Hausa Language Academic Website

Friday, 11 January 2019

Matakan Ƙyallaro Asalin Bahaushe: (Ruwa Na Ƙasa Sai Ga Wanda Bai Tona Ba)




Binciken gano diddigin tarihin mutane wata matsala ce mai cin rayuwar masu bincike da waɗanda ake yi wa bincike. A wayayyen ƙarni irin namu da ilmi ya bunƙasa, kowace al’umma ƙoƙari take ta kundace tarihin asalinta. Wurin ga Gizo ke saƙa shi ne, babu mai nunin gidansu da hannun hagu. Maimakon a yi canjaras ga abu ɗaya, sai a ga kowane bakin wuta da irin nasa hayaƙi. A ƙarshe, a kasa rarrabe tatsuniya da tarihi da tarihihi da ƙiri-faɗi da kintaci-faɗi da jita-jita hadisin Bamaguje. Ƙudurin wannan takarda ba suka ne ba ko kushewa ga ƙwazon magabata a kan asalin Bahaushe da harshensa ba. Ganin cewa, abu ya...

Matakan Ƙyallaro Asalin Bahaushe: (Ruwa Na Ƙasa Sai Ga Wanda Bai Tona Ba)



Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza,

Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya

Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato



Takardar jagora da aka gabatar a taron ƙara wa juna sani na ƙasa-da-ƙasa na farko a Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna, ƙarƙashin inuwar Hausa Studies Scholars Association, kulawar Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics bisa taken ‘The Hausa People, Language and History: Past, Present and Future’ ranar 15th – 17th Disamba 2014 a Arewa House, Kaduna.


Gabatarwa
Binciken gano diddigin tarihin mutane wata matsala ce mai cin rayuwar masu bincike da waɗanda ake yi wa bincike. A wayayyen ƙarni irin namu da ilmi ya bunƙasa, kowace al’umma ƙoƙari take ta kundace tarihin asalinta. Wurin ga Gizo ke saƙa shi ne, babu mai nunin gidansu da hannun hagu. Maimakon a yi canjaras ga abu ɗaya, sai a ga kowane bakin wuta da irin nasa hayaƙi. A ƙarshe, a kasa rarrabe tatsuniya da tarihi da tarihihi da ƙiri-faɗi da kintaci-faɗi da jita-jita hadisin Bamaguje. Ƙudurin wannan takarda ba suka ne ba ko kushewa ga ƙwazon magabata a kan asalin Bahaushe da harshensa ba. Ganin cewa, abu ya ƙi ci, ya ƙi cinyewa, nake son a sake farfaɗo da matakan al’ada na tantance tarihi da biyar diddigin taliyonsa. Ga ɗan nawa zato, komai ya yi kora shi ke gwajin hanya, don haka, ruwa na ƙasa sai ga wanda bai tona ba.



Asalin Asali A Al’ada:
“Asali” kalmar Larabci ce, gangariyar Hausarta ita ce “tushe” ko “dugi”.[1] A al’ada mutanen duniya, a tsarin ƙabilu, akwai manya akwai ƙanana. A siyasar zamaninmu, akwai masarauta akwai talakawa. A tattalin arziki, akwai wadatattu akwai moro. A addini, akwai masu bi akwai makangara. A wayewa, akwai ƙauyawa akwai ‘yan birni. A sani, akwai ma’ilmanta akwai jahilai. A ɗiyauci, akwai ‘yantattu akwai bayi. Kai! Hatta a zaman gari, akwai ‘yan gida akwai baƙi. Matsalar a nan ita ce, a al’adance babu mai yarda ya ce, asalinsa na da cikas. Wace ƙabila za ta yarda da a ce da ita ƙarama? Wa ke son a danganta shi da talauci? Wa zai yarda da cewa matsiyaci ne tushensa? A addinance, wa zai so a kira kakanninsa makangara? Ko ɗan A’isar jeji ba ya son a ce da shi baƙauye. A koyaushe ɗan Adam ya ƙi jinin a ce da shi jahili. Da an ce wa mutum bawa, za a ga hushinsa bayyane. Duk da sanin cewa mai rai baƙon duniya ne, da mutum ya gidadance a wuri ba ya son a ce masa ‘baƙo’, mai suna ‘tafaffe’ a ma’aunin ‘yan gida zaunannu.[2]
Waɗannan abubuwa da makamantansu ya kyautu mai nazarin tushen kowace al’umma ya kiyaye su. Tilas waɗannan abubuwa su yi naso ga rubutun mai rubutu a kan tushen al’ummarsa ko ta wasu. Idan al’ummarsa ce, zai kasance wuƙa wasa kanki da kanki. Idan kan wata al’umma yake rubutu, dangantakarsa da ita na iya shiga cikin rubutunsa sosai. Matsalolin da muke fuskanta a Afrika su ne, ba a samu kundace tarihinmu a rubuce ba.[3] Taskar adabinmu waɗanda ba su ko san su ba, su ke fashin baƙinta wajen tantance tarihinmu.[4] Haka tarihin Afirka ya shiga hannun Turawa da ‘yan barandarsu. Don haka duk wanda zai yi bincike a kan tushen wata al’umma, ya kyautu a san: a ina ya samo kayan aiki? Yaya ya sarrafa su? Wace dangantaka yake da ita da al’ummar? Shi ɗan ƙabilar ne, maƙwabcinta ne ko baƙon haure ne? Me ya motsar da shi na shiga ɗawainiyar rubuta tarihin? A kan waɗanne tussan asali ya baje kolinsa na feɗe zaren tarihin?[5]
A al’adar asalin asali, kowane ɗan zuriya son yake ya rufe duk wata tangarɗa ga tarihinsa. Yana son ya danganta zuriyarsa da ɗaukaka da ƙwazo da basira da daraja ta musamman. Idan magabacinsa zai yi bincike a kansa da wuya ya yi masa adalci. Idan masoyinsa ne da wuya ya fassala shi.[6] Mai ƙoƙarin binciken asalin asali na wasu ko nasa sai ya sanya masu karatun aikinsa cikin ƙuncin dawara na ina gaskiya take? Wannan ya tilasta a hau karin maganan nan na, ‘Karen duk da ya yi cizo da gashinsa ake magani.’ A nazarci hujjojin raba gardama a zuba su gadon adabi dole, a fayyace gefen da salka ka tsatsa. Irin wannan halin tarihin asalin Hausawa ya shiga. Domin fatar haƙa ta kai ga ruwa sosai, ga tsarin salon tafiyar nazarina:

Wane ne Bahaushe?
Na tabbatar ƙasar Hausa ta riga Bahaushe zama a sararin duniya, amma duk da haka, da ba Bahaushe ya fara sauka kanta ba, da ƙasar wasu ce ta daban. Bahaushe dole ya kasance a uba da kaka da uban kaka duk Hausawa ne.[7] A same shi yana bugun gaba da zama Bahaushe mai iƙirari da wata zuriya daga cikin zuriyar Hausawa.[8] Samunsa cikin ƙasar Hausa ba tilas ba ne, kamar yadda addini da sana’a ba su cikin shika-shikan tantance shi.[9] A ganin John Paden (1967 – 1970b) da Abner Cohen (1969) sun miƙa wuya ga tantancewar Barkow:
Ƙoƙarin tantance zaman mutum Bahaushe ya daganci cuɗanyarsa da walwalarsa cikin abokan sabga. Kalmar Hausa ta ƙunshi taron dangi na sassan ƙabilu barkatai.

A mahangar Mahdi Adamu, Bahaushe shi ne:
Wanda a tarihinsa daga ƙasar Hausa ya tsira ko zuriyarsa ta fuskar iyaye maza, haka kuma waɗanda suka shaƙu da al’adun Hausawa sosai suka riƙe harshen da ɗabi’unsu da addininsu. Duk da haka, tilas a ba da kafa ga Fulanin da suke zaune ƙasar Hausa.[10]

Cikin yunƙurin tantance Bahaushe ya kyautu a waiwayi ƙirar zatinsa, da ɗabi’unsa, domin fayyace Bahaushen gado da taho-na-taho da maziyarta da maƙwabtan da aka Hausantar a ilmance. Bahaushen asali za a same shi:
Yana da baƙi sosai irin na jama’ar tsakiyar Sudaniya. Zubin kansa na da tsawo da ƙurungun kai mai ɗan jemo, za same shi…

Waɗannan siffofi na zati, da launi, idan aka ƙura musu idon nazari za a iya fitar da Bahaushe kai tsaye a taron jama’ar da ke zaune a ƙasarsa. Turawa da suka ɗan zauni Bahaushe bisa yaudara suka karanci halayensa suna cewa:
A ɗabi’a ya ɗara Bafulatani tsage gaskiya da rashin yarda. Mutum ne mai ***** kuma yana da nagaratattun ɗabi’u fiye da Bayarbe.[11]

Bayan samun wannan ɗan haske ya kyautu mu ɗan waiwayi ma’anar harshensa donmin mu gwama su mu fitar da madaidaiciyar fahinta.

Mece Ce Hausa?
A nan ma, masana ba su yi ƙamfar fito da ra’ayoyinsu ba domin lalubo tabbatacciyar ma’anar harshen Hausa ba. Su kansu Hausawa sukan kira ‘Hausa’ harshensu. A wasu wurare su kira ta da sunan ƙasarsu. A wata fassara su kira ƙabilarsu da sunan.[12] A wani zubin su kira fasahar da suke da ita da sunan.[13] A fagen yaƙi, wasu kan kira ƙasar Hausa da ke hannun Fulani ‘Hausa’.[14] ga su nan dai.
Manazarta Hausa a wajen ƙasar Hausa suna bai wa kalmar ‘Hausa’ ma’anoni mabambanta. Wasu daga cikinsu su suka haifar da ruɗanin da ake ciki a yau. Masana irin su Willis suna ganin da harshen Hausa da na Bantu duk harsunan gamin-gambiza ne. A ganinsu, harshe da addini da al’ada dole a sa su cikin bayanin harshen.[15] M. G. Smith, na da ra’ayin kalmar ‘Hausa’ ita ce harshen.[16] Polly Hill ya mara masa baya da ƙara cewa, ba ƙabila ba ce bale zuriya, wanda duk aka haifa da harshen shi ne.[17] Tunanin Guy Nicholas ya ɗan fi faɗi, domin ya hangi kalmar ‘Hausa’ a matsayin wata muhimmiyar ƙabila a Afirka, yana da fahimtar ba dukkanin masu magana da Hausa ne Hausawa ba.[18] Abner Cohen ya aminta da zaman kalmar ‘Hausa’ ƙabila.[19] Jerome Barkow ya haɗa biyu cewa, harshe ne kuma wata wayewar kan zamani ce.[20] Frank Salamone ya hangi haɗarin da ke cikin fassara kalmar ‘Hausa’ da al’ada. Waɗannan ka-ce-na-ce duk ba su gusar da Hausa ga zama harshen Hausawa ba, wanda ba Bahaushe ba da ke Hausa aro ya yi, in aron ya yi tsawo ya rikiɗa ya koma Bahaushe.

Matsayin Harshen Hausa A Cikin Afirka
Wannan wata dama ce za mu rairaye ra’ayoyin da ke kwatanta Hausa da Bantu, da kuma masu ganin Hausa ba ta wani tarihin asali da za ta tsaya a yi nazari. Haka kuma, za mu gano tsawo da faɗin harshen Hausa a duniyar da Bahaushe ya zauna, da waɗanda suka yi tarayyar yaƙin neman jama’a da su da waɗanda ya cinye, da waɗanda suka shige masa hanci ya kasa fyacewa. A cikin shimfiɗar littafin The Northern Tribes of Nigeria marubutan sun ce:
Yanzu bari mu fara gabatar da mutanen da suka fi kowa bazuwa a arewacin Nijeriya, Hausawa.[21]

A hasashen Williams F. S. Miles ya kalli Hausawa da cewa:
Miliyan ashirin na tsayayyun mutane zaunannu musamman areewacin Nijeriya da Nijar su ne Hausawa. Hausawa sun fi kowace ƙabila yawa a Afirka ta yamma.[22]

Fitaccen masani Ilmin Harsunan Duniya Russell G. Schuh ya faɗaɗa hasashen takwarorinsa da cewa:
Babu saɓani ga kasancewar Hausa ɗaya daga cikin manyan harsunan duniya. Bayan Larabci, ta fi kowane harshe yawan (masu magana da shi a matsayin harshensu) a ƙasashen Afirka.[23]

A ma’aunin Royal Scottish Museum, ga irin nauyin harshen Hausa da Hausawa a wajensu:
Hausawa su ne mafi yawan ƙabila, kuma mafi yawan bazuwa a Afirka. Akwai Hausawa da waɗanda Hausa ta rikiɗe (hausantar) a manyan birane na Afirka ta Yamma da Afirka ta Arewa. Mafi yawansu (Hausawa) sun mamaye arewa-maso gabashin Jamhuriyar Nijar da Benuwai.[24]
                                   
Babu wai, al’ummar da ta samu wannan shaidar tana kasancewa kan takarda a ƙididdigar al’ummomin Afirka da duniya ba a yi musu adalci ba idan aka yi ƙiuyar zama a tantance asalinsu. A harsunan duniya, Hausa ba ƙyalle ba ce, bale cikin gida Afirka. Mamaye duniyar Afirka da Hausawa suka yi, da masu magana da harshen Hausa suka yi, shi ya zama wata allura ta zaburar da mu tono ruwa damin Hausawa sun ce, yana ƙasa sai ga wanda bai tona ba.

Zuriyar Harshen Hausa
Masana ilmin harsuna sun karkasa harsunan duniya zuriya-zuriya. Kowane harshe na duniyar mutane dole da rukunin da yake. A rukunin da ya fito nan ake kirdadon tushensa da tushen masu magana da shi. Masana Ilmin harshe sun ce:
Hausa harshe ne daga cikin zuriyar harsunan Chadi, waɗanda sun kai fiye da harsuna ɗari (100) da ake magana da su a arewacin Nijeriya da arewacin Kamaru da kuma tsakiyar Chadi.[25]

Daga cikin harsunan iyalan Chadi, Hausa ta fi kowane bazuwa da yawan jama’a da karɓuwa da mamaye ƙasa.[26] Daga cikin fahimtar sanin asalin harshe shi ne a san tarihinsa. Babban muhimmin abu shi ne gano dangantakar harshe da sauran harsunan da suke zuriya/iyali ɗaya. Babu makawa ga mai son sanin tushen Hausa ya yi ƙwaƙƙwaran nazarin harsuna Iyalan Chadi. A tsarin ilmin harsuna an ce:
Idan aka ce harshe (kaza) ɗan iyalan gungun harsuna (kaza) ne, ana son a tabbatar da cewa, a da can baya harshe ɗaya ne kacal daga gare shi ne sauran harsunan zuriyarsa suka tsira.[27]

Abubuwan da ke sa masu magana da harshe su warwatse, harshen ya ragaice, sun haɗa da yaƙe-yaƙe da yunwa da annoba da mulkin mallaka da kuma buƙatar ɗan Adam ta sauya mazauni ko babu dalili.[28] Idan aka duba, sojojin Romawa a kai da kawonsu na yaƙe-yaƙe suka tsirar da harshensu Spanish da French da Italian da Portuguese da harshen Latin.[29] Paul Newman (1977) ya karkasa harsunan iyalin Chadi kamar haka:



Chadic[30]

Western Chadic     Central Chadic                East Chadic           MASA
A.                         (Biu-Mandara)     
Hausa                   A.                                  A.                         Masa
Bole                      Tera                                Kera                      Zima
Karekare               Bura                               Samuai                 Lame
Kanakuru              Margi                             Tumak
Angas                   Higi                                Lele
Sura                      Mandara
Ron                      Gisiga                             B.
                             Daba                              Dangala
B.                         Ɓacama                          Mokulu
Bade                                                           Sokoro
Ngizim                 B.
Warji                    Kotoko
Miya                     Musgu
Sayanci                 Gidar

Tun fil’azal Hausa na da tushe na farko cikin harsunan Iyalan Chadi. Batun rashin asali da wasu ke faɗa bai taso ba. Yadda masana harshe suka daddagi wannan matsalar ba tare da duba zuwa ga wasu muhimman makaman al’ada ba, shi ya haddasa hazo a tarihin aka shiga ƙila-wa-ƙala.[31]

Darzajen Hasashe-Hasashen Masana
Daga cikin makaman da masana suka yi amfani da su akwai na Adabin Baka, akwai na Ilmin Harsuna, akwai na Tarihi, akwai na Siyasa, akwai na Walwala. Lange da takwarorinsa na Daura sun tafi a kan ingancin Tarihihin Bayajida.[32] Paul Newman da Rusell G. Schuh da Greenburgh da takwarorinsu sun tafi a kan mai da hankali ga zuriyar harsunan Afirka a ƙyallaro ina Hausa ta fito.[33] Hamabali, da makamin harshe ya yi amfani amma a wajen ƙasar Hausa (Masar).[34] Ɗanmasanin Kano, ya haɗo adabi da al’ada amma a wajen ƙasar Hausa (Habasha).[35] Muhammadu Uba Adamu a sabon aikinsa, tarihi da al’ada ya sa gaba ya je Masar ya yada zango.[36] Mahdi Adamu a makamin tarihinsa a ƙasar Hausa ta yau ya tsaya, kuma a nan yake ganin mun tsira.[37]
A taciyar ƙunshiyar fahintocinsu, akwai masu ganin a tarihin asalin Hausawa da harshensu dole sai an fita wajen ƙasar Hausa. Kashi na biyu na ganin, a dai tsaya a kai na hannu gida, kamin a dawo a kama na dawa, wato a yi sussuka ɗaka shiƙa ɗaka, asalin Bahaushe na nan cikin ƙasar Hausa. su duka biyu, da sun ba al’ada muhimmanci ga sanin mai ita da ra’ayoyinsu sun yi canjaras a mahaɗa ɗaya.

Biri Ya Kama Da Mutum
Manyan daulolin ƙasar Hausa wata babbar madafa ce idan ana zancen asalin Bahaushe da harshensa. Idan ana maganar ƙasar Hausa, su ne ƙasar. Idan ana batu a kan Bahaushe, su ne Hausa. Duk da haka, a tarihin kafuwar wasu daga cikin daulolin yana ƙoƙarin nuna daga wajen ƙasar Hausa waɗanda suka kafa su suka zo. Ga ɗan abin da ya kyautu a harara daga bakin masu abu:
Daular Gobir:        Abubuwan da *** samo daga bakunan Gobirawa da masu nazarin tarihinsu suna nuna daga Masar ko Iraƙi ko Makka suka fito. Riwayoyin sun kai biyar.[38]

Daular Zamfara:    A tarihihi suna cikin banza bakwai, daga cikin daulolin ita kaɗai aka samu cewa, taron dangi ce ta Hausawa da sauran ƙabilu ‘yan gida.[39]

Daular Kano:        Ga alama, tussan kafa tarihinta daga cikin gida ne, amma dogaro ga waƙar Bagauda da masu ruwaito tarihinta suka yi, yana nuna ba daga nan suka tsira ba.[40]

Daular Zazzau:      Masana tarihi na ƙoƙarin danganta asalinta ga sarautun mata ko sarauniya Amina. Duk da haka, masarautar daular ta gamin gambiza ce.[41]
Daular Kabi:         A tarihihi suna iƙirari da Ka’aba. Idan aka bi salsalar Kanta da ya ɓalle daga sojojin Askiyya tushenta wajen ƙasar Hausa zai kasance.[42]

Daular Katsina:     Bayan tarihihin Bayajida da ya mamaye Daura, Birnin Katsina ya keɓantu daga ƙurar guguwar cewa daga wajen ƙasar Katsina waɗanda suka kafa ta suka fito.[43]

Bincike ya nuna ba dukkanin daulolin ƙasar Hausa suka aminta daga wajen ƙasar Hausa suka zo suka kafa daula a ƙasar Hausa ba. A ko’ina suka fito daga cikin nahiyar Afirka da harshensu da addininsu da al’adunsu suna da makusanciyar dangantaka. Idan aka bi fassarar masana ilimin harsuna ‘yan iyali ɗaya ne. Ra’o’in da ke ƙoƙarin danganta Bahaushe daga wurare masu nisa, musamman gabas da yamma, da gabas mai nisa, na masu ra’ayin wariyar launin fata ne da ke ganin ‘yan Afirka ba su da tushe.[44]

Dole Uwar Na Ƙi
Tunanin takardar nan shi ne, sai an sake lale an koma ga tushen al’amari. Ra’yoyin cewa, daga wajen duniyar Afirka Bahaushe ya ƙaurato ya zo ya kafa ƙasar Hausa reni ne da kushe baƙar fata na ‘yan mu kaɗai muka iya. Wannan tunanin nake son a yi wa tonon silili a ga daga ina ake kirdadon mutum ya fara zama a duniya? Wane ne mutum na farko a duniya? Yaya sifarsa take ta launinsa da zatinsa? A tunanin Farfesa Dawin, daga birai aka fara, har aka kawo ga mutum na yau. Duk da ɗimbin raunin da ke ga wannan ra’ayin, za mu so mu ji, daga Dawin da ‘yan rakiyarsa, shi birin daga wace nahiya ta duniya ya fito? Ga yadda sahabban Dawin ke hangen amsoshin tambayoyinmu:
Yanzu kusan kimanin shekara tamanin da biyar (85) da Darwin ya yi hasashen asalin mutum, mun samu wasu tarkacen halittu (ƙasa) na tabbatar da gaskiyar bincikensa. Lallai a Afirka aka samu haƙiƙanin abubuwan da suka rikiɗa suka zama birai har suka zama mutum wanda muka sani a yau. Bugu da ƙari, a cikin Afirka ne ayarin da ya ɓarke daga birai wanda a ƙarshe ya koma mutum a Afirka aka same shi. Haka kuma, a Afirka ne aka ƙeƙashi mutum na haƙiƙa daga mutum-mutumi kimanin shekara miliyan biyu da suka wuce.[45]

Wannan raba gardamar ita na kira ‘dole uwar na ƙi’. Dalilina shi ne, idan dai hatta masu ganin sun fi kowa zane a duniya sun yarda da cewa, a Afirka aka ƙirƙiri mutum. Musu kiran mu da sunan birai, su ma sun aminta da cewa, birai ne asalinsu, kuma birin/birai daga wajenmu suka tsira, shi ke nan magana ta ƙare maƙoƙo ya fita a bakin zabiya. Muna da damar mu aje kowane irin ra’ayi ilmin harshe da al’ada da adabi mu shiga kimiyyar tonon ƙasa mu gano a wane wuri ne ake zaton abubuwan suka tsira a Afirka?

Farfajiyar Ƙasar Hausa A Zamanin Ƙanƙara Da Ruwan Ɗufanu
Tattaki da tunkuɓa da gawawwakin mutane da dabbobi da albarkatun ƙasa da duwatsu da ke turbuɗe a ƙasa wasu makamashin gina tubalin tarihin mazauna duniya ne.[46] sananen cewa akwai zamanin da ƙanƙara ta lulluɓe wurare da dama da tsaunuka (glaciations of mountains).[47] Mahdi Adamu ya ce:
Tsaunin Ayar yana daga cikin tsaunukan da ƙanƙarewar tsaunuka ta auka wa a duniyar Sahara. Ƙanƙarewa a Sahara ya ci gaba har zuwa shekarar 18 B.P.
Tsaunin Ayar yana daga arewacin farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa ta gado. Ashe ke nan, Hausawa (da ƙasar Hausa) sun shiga cikin yanayin ƙanƙarewar tsaunuka kimanin shekara miliyan biyu da suka gabata.[48]

Wannan taƙaitaccen bayani ya kore tatsuniyar Bayajida da aka ƙirƙira jiya.[49] Haka kuma, zancen zuwan gabastawa daga Makka ko Bagadada ko Iraƙi bai taso ba a irin shekarun da aka ambata.[50] A wani dogon shaƙon da Mahdi Adamu ya yi cewa ya yi:
Za mu fara kirdadon haƙa tarihin ƙasar Hausa na wani lokaci (mai tsawo) kimanin shekara miliyan ɗari huɗu da talatin, lokacin da ƙoƙon duniyar wannan farfajiya tamu ɗaya ne, har ya soma rarrabawa zuwa farfajiya biyar da muke ciki a yau.[51]

Lokaci da ake zaton duniyar mutane ta mamaye da ruwa gaba ɗaya, bayan janyewar ruwan sabon kundin tarihin mutane ya fara aiki. Masu bincike sun tabbatar da cewa, garuruwan Dange Shuni da Sokoto da Kware da Wurno da Goronyo da Illela da Gudu da Gada da Tangaza a mazauninsu na yanzu can da ƙarƙashin wannan makeken kogi suke.[52] A shekarar 1920 an ƙara samun hujjojin da suka ƙarfafa da’awar da Mahdi Adamu ya yi.[53]
Abubuwan da muka tattauna suna nuna cewa, akwai buƙatar a sake samun wasu makaman tunkarar su. A nawa tunani, har yanzu da sauran rina a kaba, mun dai gano cewa, ga nahiyar da mutum ya tsira. Yaya za a yi taliyon waɗannan hujjoji a fito da sahihin tarihin Bahaushe da harshensa. Dasƙarewar duniya da ruwan Ɗufana da aka yi kowa da kowa ya shafa dole kowa ya buɗa sabon kundin tarihi. Idan za mu iya kakkaɓe wa tarihi da tarihihi da tatsuniyoyin da ke yawo a bakuna da rubuce-rubuce kan asalin Bahaushe da harshensa waɗannan matakai za su taimake mu:

Matakan Tantance Ƙasar Hausa Da Mutanenta
Mun ci nasarar gano cewa, a tarihance na masanan yamma cewa daga biri mutum ya fara. Haka kuma, birin daga nahiyar Afirka aka ƙago shi. Bugu da ƙari, ƙasar Hausa dasƙarewar ƙanƙarar duniya da Ruwan Ɗufana nan ya tarar da ita. Idan haka ne, babu laifi binciken diddigin asalin Bahaushe ya fara daga wurin da aka tarar da Bahaushe ya mamaye a matsayin ƙasarsa ta haihuwa da gado da mulki. Masana wannan zamani ya kyautu su himmatu ga biyar diddigin waɗannan abubuwa:

Farfajiyar Ƙasar Hausa
Bincike ya himmatu ga tantance iyakokin ƙasar Hausa gabas da yamma, kudu da arewa. A gano iyakokin da ke fita wajen duniyar baƙar fata da masu ɗuruwa a duniyar Afirka. A rega maƙwabta Bahaushe na arziki da na hamayya.[54] A gano, ƙasashen da suka yi tasiri da ƙasar Hausa da waɗanda ƙasar Hausa ta yi tasiri a kansu.[55] A fayyace yaƙe-yaƙen Bahaushe da sha’anin bauta a ƙasar Hausa da kuma ƙasashen da ke da hulɗar diflomasiyya da ƙasar Hausa.[56] Cikin haka, za a tantance sarautun Bahaushe yadda suke da yadda ake gadonsu da tuɓe su da iyakokin ikonsa. Idan haka ta samu, hoton ƙasar Hausa zai fito tsaf! Za a gano baƙinta da ‘yan gida da ɗiya da bayi da masu mulki da talaka da kafuwar garuruwan ƙasar Hausa da sigogin sunayensu.[57] Wannan shi ne mataki na farko da ya kamata a ce, bincike ya tunkara gadan-gadan. Waɗannan abubuwa dole sai da makaman adabin bakan Bahaushe za a tsettsefe su.

Duniyar Bahaushe
Tilas a himmatu ga leƙa abubuwan duniyar Bahaushe da yadda adabinsa da al’adunsa suka kamo su. Imanin Bahaushe a kan Mahaliccinsa da Iskokin da ke tare da shi da Dodo da ƙirƙirarrun abubuwa da ke a farfajiyar duniyarsa, tun daga sunayensu da gurbinsu da yadda ake saduwa da su da yadda ake hulɗa da su wasu tagogin leƙon dugin Bahaushe ne.[58] Duk inda ɗan Adam yake, waɗannan ɗabi’u suna nan cikin jininsa, da su ake rarrabe shi da waninsa. Sassan adabinmu da dama sun kakkamo su a wurare daban-daban.[59] Kafa hujja da su shi ne, warkam shiga rijiya da dawo.

Daulolin Bahaushe
Masana sun himmatu ga binciken daulolin ƙasar Hausa suka kawar da kai da zuzzurfan binciken garuruwan Hausa daɗaɗɗu da tarihin kafuwarsu. Daulolin ƙasar Hausa cibiyoyinsu na yanzu ba su ne a da ba. Daular Kanta ba a Argungu aka kafa ta ba.[60] Daular Katsina sai an koma Durɓi-ta-Kusheyi.[61] Daular Gobir daga wani Birnin Lalle aka zo Sabon Birni.[62] Zamfarawa daga Rawayya aka gurgusa Gusau.[63] Kano daga Dutsin Dala da manyan tsaunuka na sassanta.[64] Idan aka kalli garuruwan da suka tsirar da daulolin ƙasar Hausa sosai za a gano dalilin kafuwarsu, da waɗanda suka kafa su, da dalilan ƙaurace-ƙauracensu. Dukkanin waɗannan abubuwa adabin mazauna garuruwan bai kawar da kai a kansu ba.[65] Adabin kowane gari na kirari da karin magana da labaran gargajiya da waƙe-waƙen dandanli da na yara da mata da maza da manya sun kakkamo su.[66] Dogara kacokan da tattaunawa da bayanan da ‘yan leƙen asiri da ‘yan mulkin mallaka da Turawan Mishan suka yi ba zai wadatar ba.[67]

Zuriyar Bahaushe
Daga cikin daulolin ƙasar Hausa zuriyoyin Bahaushe suka tsira. Daula ba ta kafa kanta, kafa ta ake yi. Waɗanda suka kafa ta ba za su taɓa mantawa da tarihinsu ba. Zuriyar Bahaushe a wasu lokuta yakan yi mata suna daga manyan biranensa kamar: Bakano, Bahaɗeje, Bamaraɗe, Bakatsine, Basakkwace. Haka kuma, ana yi wa zuriya suna da ƙasa: Bagobiri, Bazamfare, Bazazzage, Bagimbane, Bakurfaye, Bakabe. Wasu ƙanana daga ciki daga tsage-tsagensu na fuska za a fayyace su kamar Ba’are da Bagube da Badaure. Kowace zuriya ta san kanta, ta san kanta a tarihinta da adabinta. Saka ta gaba da bincike wani matakin gano haƙiƙanin tarihin yadda zuriyoyin ƙasar Hausa suka rarraba ta fuskar mazauni, da yanayi da al’adu da dangi. Idan ba a yi haka ba, ba a ceto tarihin Bahaushe ga salwanta ba. A tuna, kowace zuriya tana da karin harshe, da ƙirar zatin jiki, da ake iya rarrabe ta da wata.[68] Adabinta da al’adunta babban makamin gano ta ne sosai.[69] Ka sa yin haka shi ya kai mu halin da muke ciki a yau.

Sana’o’in Bahaushe
A kowace nahiya mutum ya samu kansa akwai sana’ar da ta yanke saƙa a can. Daular Kabi akwai kamun kifi. Daular Kano akwai farauta.[70] Daular Zamfara noma.[71] Daular Katsina farauta da noma.[72] Daular Gobir noma da farauta.[73] Biyar diddigin asalin waɗannan sana’o’i da ire-iren kalmomin da suka haifar da adabin da ya tsira cikin su wata madafa ce ta fitar da suhe wuta ga tarihin Bahaushe da harshensa.[74] Gama garin sana’o’i irin su ƙira da fawa da wanzanci da gini za su ba da haske sosai. Yin biris da su, shi ya sa ba mu kai ga maganar da dole a durƙusa mata ba. Tsarin sarautun sana’o’in ƙasar Hausa da kasancewar wasu daga cikinsu cikin manaɗa sarki abin kula ne sosai.[75] Adabinmu bai bar kamai a gefe ba.

Bahaushe A Matsayin Makamin Kansa
Masana ilmin harshe sun yi abin a zo a gani a nan. A ganin ɗaliban al’ada, karen da ya yi cizo da gashinsa ake magani. Shi kansa Bahaushe wane suna yake kiran kansa da shi? Waɗanne sunaye maƙwabtansa na kusa da nesa ke yi masa? Waɗanne yake so? Waɗanne sunaye ne ba ya so? Don me ake yi masa sunayen? Mene ne dangantakar sunayen da tarihinsa?[76] Amsoshin waɗannan tambayoyi birjit suke a adabin Bahaushe idan aka sa kai a bincike su. Bahaushe yaya yake yi wa maƙwabtansa na kusa da nesa suna? Sunayen da yake yi suna da alaƙa da ilminsa na maƙwabtan ko wata dangantaka ta daban? Adabin karin magana da kirari da tatsuniya ba su raga wa waɗannan tambayoyi hakin susa ba.

Lalurar Harshen Hausa
Babu yadda za a binciki asalin mutum ba a lalubo harshensa ba. Harshe wata hujja ce babba, amma mai rauni. Dalili kuwa, harshen kan shiga halayyar masassara wani lokaci ya mutu gaba ɗaya.[77] Wasu lokuta a taras da kalmomin asali sun salwanta na aro sun maye gurbi.[78] Wasu lokuta a kasa bambanta na aro da na asali.[79] Masana harsuna sun shagaltu ga yaye-yayen kalmomi ba bisa tsarin al’ada ba, a ƙarshe a kasa kai ga wadatattun ruwa dole a fasa rijiya a koma shadda (salga). Da za su ba da muhimmanci ga kalmomin al’ada na lalura da ba a yi sai da su, kuma dole a same su ga kowa, da za a ƙure tafiyar, a kai ga zango mai sauƙi. Me zai hana a duƙufa ga duban:
*        Kalmomin sassan jiki: kai, baki, ƙafa, hannu, ido, hanci, ciki da kayan ciki, al’aura da sauransu.[80]
*        Ayyukan gaɓɓai: gudu, kuka, dariya, barci, rawa, duka, tafiya, zama, tsuggunni, kwanci, nishi, gani, ji, samata da sauransu.[81]
*        Halayyar ɗan Adam gama gari: gaskiya, ƙarya, sata, faɗa, kyauta, rowa, wayo, wauta, so, ƙi, nema. Samu da sauransu.[82]
*        Duniyar mutane da bayyane: rana, wata, taurari, gizagizai, kusurwowinta (gabas, yamma, kudu, arewa), rana ta kama wata, tsawa, cida da sauransu.[83]
*        Yanayin duniyar mutane: zafi, sanyi, bazara, hunturu, damina, kaka, ruwan sama, fari, kogi, ƙorama, tabki da sauransu.[84]
*        Fayyace lokuta:    lokutan rana (safe, maraice, dare, hantsi), lokutan kwanaki da sati da watanni, ƙidaya adadi (1 – 10), da sauransu.[85]
*        Cutuka da magunguna:   manyan cutuka, ƙananan cutuka, saiwowi da ganye da tada da siddabaru da tsafi da sauransu.[86]
*        Abincinsa: nau’o’insu (gero, dawa, maiwa, malle, rogo, dankali, da ‘ya’yan itace), sarrafa abinci da sauransu.[87]
*        Dangantakarsa: ɗa, uba, kaka, jika, kama kunne, tankaɗa hauɗi, taka kusheyi, ihm! miji da mata, taubashi, takwara, wa da ƙane da sauransu.[88]
*        Dabbobi da ƙwari: manyan dabbobi, maja ciki, tsuntsaye da sauransu.[89]

Idan masu ilmin harsuna sun sa wa waɗannan abubuwa kai, a gano haƙiƙanin yadda sunayensu suke a kowace daula ta Bahaushe da yadda suke a iyalan Chadi da Hausa ta fito a ciki, da yadda adabin Bahaushe da al’adunsu suka kalle su, za a kai ga aya a rubutun. Kowane irin ra’i na bincike ya saɓa wa adabi da al’adun waɗanda ake bincike a kai dole a sake lale. Wannan shi ne ƙorafin wannan takarda.

Kwakkwahe Bincike:
Dole mu san da cewa, makaman da ake farauto asalin Bahaushe da muke da su sun kasu kashi biyu. Na farko, akwai wanzazzu, na biyu akwai durmuyayyu.
Wanzazzu  - Su ne waɗanda komai tsawon zamani akwai su, sun wanzu a kowane wuri ana ganinsu ko a ji su. Daga ciki akwai, sassan jikin ɗan Adam da ayyukansu da halittun duniyar mutane da yanayin duniyarmu da dangantakar mu da sauransu. Waɗannan hujjoji suna da ƙarfi ƙwarai, kuma kafa hujja da su wani abin saurare ne ga kowane ma’ilmanci a duniyar karatu.
Durmuyayyu - Sun haɗa da, harshe shi kansa, dalili kuwa yana rayuwa, yana masassara, yana mutuwa, yana aro, yana sauya launi gaba ɗaya.[90] Addinin da camfi suna tafiya da duniyar zamani da ake ciki, su sassauya tare da sassauyawarta.[91] Tsage-tsagen fuska na gargajiya suna ciki, lalurar yaƙe-yaƙe da zamantakewa ya kawo su.[92] Sutura da siyasar zamantakewar duniyar zamani suke biya[93] don haka su dukkansu durmiyayyu ne idan aka laɓe gare su hujja za ta durmuya, ruwa na ƙasa, ana gina sama-sama a kasa kai gare su.

Sakamakon Bincike
Bahaushe mutum ne da ke bugun gaban tushensa tun zamanin mutum na farko a duniyar mutane. Tushen mutum a mahangar masana tarihin mutane  sun ce daga Afirka aka tabbatar da shi. A wajen masu addini kuwa Adamu aka fara halitta.[94] Ta kowace fuskar ne asalin mutum, Bahaushe na ciki tsumbul! Idan ana zancen Afirka, Bahaushe ba ya da limaman daga cikin ƙabilun Afirka. In an ce Afirka ta Yamma, da an ce Bahaushe, an ma’azar bakin darasin fara karatu da aje shi. Ta fuskar addini, Gobirawa da Katsinawa na da sililin tarihinsu ga Lamarudu da Kal’ana da Fir’auna. Tabbas, ƙanƙancewar duniya da ruwan Ɗufana ba su durmuyar da farfajiyar ƙasar Hausa da Bahaushe ba. A tarihance, da kimiyance, da addinance, da zamanance, Bahaushe baƙi ne ɗan Afirka a ƙasar Hausa ya tsira da zuriyarsa da dagoginsa duk suna nan cikin ƙasarsa da daulolinsu. Duk wata al’umma da za a danganta Bahaushe da ita a duniya, tarar da Bahaushe ta yi a ƙasarsa. Ƙasar Hausa ita ce dugin Bahaushe, a nan ya tsira, sai baƙin haure, da maziyarta, da maciya arziki, da ya hausantar. Kasancewarsu Hausawa tushe gare shi tun daga Muhammadu Bello da masanan da suka biyo baya gare shi. Allah masani.

Naɗewa
Na tabbata ko ban ce komai kan asalin Bahaushe ba, na ba da haske a kan yadda za a iya gina, a kai ga wadatattun ruwa. Muddin dai mun yarda abin aljihu na mai riga ne, to babu wata magana ta tushen Bahaushe da za a yi, face an yi mata madogara da abin da Bahaushe ya tabbatar a cikin adabinsa. Fafitikar masana tarihi, na rigingimun kwanan wata, da ya samu tushe daga adabin da ya riga kwanan wata da ya fi. Makimiyantar da ke wahalar tonon ƙasa, su tambayi Bahaushe labarin abubuwan da suka tono, adabi zai ba su amsa. Masana ilmin harsuna, mu tambayi mai harshen, domin harshen ba shi ya yi kansa ba, masu magana da shi aka yi wa tukuici da shi, adabinsu ya girme su, tare da harshen aka halicce su. Da yake mun dace Bahaushe bai ce daga sama ya faɗo ba. Bai ce, daga cikin ƙasa ya tsiro ba. Bai ce, shi ya halicci kansa ba. Samunsa da harshe da al’ada, da ƙasa, da daula, da yawan jama’a, wata dama ce ta duƙufa cikin harshensa, da al’adunsa, da ƙasarsa, da daulolinsa, a ƙyallaro tsaftataccen tarihinsa wanda zai yi canjaras da tunaninsa da ya ginu cikin sahihin adabinsa. Wanda duk bai yi wa harshe da adabi da al’adun Bahaushe sanin hatsi ba, karatunsa na asalin Bahaushe ba a shiga ɗaki da shi.



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[1] Makusanciyar kalmar Hausa ga kalmar asali ita ce “dugi”. Tsohuwar kalma ce da ta kusan ta salwanta. Na yi tsintuwarta cikin waƙar Jaki ta margayi Alhaji Garba Maitandu Shinkafi, wurin da yake cewa:
Jagora:                   Taro na yi tambaya
:Shin was san dugin Jaki?
Yara:                      Amalanke masu kaya su ad dugin Jaki.
Jagora:                   Na dai taliyo ba ku gane ba yarana.
Gindi:                    Sai na yi ma kiɗi, Sarkin tuttulak kaya
:In jida a kai Jaki ba a tausai nai.
[2] Idan aka ce baƙo ana zance da wanda ya zo ya wuce. Wanda ya zo ya zauna, kuma ya zauna komai daɗewarsa sunansa tafaffe in ji Sakkwatawa.
[3] Wannan shi ya ba ‘yan Afirka damar tsayin daka a UNESCO ta wallafa UNESCO General History of Africa, wanda Cibiyar Nazarin Hausa ta Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato tare da gudummuwar UNESCO ta fassara da Hausa, juzu’i biyu mai taken: Kammalallen Tarihin Afirka, 1989.
[4] Masana Turawa da suka yi fice wajen sanin tarihihinmu da yawansu ba su iya Hausa ba bale rubutu da ita ko karanta ta. Daga cikinsu akwai Farfesa M. Last da Farfesa M. Hiskett da takwarorinsu.
[5] Turawan mulkin mallaka da haushinmu suke rubuta tarihinmu. Ba sa sha’awarmu bale ci gabanmu, sun kashe mu, sun bautar da mu, sun lalata muna tarbiya. Larabawan wancan zamani ‘yan barandan Turawa ne, wakilansu ne wajen cinikin bayi da tatsar arzikinmu.
[6] Hausawa cewa suka yi abu uku ba su ƙin abu uku. Ƙiyayya ba ta rena laifi. Soyayya ba ta rena kyauta. Mutuwa ba ta rena ciwo.
[7] A fassarar wasu magabata da kaka ake yin garkuwa. Da zarar kaka ba Bahaushe ba ne, to ubansa ne ba Bahaushe ba, don haka ɗansa ba zai zama Bahaushen gado ba.
[8] Bahaushe na son ya ji, bayan an tabbatar da kasancewar mutum Bahaushe a ambaci zuriyarsa, wato a ce, Bazamfare ko Bagobiri ko Bakabe ko Bakano ko Bazazzagi ko Bakatsine ga su nan dai.
[9] A dubi, Williams, F. S. 1994. Hausaland Diɓided: Colonialism and Independence in Nigeria and Niger. Shafi na 44.
[10] A dubi, Mahdi Adamu. 2010. The Major Landmarks in the History of Hausaland (The Eleɓenth Inuagural Lecture), UDUS, shafi na 42.
[11] A dubi, John, R. W. 1971. The Northern Tribes of Nigeria, ɓol. I, No. 97, shafi na 27.
[12] A dubi lamba ta 11 shafi na 28.
[13] Idan suka ce Bahaushe ya haɗa da kowane ɗan zuriya daga cikin zuriyar Bahaushe.
[14] Idan aka rena wayonka da dabararka akan ce, ‘Ba ka da Hausa’. Wanda ba Bahaushe ba a kira shi Baubawa.
[15] A dubi, Bunza, A. M. 2014. “Bitar Karatun Hausa A Ƙarni Na 21”, takarda, BUK.
[16] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 43.
[17] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 40, ya ce: “Hausa is linguistic term and that it is misleading in other conteɗts”
[18] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 40, ya ce: “Hausa is a linguistic not an ethnic term and refers to those who speak the language by birth” (1973: 3).
[19] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 40, ya ce: “The term Hausa designates one of most important ethnic groups of Africa… not all Hausa speakers are Hausas.” (1975:399)
[20] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 43 ya ce: “One of the best-known ethnic group (in) West Africa is Hausa.” (1968: 81).
[21] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 43, cewa ya yi: “Hausa is a term with two referents: first Hausa is a language… Second, it is a ciɓilization encompassing kingdoms, conƙuest, walled cities on ancient literate tradition.”
[22] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 44 ya ce: “Many problems disappear if one regards ‘Hausa’ as a cultural term and uses other terms for ɓarious ethnic groups who share… in that culture (the use of) Hausa (as) a linguistic term… presents one immediately with the problem of being misunderstood.
[23] A dubi lamba ta 11, shafi na 27.
[24] A dubi lamba ta 9, shafi na 43.
[25] Russell, G. Schuh. 1982. “Hausa Language and its Nearest Relatiɓes” in Harsunan Nijeriya, ɓol. ƊII, CSNL, shafi na 1.
[26] A dubi The Hausa of Northern Nigeria: A Catalogue of the R. E. Miller’s Collections and others in the Royal Scotship Museum, 1981, shafi na 8.
[27] A dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 1
[28] A dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 1, ya ce: “Although Hausa is seɓeral times larger than all other Chadic languages taken together in terms of number of speakers.
[29] A dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 2.
[30] A dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 2.
[31] A dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 2.
[32] An ciro wannan jadawalin daga (Newman, 1977), a dubi lamba ta 24, shafi na 3.
[33] An kasa gano cikin iyalan Chadi daga ina Hausa ta fito, ko wane daga cikinsu ya fito daga Hausa?
[34] Masana tarihi da Hausa tuni sun yi wa tarihihin Bayajida kabari da hujjoji nagartattu. Ana zancen kafuwar ƙasar Hausa shekara dubu, zancen Bayajida bai taso ba.
[35] An ambace shi a lamba ta 24.
[36] Hambali yana da ra’ayin cikin tsohon harshen Masar Hausa ta fito. Ya rubuta littafi kan haka, Allah bai ƙaddari ya wallafa shi da kansa ba. Hambali ya rasu 2014.
[37] A ganinsa daga ‘Habashawa’ ne aka samu ‘Hausawa’. Ya yi ƙoƙarin danganta sarautunsu da na Hausa da kuma wasu kalmominsu da na Hausa.
[38] A littafinsa Sabon Tarihin Asalin Hausawa, 2011, ya ce: “Hausawa suna cikin ƙabilun Ƙibɗawan Misra ne, waɗanda suka wo hijira daga Masar da daɗewa, suka zauna a ƙasar Hausa, kuma sarakunansu ‘ya’yan tsatson fir’aunonin Misra ne, irin su Fir’auna Lamarudu da Kan’ana na ƙabilar Phonicians. Shafi na 34.
[39] A dubi lamba ta 10 nan ya tabbatar da haka.
[40] A dubi, Abdullahi Rafi Augi, 1984. “The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C 1650 to 1808 AD”, PhD thesis, shafi na 109 – 112. Ya kawo ra’ayoyi biyar. Ya nuna a ƙarni na 18th Gobirawa sun ƙaryata hulɗarsu  da Bawo da Bayajida. Sun dai ce:
i.            Daular ragowar ƙibɗawa ne da suka wo hijira daga Masar. Shafi na 109.
ii.          Asalin Gobirawa daga Gabas ta Tsakiya ne a garuruwan Misr, Gubur, Karbala, Kabila, Syri, Baghdad da Istanbul. Infaƙul Maisuri na Muhammadu Bello, da Raudat al-Afkhar na Abdulƙadir bn. Mustafa.
iii.        Faransawa masu bincike ƙarƙashin Tilho a ƙarni na 20 sun ce ƙasar Gobirawa ita ce Kibti ko Guibti an ace da sarakunansu Fir’auns sun yi gudun hijira domin tsananin sarakunansu. Shafi na 110.
iv.        A riwayar Johnson, Sarakunan Gobir da Oyo da Kukawa zuriyar Lamarudu ne Sarkin Makka, wani yamutsi ya sa suka baro Makka. Shafi na 111.
v.          An ce, a da can suna zaune a Gubur tsakanin Makka da Madina, yaƙe-yaƙe ya su wo hijira.
vi.        Gobirawa mutanen Bagadad ne, Ƙudus, Gubur, Karbala, Surukel, Tunas, Bilma da Azbin. Shafi na 112.
vii.       An ce mutanen Hawaisu ne zuriyar Ham bn. Noah. Hawaisu sarki ne ya bar gari saboda saɓani. Sun ce Hawaisu da jama’arsa suka fara magana da Hausa. shafi na 111 – 112.
[41] A dubi Garba Nadama, 1977. “The Rise and Collapse of a Hausa State: A Social and Political History of Zamfara”, an ce Muhammadu Bello ya ce, “Zamfarawa, Gobirawa ne wajen uwa.” Marubucin (Nadama) ya ce haɗin Gobirawa da Katsina suka haifar da Zamfara. An ce kuma, auren Fara ɗiyar sarkin Gobir Bala da wasu Zamfarawa ya haifar da su, an ce da su ‘Mazan Fara’ daga nan Zamfara ta samu asali. Duk da haka ana kyautata zaton Zamfarawa sun  fito daga tsaunukan Dala na Kano. Shafi na 44.
[42] A dubi M. G. Smith, 1960. Goɓernment in Kano 1350 – 1950, a shafi na 8 ya ba waƙar Bagauda goyon baya. Ita kuwa waƙar ta ce:
Bagauda shi ya sari Kano
                                Tana dajinta sannan babu kowa.
Tambaya a nan ita ce, shi Badauga daga ina ya fito? Wa ya haife shi? Ɗan wace ƙabila ce?
[43] A dubi M. G. Smith, 1960. Goɓernment in Zazzau 1800 – 1950, a shafi na 1, sarautar Sarauniya Amina ya laɓe a kai.
[44] Kanta mahaifiyarsa daga Katsina take. Sojan Askiyya ne ya yi tawaye ya kafa rundunarsa. A ganin wasu Kabawa daga Ka’aba suke.
[45] A dubi Yusuf Bala Usman, 1981. The Tranformation of Katsina 1400 – 1883 (The Emergence and Oɓerthrow of the Sarauta System and the Establishment of the Emirate), ya nuna cewa a Durɓi-ta-Kusheyi dugin yake, kuma wani masani R. Soper ya gano tun a zamanin Stone Age akwai mazauna a wurin. Sai a R. S. Soper, 1965. “The Stone Age in Northern Nigeria” JHSN, 111:2, p. 192.
[46] Masu irin wannan muguwar aƙida ne ke son a koyaushe aka zo tarihin wata al’umma da ba tasu ba, musamman baƙar fata a nuna daga wani wuri ta fito.
[47] A dubi L. S. B. Leakey. 1981. “The Eɓolution of Man in the African Continent” in Tarikh ɓol.1, No. 3 Man in Africa. Shafi na 1.
[48] A gargajiyance irin su Bahaushe ke turbuɗewa a iyakokin gonakinsa da gidansa ya yi musu suna ‘kul-ba-daɗe’.
[49] A dubi lamba ta 10 don ƙarin bayani.
[50] A dubi lamba ta 10, shafi na 6.
[51] Domin bayan Musulunci ya zaunu a ƙasar Hausa aka ƙirƙiro ta.
[52] Domin saduwar Bahaushe da su tana da alaƙa da addinin Musulunci.
[53] A dubi lamba ta 10, shafi na 5.
[54] A dubi lamba ta 10, shafi na 7.
[55] A dubi lamba ta 10, shafi na 7.
[56] Waɗanda ya yi yaƙi da su da waɗanda yake abota da su.
[57] Kamar ƙasar Borno da Nupe da Azbin sun yi tasiri ga ƙasar Hausa. daulolin Yawuri da Zuru Hausa ta yi tasiri a kansu.
[58] A dubi Joseph P. Smaldone, 1977. Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate Historical and Sociological Perspectiɓes.
[59] Bahaushe na yi wa garinsa suna da harshensa yadda da ya fassara za a gane Hausa ce.
[60] Zuriyar Bahaushe imaninsu da Iskoki da yadda suke hulɗa da su duk salo ɗaya ne.
[61] Kamar; Bori guda ake wa tsafi. Bori ya kashe Boka. Munafunci Dodo yakan ci mai shi.
[62] Daga Takalafiya da yaƙi ya rusa ta aka koma Argungu.
[63] A dubi lamba ta 44.
[64] Sun yi ƙaurace-ƙaurace da dama domin dabarun yaƙi da wasu matsaloli.
[65] Don haka wasu ke kallon Gusau wata sabuwar barikin Zamfara.
[66] A dubi lamba ta 41.
[67] Ana yi wa Gusau kirari ‘Ta Sambo Dandin Hausa.’ Sakkwato, ‘Birnin Shehu ta Bello mai da ƙasari zuma.’ Argungu, ‘Gungun Nabame.’
[68] Kamar garin Gada a Jahar Sakkwato ana yi masa kirari: ‘Gada garin Kyandukyal.’ Buzaye da suka kafa ta ne aka adana tarihinsu.
[69] Sun yi ayyukansu ne da niyar biya wa kansu buƙatunsu. Komai kyawon da aka hanga a ayyukansu nasu buƙatu na nan ciki sun taskace.
[70] Ba a cika samun Bakatsine zabgegen dogo ba. Da wuya a samu Bakanon asali fari fes. Zagezagi ba jibga-jibga ba ne. Gajeru ba su da yawa cikin Gobirawa.
[71] Idan aka saka su gaba za a ci nasarar kai ga abin da ake buƙata sosai.
[72] Kalmomin da suka danganci halittun cikin ruwa sun fi yawa a wajensu.
[73] A yanzu kalmomin kasuwanci sun fi bazuwa a ciki.
[74] Tantagaryar Hausar fasahar noma da farauta da yaƙi a same su a Katsina.
[75] Bayan noma, abubuwan da suka shafi yaƙe-yaƙe da makamai da tsaro Gobir ce taskarsu.
[76] Ana iya gano tushen mutune ta fuskar sana’arsu. A duk faɗin Afirka, Bahaushe ne ya kai dabarar feɗe dabba a raba fata da ƙassa da tsoka da kayan ciki daban-daban. Ta haka za a iya gane barunjen Bahaushe cikin wata al’umma.
[77] A ƙasar Hausa, sarakunan maƙera da manoma na cikin masu naɗa sarki ko a ce waƙillan naɗi. Me ya sa haka? A ko’ina Bahaushe yake da sana’o’in yake yawo. Su ke kafa gari, su ke tsare shi.
[78] A dubi Mahdi Adamu, 1978. The Hausa Factor in West African History. Shafi na 17, ya ce:
Afuno by the Barebari, Kenchi by the Nupe, Abakwa and Abakwari bu the Jukun and most of the people of Benue ɓalley. Haɓe (sing. Kaɗo) is the Fulani word for any non-Fulani person, Gambari by the Yoruba, Yawurawa by the non-Hausa of Yawuri, Agana bu the Kambarawa, Mollah and Mallah along the Bight of Benin, Sudan by the people of Fezzan and Morrawa in Asante.
[79] Harsuna fiye da ɗari sun mutu a arewacin Nijeriya.
[80] Kamar kalmar “kushili” luwaɗi ta maye gurbinta. Kalmar “murgu’ fansa ta maye gurbinta. Kalmar “faɗuwa da kasawa” mutuwa ta lalube su. Kalmar “lanƙwashe(i)” kalmar kwana ta Turanci ta cinye ta.
[81] Kamar yadda Larabci da Turanci suka yi wa Hausa.
[82] Duk harshen da ba ya da su na asali ba harshe ba ne. A cikin adabi akwai irin su baki da hanci, hannu bawan baki. Ƙafa ka zumunta. Cinya gangar mata.
[83] Ba a gudu da susan gindi. Mai zurfin ido tun da wuri yake fara kuka. Dariyar darara mai tsumma da dariyar mai ƙyaya.
[84] Gaskiya ina laifinki? Ƙarya mugun guzuri. Sata ta saci sata.
[85] Rana ta kama wata. Tauraronsa ya tsaya.
[86] Ƙarya aka wa rijiya ruwa na kogi. Yayyafi hana shanya. An rage zango mai zuwa sama ya taki faifai.
[87] Bahaushen adadi daga 1 – 10 ne da an kai 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 – duk Larabci ne.
[88] Dole kowa ya san sunan da yake yi wa ciwo da magani.
[89] Abincin kowace zuriya na al’ada daban yake. Kowa ya san nasa da yadda ake sarrafa shi.
[90] Dangantakar mutum da ɗan’uwansa na jini. Waɗannan abubuwa duk suna cikin adabinsa.
[91] Dabbobi da ƙwari waɗanda ake ci da waɗanda ke cin mutane. Fitattu daga ciki ‘yan ƙasa, dole a fayyace su.
[92] Hausar da ake yi a Nijeriya ba irinta ake yi a Sudan da Chadi da Eretria ba. Rarraba na dogon lokaci ya sa abubuwan suka saɓa wa junansu.
[93] Ai shi ya sa ake cewa Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo ‘Mujaddadi’. Ya tarar da addini ya yi rauni, ya sake farfaɗo da shi.
[94] Za a samu hatta a gidajen sarautu da ake tsage-tsagen fuska yanzu an yi watsi da su.

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