai za su amfana. Nassin Alƙur’ani ba ya fassaruwa gaya ba tare da gudunmuwar nassoshin Hadisai da biyan gurabun magabatan farko ba. Idan aka kawo Hadisi, fashin baƙin isnadinsa da mazajensa da taliyon ƙullin dangantakarsu ya fi dacewa a makaranta. Idan aka tsawaita bayaninsu, wanda bai yi karatu ba zai ji an gundurar da shi. Yawwa! A kula, domin daga cikin mafi yawan waɗanda ke zuwa sauraren tafsiri, waɗanda ba su ƙoshi da karatu ba sun fi yawa.
          Wannan ‘yar faɗakarwa ko kusa ba za ta hana malamin tafsiri amfani da kalmomin fannu na nahawu ba. Zumuntar harshen Hausa da Larabci Mahdi ne mai dogon tarihi, a wajen fassarar za a ji kalmomin fannu sun yi kama da juna. Musamman idan aka zo a ire-iren waɗannan wurare a kula da suna, wakilin suna, aikatau, sifa, bagiren lokaci da na zamani da ‘yan rakiya, da miƙau da karɓau da sauransu. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, da a ce: “Dawuda shi ne ma’aikaci Jaluta shi ne wanda aikin Dawuda ya riska, don haka makashin shi ne Dawuda, marigayin shi ne Jaluta, ya tabbata haka, saboda bayyanarsa da wasalin bisa”. Cikin sauƙi za a fassara abin da cewa: “Dawuda ya kashe Jaluta.” Bahaushe zai gane kai tsaye.

Matsayin Harshe da Al’adunsa a Tafsiri
          Daga cikin harsunan da muke da su dubbai a zamanin Manzo (SAW) aka zaɓi Larabci aka aiko addini da shi ta hannun Balarabe wanda ke tsakiyar birnin Larabawa masu bugun gaba da harshensu. Cikin buwayayyen littafinmu, an nuna muna harshe wani yanki ne na al’ada, wanda bai san al’adarsa ba, na da sauran saninsa[18]. Sanin al’adar harshe kuwa sai wanda ya sha shi a mama, wanda duk ya sha shi a koyo ɗan lasa ya yi ko me jin ƙwarewarsa da ake yi[19]. Mai fashin baƙin nassoshin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa ya kiyaye da kyau ana samun kirari da karin magana da hannunka mai sanda da bambance-bambance gajere da dogon wasali waɗanda ke haifar da sassauyawar ma’ana. Fassara karin magana cikin karin magana zai fi amo a karatu, haka kuma fassara al’ada cikin al’ada makusanciyarta ya fi soyuwa. Dubi waɗannan bayanai sosai domin ƙarin bayani:
i.                   Laisai khabaru kal iyaani                              (Ga ni ya kori ji.)
ii.                 Yadul kaatibu amyaa’un                              (Tuntuɓen alƙalami.)
iii.              Hatta yalijal jamalu fis samil khiyaaɗ           (Sai raƙumi ya shiga akurki.)

Cikin karin magana da waƙoƙin baka ake tsintuwar daidaitattun kalmomin tsohuwar Hausa nagartacciya. A cikin buwayayyen littafinmu wurare da yawa an yi muna hannunka mai sanda kan haɗarin da ke cikin karin sauti da sauya harafi wajen sauya ma’anar abin maƙasudi. Ga misali:
·        A cikin Suratul Baƙara an ce, su ce: “Ƙiɗɗatun” suka ce “Habbatun” aka zarge su da zalunci:
Fa baddalal laziina zalamuu ƙaulan ghairal lazii ƙiila lahum[20].

Idan al’ada ta ƙi kalma saboda wata ‘yar matsalar da ta bayyana gare ta, babu laifi a guje ta ga fassarar littafi mai tsarki.
·        Kalmar “raa’ina” ta suratul Baƙara ta tabbatar da haka:
Yaa ayyuhal laziina aamanuu laa taƙuuluu raa’ina wa ƙuuluu inzurnaa was ma’uu wa lil kaafirrina azaabun alimun[21].

A riƙa kulawa sosai, rashin ƙoshi da harshen fashin baƙi na sa a ƙosa da tafsirin mai tafsiri.

Zaɓen Kalmomin Fashin Baƙi
          Baƙaƙe da wasula suka taru suka yi kalma, don haka Bahaushe ke cewa, ‘Baƙi sai da wasali’. Kalmomi sai sun yi gurguzu da ‘yan rakiya za a samun jimla mai ma’ana. Abin so ga mai fashin baƙi shi ne, ya tabbatar da cewa, kalmominsa sanannu ne kuma gama-gari a duniyar Bahaushe, a kuma tabbatar da cewa ba ta kece wa al’ada da addini bante ba. Don haka ake son mai fashin baƙi ya nisanci:
Kalmomin batsa.
Kalmomin zagi.
Kalmomin zargi.
Kalmomin ƙabilanci.
Kalmomin siyasar addini.
Kalmomin izgili.
Kalmomin katoɓara.
Kalmomin bugun gaba.
Kalmomin shaguɓe.
Kalmomin rashin ladabi.
Kalmomin tsokana.
Kalmomin habaici mabayyana.
Kalmomin zanga-zanga da taho-mu-gama da raddi.

          Zaɓen kalmomi wajibi ne domin littafinmu Alƙur’ani ya karantar da mu.[22] Da Mahaliccinmu bai tsara Alƙur’ani cikin zaɓaɓɓun kalmomi ba, da mun ji cike da kunnuwanmu daga maƙiyanmu. Kalmomi irinsu Mushiriki da Kafiri da Arne da Takkwali da Shege da Ɗan’iska, da Munafuki suna da nauyi ga al’adar Bahaushe, suna firgita shi, su hana shi tsayi ya fahimci karatun da ake yi masa musamman idan ya gane da shi ko da su ake. Yawo da kalmomin ba da mu ciki ba, irin su ɗan Izala, ɗan Ɗariƙa, ɗan Tawaye, ɗan Gufama, ɗan Jos, ɗan Kaduna, Basalafe, Baƙadire, Ba’ash’are, Bamalike, suna ɗan ƙara nisantar da mu[23]. Haɗin kanmu a kan Alƙur’ani da sunna tilas ne ba da yaye-yaye ba. Ban ce, a sauya wani hukunci ba, amma in ya zama dole, mu koma ga tsohuwar Hausa da za ta ƙara haɗa kanmu, marasa karatu su ƙara gane karatu, to a bi, domin a sunna an ce, “Yaƙi ɗan yaudara ne”23. Idan mai tafsiri ya iya kwanton ɓauna a fassara babu dabbar da za ta gagare shi farautowa a ilmance.  A ɗan dubi tunanina a kan rage wa wasu kalmomi nauyi a fassara:
i.                   Shirka              - yi wa Allah kini/kishiya.
ii.                 Mushiriki         - mai hautsinawa (in ji Ɗanfodiyo) aje-aje.
iii.              Kafiri               - fanɗararre/gaba ga ƙul yaa ayyu.
iv.               Bidi’a               - yaye-yaye (in ji masu jihadi).
v.                 Ɗanbidi’a         - mai yaye-yaye.

A kula, Hausawa cewa suka yi, mai laɓaɓe ba ya ɗagar da hannu sama. Ni dai ban ga laifin kirarin matsoraci ba, da aka ce: “Yaro kai da uwaka uwaku”, “Ya ce: “Yadda duk ka ce, haka na ce”. Wannan shi ne tafsiri ba mayar da raddi cikin raddi ba duk a rududduge.

Wace Hausa ce Raba Gardama ga Mai Tafsiri?
          Yanzu zan ce, su ya kawo gurbi, wato aski ya kawo gaban goshi, ƙarshen tika-tika-tik! Idan mai tafsiri da Hausa ya kula da waɗannan abubuwa da muka lisafo tun da farko har ya zuwa nan ƙurewa, to, ya san Hausar da kamata ya yi a tafsirinsa. Harshen Hausa wani harshe ne babba da Afirka babu kamarsa sassa da yawa. Hausa na da kare-karen harshe da yawa da Hausa daban-daban da ya kyautu mai tafsiri ya ɗan san su irin shan rowan tsuntsaye kamar haka:
                             1.            Hausar Sakkwato                               Sakkwatanci
                             2.            Hausar Kano                                      Kananci
                             3.            Hausar Zamfara                                  Zamfaranci
                             4.            Hausar Zazzau                                   Zazzaganci
                             5.            Hausar Kabi                                       Kabanci
                             6.            Hausar Katsina                                   Katsinanci
                             7.            Hausar Gobir                                     Gobarci   
                             8.            Hausar Haɗejiya                                 Haɗejanci
                             9.            Hausar Yawuri                                   Yawuranci
                         10.            Hausar Arawa                                    Arabci
                         11.            Hausar Gimbanawa                            Gibananci
                         12.            Hausar Gubawa                                  Gubanci
                         13.            Hausar Filinge                                    Hausar Filinge
                         14.            Hausar Maraɗi                                   Maraɗanci

          To, masu tafsirinmu sun fi ƙarfin Nijeriya domin abin ya shiga ƙasashen Nijar da Ghana da Benin. Don haka, a kula da daidaitacciyar Hausar da jami’o’inmu na ƙasa ke amfani da ita. Tarjamomin da Shehunnanmu suka yi na Alƙur’ani, da Hausar kafafen yaɗa labarai da ‘yan jarida ke yi, da wadda ake tsinta a rubuce-rubucen ilmi na malamanmu na Hausa. Harshe a koyaushe bunƙasa yake da ƙara tsawo daga zamani zuwa zamani, dole mai tafsiri ya kiyaye. Kalmomin da ba a samu cikin wani karin harshe, ana samunsu cikin wani karin harshe, sai a je can a ara? Zaɓen daidaitacciyar Hausa da za a yi tafsiri da ita kamar matsalar zaɓen mazhaba ce ga ɗalibin ilmi. Kowace mazhaba da hujjarta ta fi rinjaye, ga sahihin nassi ita ce mazhabar ɗalibin ilmi. Madalla da zancen Imamu Malik:
A koyaushe Hadisi ya inganta nan ne mazhabata”.

Don haka, Hausar duk da aka fi fahimta a wurin da ake fashin baƙi ita za a fi  ba ƙarfi.




Tuni Ka Sa Marayu Kuka
          Matsalar daidaitacciyar Hausa a wajen tafsiri ba wata babba ba ce, domin marigayi Aminu Kano cewa ya yi: “Nijeriya ƙasa ɗaya ce, amma kowa ya san gidan ubansa.” Idan har mun yarda da cewa, ‘kowane tsuntsu kukan gidansu yake yi’ masu sauraron tafsiranku ba za su ƙosa da ku ba. Ku dubi irin zamanin da marigayi Shaikh Nasiru Kabara da Shaikh Abubakar Gummi suka ɗauka suna fashin baƙi; tun cikin tsohuwar Hausa har ya zuwa yau idan an saurare su ana fahimtarsu. Shaikh Abubakar Tureta, Basakkwce ne amma Kanawa da Zagezagi na fahimtarsa. Shaikh Rabi’u Daura da Shaikh Jafar, Katsinawan Daura ne amma idan suna fashin baƙi babu Bahaushen da ba zai yi na ƙadangare ba domin ya ji an yi masa susa gurbin ƙaiƙai. Idan aka saurari kasusuwan Shaikh Albani Zariya da Bawa Maishinkafa, za a ji babu wata matsala. Shaikh Lawal Abubakar da Shaikh Isma’ila Idris, idan suna fashin baƙi, ka ce malaman Hausa ne a jami’a. Shawarata ita ce, a dinga sauraron fashin baƙin marigaya a samu naƙali daga gogewarsu, mu kuma idan mun rigaya wasu su saurare mu. Allah Ya ji ƙansu da rahamarSa.

Daidaitacciyar Hausar Fashin Baƙi
          Kowane karin harshe mai fashin baƙi ya zaɓa za a ci karo da cewa wasu masu sauraronsa ba za su fahimce shi ba. Dole ya kasance ya ɗan raba ƙafa yadda kowa zai gane manufa. Daidaitacciyar Hausar fashin baƙi ta saɓa wa Hausar fassarar ‘yan jarida da kafafen yaɗa labarai. Ta yi takin saƙa da Hausar ilmi da ake gudanarwa a jami’o’i. Ba ta yi daidai da Hausar kasuwanci ba da Hausar gama-gari. Hausa ce da ta fuskanci dabaru uku na fassara:
1.     Hausantarwa (Transadaptation).
2.     Fashin kurman baƙi (Translation).
3.     Fassara mai ‘yanci (Free Translation).
Waɗannan fannoni uku su ne masaƙa ga mai fashin baƙin Alƙur’ani cikin kyakkyawar Hausa. Kalmomin da suka riga suka shiga Hausa shekaru aru-aru a bar su yadda suke kamar kalmomin: Allah, Annabi, Mala’ika, Lauhul Mahafuzu, Alƙiyama, Hisabi, Aljanna, Sura, Aya, Nassi, Hadisi, Matani, Isnadi, Wasiyya, Rijalu, Darasi, Fasali, Babi, Hashiya, Tauhidi, Bidi’a, Sunnah, duk sun zama Hausantattu, a ja su haka nan, ba matsala ba ce a ilmin fassara. A fashin baƙi matsayinsu ɗaya da daidaiciyar Hausa.
Daidaitacciyar Hausar Tafsiri ta biyu ita ce, fashin kurman baƙi, wato kalmomin fannu da ke buƙatar a baje su cikin kalmomi ga mai sauraron da ba ɗalibin ilmi ba. Daga cikinsu akwai: Furu’a, Nisabi, Buyu’a, Mirasi, Ribaɗi, Li’ani, Fasadi, Jazaa’i, Asibi, Haddi, Tajwidi, Li’irabi, Fidiya, Hadaya, Ihrami, Jimra, Raja’i, Batti, Dukhuli, Aƙiiƙa, Sahur, Ifɗaari, da ire-irensu duk suna buƙatar a farfasa su cikin kyakkyawar Hausa.
Furu’a:        Karatun sani/ibada
Nisabi:        Ƙimar kuɗin zakka
Buyuu’a:     Saye da sayarwa
Mirasi:         Rabon gado
Ribaɗi:        Daako
Li’aani:       Tsineneniya
Fasadi:        Ɓarna ban ƙasa
Jazaa’i:        Sakamako
Asibi:           Daudu
Haddi:         Zartar da doka
Tajwidi:      Luguden nassi
         
Idan aka Hausantar da Hausantattu, aka yi fashin baƙin kurame, sai a ratsi bayani da fassara mai ‘yanci. Ana yin haka, za a ji Hausar ta fito tiryan-tiryan mai sauraro ya gane ma’ana nan take:

Nassi:        Afa tu’uminuuna bi ba’adil kitaabi wa takfuruuna bi ba’adi? Fa maa jazaa’u man yaf’ala zaalika illa hizyun fil hayaatid dunyaa wa yaumal ƙiyaamati yuradduuna ilal ashaddil azaab.

Fashi:        Yaya za ku yi imani da sashen littafi (-n Allah) ku kafirce wa sashe? Mene ne sakamakon wanda ya aikata haka, face tozarta a rayuwar duniya a ranar ƙiyama kuwa a ɗunguza su zuwa ga matsananciyar azaba.
         
Idan aka dubi wannan ɗan ƙwazo salailai uku da muka ambata duk sun bayyana. Kalmomi da an riga an yarda da yadda suke an bar su haka nan, su ne aka yi rubutun tsutsa. Kuramen baƙaƙe irin su kitaabi da jazaa’u da hizyun da yuradduuna da ashaddil an yi fashinsu. Kalmomin ba’adi da yaf’al da zaalika da hayaati da yammal da ilal, duk fassara mai ‘yanci ta kula da su tare da ‘yan rakiyar nahawunsu kuma fassarar ba ta muzanta nahawun ayar ba. Da duk aka kula da haka za a samu dacewa da daidaiciyar Hausa a tafsiri.

Muhimmancin Daidaitacciyar Hausa ga Tafsiri
          Da an ce, ga harshe daidaitacce, kowa zai yi ƙoƙari ya naƙalce shi domin a fahimce shi. Wa ya fi kowa son a fahimce shi a duniya fiye da mai fassara littafin Allah zuwa ga bayin Allah? Muhimman abubuwan da ya kyautu mai tafsiri ya sani ga Hausar da yake amfani da ita su ne:
1.     Yau a Nijeriya babu lungun da Hausawa ba su share wurin zama ba. Ga kirdado, kashi (75% - 80%) na tafsirin azumi a Nijeriya da Hausa ake gudanar da shi. Idan Hausawan Nijeriya za a tunkara da tafsirin dole a yi Hausa gama-gari. Mai tafsirin da Hausa ya sani da Musulman ƙasa gaba ɗaya yake magana.
2.     Allah Ya kai mu gaba, a Afirka ta Yamma, tare da Sudan da Afirka ta Tsakiya (Central Africa Republic) da Libya, tafsirin Hausawa ya kai can. Idan abu ya zama na ƙasa da ƙasa (International) muhimmin abu ne, dole a ba shi muhimmanci ta harshen da ake isar da shi. Idan aka gurɓata Hausa da kalma ɗaya, yana sa ma’ana ta salwance wa mai sauraro. Ɗauki misalin sunan bisa/sa/raƙumi da Musulmi ke haɗa kuɗi a yanka a daren sallar Azumi Hausawa na ce da shi “tonton” ko “tittirga” ko “rarraba” ko “watanda”, dole mai tafsiri ya tsaya ya yi bayani sosai a nan.
3.     Ka da a manta yau ana sauraron Tafsiri a rediyo da Talabijin da fayafan garmaho da hanyoyin sadarwa na duniya. Mai tafsiri da Hausa a yau, duk duniya na ganinsa tana sauraronsa. Idan ya doge ga Hausar unguwarsu ko garinsu ko yankinsu ko ƙasarsu, bai ribantar da masu sauraronsa a duniya ba. Da ‘yan BBC da ƁOA da RFI da Wisal sun doge da karin harshe ɗaya za su samu masu sauraro? To ina suka kai mai tafsiri farin jini da yawan masu sauraro da natsuwa?  
4.     Idan Hausar tafsiri ta kasance cikin karin harshe ɗaya masu more mata kaɗan ne. Idan kalmominta suka yi nauyi an takura masu sauraro. Idan ta kasance salala babu daɗi da nagartattun kalmomi, sai ta kashe wa masu sauraro jiki, sai su kasance wasu barci, wasu hira, wasu shagaltuwa da wasu ayyuka na dabam. Kulawa da adabi cikin fassara muhimmin abu ne domin adabi kunne ya girmi kaka ne kuma ma’anarsa gama-gari ce.

Sakamakon Bincike
     Harshen Hausa ya yi kimanin shekaru dubu ana fafitikar yaɗa addinin Musulunci da shi a duniyar Afirka. Abubuwan da suka yi masa tarnaƙi a da, yanzu sun kawa. Samun rubutun ajami da rubutun boko da kafafen yaɗa labarai ba ‘yar ƙaramar gudunmuwa suka yi wa fashin baƙi Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa ba. Tarjamar ma’anonin Alƙur’ani zuwa Hausa na Shaikh Abubakar Mahmud Gummi ita ce makarantar farko ta masu tafsiri da Hausa, kowa ya zo da baya kafaɗarsa ya dafa. Kasancewar Shaikh Gummi ya tsaftace Hausar tarjama sosai, duk wani abu da muka ambata a nan, tarjamarsa ta kiyaye da shi, za a ga hatta da waɗanda ke takin saƙa da shi, suna amfani da tarjamarsa. To, haka ake fatar tafsirinmu na azumi ya kasance a koyaushe, ba safe duk sai an roƙi mutane su dawo gobe ba. Da an ci nasarar taskace karatun Hadissan da Malam ya yi a rubuce kamar yadda tarjama take da mun samu ƙarin malamai Hadisi a Afirka.

Naɗewa
     Masana furu’a sun ce: Abin da duk farilla ba ta tsayuwa sai da shi to ya zama farilla. Duk wani malamin zaure da mai wa’azi ƙasar Hausa da Hausa aka karantar da shi, da Hausa yake koyarwa. Na yi madalla da ganin an nemi a yi wannan taro domin inganta harshen masu wa’azi da tafsiri. Wanda duk aka bari baya ga harshe an bar shi baya ga karatu da karantarwa. Harshe shi ne makamin yaɗa kowane irin addini.


MANAZARTA

Gummi, A. M. Alƙur’ani Mai Girma Da Kuma Tarjamar Ma’anoninsa Zuwa Ga Harshen Hausa.
Bunza, A. M., Ibrahim, S. S. da Usman, B. B. 2007. Daular Sakkwato (Fassarar Sokoto Caliphate Na Murray Last). Lagos: IBRASH Islamic Publishin House.
Omar, S. 2017. Malamai Mata A Daular Usmaniyya A Ƙarni Na 19 Da Na 20. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.
Ɗanfodiyo, U. bn. Wasiƙatul Ikhwani.
Ɗanfodiyo, U. bn. Nurul Albab.
Ɗanfodiyo, U. bn. Bayani Bid’is Shaiɗaniyya.
Bunza, A. M. 2017. Dabarun Bincike A Nazarin Harshe Da Adabi Da Al’adun Hausawa (Supported by Tetfund). Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.
_____ Littafi Mai Tsarki Dud Da AFOKIRIFA. Lagos: The Bible Society of Nigeria.
Sa’id, B. 1973. “Gudunmuwar Masu Jihadi Kan Afabin Hausa” kundin digiri na biyu (MA Hausa). Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.
Bunza, A. M. da Birnin Tudu, S. Y. 2017. “Grammatical Rift and Cultural Lacuna: Constraints on English-Hausa and Hausa-English Translation” in Journal of Capital Deɓelopmetn in Behaɓioural Sciences, Ɓol. 5, Issue 2.


[1] Musulmin farko hijirarsa ta farko, a Habasha suka zo cikin Afirka, hanyar Masar zuwa Habasha da Indiya daɗaɗɗiya ce da Hausa suka sani tun farkon Musulunci. A can da nan mahajjata Hausawa ke bi. Don haka ne ake da tabbacin samun Hausa shekaru aru-aru a Indiya. Don ƙarin bayani a dubi littafin Sa’adiyya Omar, Mibbo Kilo wallafar ABU, Press.
[2] Musulmin farko hijirarsa ta farko, a Habasha suka zo cikin Afirka, hanyar Masar zuwa Habasha da Indiya daɗaɗɗiya ce da Hausa suka sani tun farkon Musulunci. A can da nan mahajjata Hausawa ke bi. Don haka ne ake da tabbacin samun Hausa shekaru aru-aru a Indiya. Don ƙarin bayani a dubi littafin Sa’adiyya Omar, Mibbo Kilo wallafar ABU, Press.
[3] Babu tabbacin hanya ɗaya da addinin Musulunci ya shigo ƙasar Hausa. Akwai hasashen da ya shigo Masar daga can Borno ta same shi sai Kano. A wani hasashe Wangarawa 400 suka shigo da shi ta Kano. A wata majiya, ɗaiɗaikun Buzayen da suka karɓo shi daga Saharar da Amir bn Al-As ya zo da shi.
[4] Wannan aƙidar ta sa an daɗe ba a samu fitattun masu tafsiri ƙasar Hausa ba. A karatun littattafan addini Iziyya, Risala, Askari, Lawwali idan an ci karo da aya a kan ce a gewaye ta a tsallake. Haka aka ci gaba har Allah Ya kawo mafasa baƙi.
[5] Ana karanta Ashafa domin sanin tarihin fiyayye Annabi Muhammadu (SAW). Alburda da Ishiriniyya su suka haifar da waƙe-waƙen yabon Manzo (SAW) cikin harshen Hausa.
[6] ‘Yandoto ta daɗe da tarihin Musulunci. Akwai hasashen tun zamanin tabi’ai Musulunci yake a ‘Yandoto. An ce a nan ne wani jikan Sayyidina Aliyu ya ƙaura. Wannan tarihi fitacce ne ga masu Ƙadiriyya. Malam Jibril shi ya fara yunƙurin jihadi a ƙarni na 18 (ƙn. 18), da bai ci nasara na, Ɗanfodiyo ya yi a ƙarni na 19 (ƙn. 19).
[7] Har gobe mutumin Arewa na mamaki a ga Bahaushe a kuma ce ba Musulmi ba ne. Wannan ita ce ta sa Hausawa Maguzawa, sun zaɓi zama a Maguzance da yin wani addini ba Musulunci ba.
[8] A duniyar baƙar fata Bahaushe ya fi kowace ƙabila bazuwa a ciki. Harshen Hausa babu nahiya daga cikin nahiyoyin duniya da bai shiga ba.
[9] An ce Masar aka yi gasar, shi kaɗai ya kawo sunayen doki ɗari da Larabci.
[10] Tarjamar Gummi ita ce ta farko a cikin harsunan duniyar baƙar fata.
[11] A yau Shaikh Jafar Adam na da shekara 11 da rasuwa. An kashe shi ranar Jumu’a yana limancin sallar asuba.
[12] Ku tambayi ma’abota ilmi ga abin da ba ku sani ba Sura ta… aya ta…
[13] Na halicce ku daga namiji da mace, kuma na sanya ku dangogi da ƙabila (harshe) domin ku san juna sura ta… aya ta…
[14] A duba sura ta 2 aya ta…
[15] A dubi aya ta… sura ta…
[16] Wannan zance hadisi ne kamar yadda Alƙali Iyadh ya zo da shi cikin As-Shafa’.
[17] Sura ta… aya ta…
[18] A wajen manyan masanan falsafa wanda ya koyi harshen da ba nasa ba, har ya kai matsayin Farfesa, sanin harshensa daidai yake da ɗan shekara 7 da ya sha shi a nono.
[19] Sura ta 2 aya ta…
[20] Sura ta 2 aya ta…
[21] Ka yi kira zuwa ga hanyar Allah da hikima da daɗin baki Sura ta… aya ta…
[22] Shaikh Albani ya tsawatar ƙwarai a kan haka a cikin muƙaddamar littafinsa Sifatis Satatin Nabiyu (SAW).
[23] Alharbu hidi’atuu.

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