Matsayin /N/ Da /R/ A Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci (5)

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NA


SHAMSUDEEN BELLO HAMMA’ALI



KUNDIN DIGIRIN FARKO A HAUSA (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU DANFODIYO SAKKWATO.


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BABI NA HU’DU:


MATSAYIN K’WAYOYIN MA’ANAR -n DA -r A JUMLAR DAIDAITACIYAR HAUSA DA TA KARIN HARSHEN SAKKAWATANCI


 


4.0 SHIMFI’DA


Wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar sun fito a wurare da dama, kuma suna aiki irin na nahawu ne a cikin jumlar Hausa. Sannan masana sun ba su sunaye daban-daban a muhallan da suka fito gwargwadon fahimtarsu. Misalin haka shi ne a wani wuri Tulller (1986) da Yusuf (1991) da Amfani (1996) sun kira su da suna d’ayantau koma baya. Galadanci (1976), ya kira su da suna d’ayantau. A cikin wannan babin za a kawo wasu daga cikin mahimman wuraren da wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar suka fito domin bayyana halin zamantakewarsu a tsakanin azuzuwan kalmomin da suke a cikin jumla. A kason farko za a nazarce su ta ‘bangaren nasabar kalmomi, daga nan kuma za a fito da yadda suke nuna mallakar da suna yake yi wa wani abu. Sannan a kaso na biyu za a dubi yadda suke fayyace suna dangane da jinsi da adadi. A kaso na uku aikin zai kawo yadda zamanatakewarsu taka kasancewa a ajin sifa tare da nuna yadda suke fitowa a karen harshen sakkwatanci. daga nan sai a yi jawabin nad’ewa.

 

4.1 MANUNIN NASABA


Manunin nasaba na magana ne dangane da tsarin zamantakewar sunaye biyu masu iya cin gashin kansu a matsayin kalma d’aya ta fuskar ba da ma’ana. A ire-iren wad’annan muhallan k’wayoyin ma’anar -n da -r su suke had’a sunayen wuri d’aya ta hanyar lik’a wa sunan farko k’wayar ma’anar domin su sami zama d’aya da sunan da ke biye. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

  1. ‘Dakin k’asa ‘Dakin Laka

  2. Dokin Kare Dokin Kare



  • Hula kaba Hulla Kaba



  1. Majina Bature Majina Bature


Ire-iren wad’annan kalmomi da aka saka su da irin wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar su aka kira da kalmomin nasaba. A misali na (iii) da na (iv) tsakanin daidaitacciyar hausa da na karin harshen sakkwatancci sun banbanta, a karin harshen sakkwatancci.

K’wayar ma’anar –n da r- sun rikid’a sun koma ‘k’ da ‘b’ sakamakon naso da aka samu. Nason na gaba daya ne inda ba (i) ‘k’ ta nashe ‘r’ a misali na (iii) sannan bakin ‘b’ ya nashe kwayar ma’anar ‘r’ a misali na (iv).

 

4.2 MANUNIN JINSI DA ADADI


Wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar na n- da r- suna nuna matsayin kowace kalmar ta fuskar jinsi da adadi domin fayyace ajin suna da ya zo a cikin jimlar da ake magana a kanta. Ga yadda kowace k’wayar ma’ana take fayyace suna dangane da nuna jinsi da adadi, a tsarin daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen sakkwatanci.

-n          Manunin jinsin namiji kuma tilo ta fuskar adadi.

-r          Manunin jinsin tamacce kuma tilo ta fuskar adadi.

-n          Manunin jam’i (wato inda suna ya zo fiye da d’aya).

Misalin haka a cikin jimla shi ne:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

  1. Rigar ta a k’one Rigat ta a k’ona

  2. Wandon ya a ‘bata Wandon ya a ‘bace

  3. Rigunan sun lalace Rigunnan sun lalace


A wannan fagen ana iya ganin yadda k’wayar ma’anar take fitowa a had’e da suna domin fayyace suna dangane da jinsi da adadi. A misali na (1) k’wayar ma’anar -n ta fito a jikin suna Wando, inda ta fayyace shi da cewa namiji ne kuma tilo. Sannan a misali na (2) k’wayar ma’anar -r ta fayyace suna Riga inda ta bayyana ta da cewa jinsin tamata ce kuma tilo. A misali na (3) k’wayar ma’anar -n ta fayyace jinsi suna Kaya da cewa jam’i ne, a nan ba a buk’atar sanin jinsi saboda muhalli ne da aka yi tarayya.

4.3 MANUNIN MALLAKA


Bisa tsarin nazarin nahawun harshen Hausa, manunin mallaka ya kasu zuwa kashi biyu, kamar yadda masana suka kasa su. Kashin farko shi ne na doguwar mallaka, wanda ake amfani da wakilin suna wajen bayanin ta. Shi kuma kashi na biyu, shi ake kira da gajeruwar mallaka, wanda a wannan fagen ake amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana na -n da -r, a nan za a fito da yadda tsarin su yake a cikin zamantakewar kalmomi. Za a iya d’ora k’wayoyin ma’anar a jikin abin da aka mallaka tare da wakilin suna a baya. Sannan kuma ana iya amfani da wakilin suna a farko sai k’wayar ma’anar ta zo tare da abin da aka mallaka daga baya. misalin su zai kasance kamar haka:

4.3.1 KWAYAR MA’ANAR MANUNIN MALLAKA A TSAKANIN WAKILIN SUNA DA ABIN DA AKA MALLAKA


A nan k’wayar ma’anar kan auna tsakanin abin da aka mallaka da wakilin suna mai mallakar abin. Misali:

 

 

 

4.3.1.1 MALLAKA TA JINSIN NAMIJI


Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

-nki      Littafinki                    -nki Littahinki

-nka      Bironka                      -nka Bironka

-nsa       Kujerunsa                       -nsa   Kujerunsa

-nta       Takalmanta                     -nta Takalmanta

-nmu     Garuruwanmu                 -nmu Garuruwanmu

-nsu      Wandunansu                   -nsu   Wandunansu

-nku      Mootoocinku                  -nku  Mootoocinku

 

4.3.1.2 MANUNI MALLAKA TA MATA


A nan ana amfani da k’wayar ma’anar -r domin nuna jinsin ta mata. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

-rku      Rigimarku                  -kku  Rigimarkku

-rki       Tabarmarki                 -kki   Tabarmarkki

-rta        Rigarta                      -tta     Rigatta

-rka       Hularka                      -kka   Hularkka

-rsu       Kujerarsu                   -ssu    Kujerassu

-rmu     Shinkafarmu               -mmu Shinkahwammu

4.3.2 MANUNIN MALLAKA DA WAKILIN SUNA A WARE TARE DA K’WAYAR MA’ANA A JIKIN ABIN MALLAKA


Ta fuskar nuna irin wannan mallakar ana amfani da wakilin suna a farkon magana sannan a lik’a k’wayar ma’anar a jikin abin da aka mallaka. Misali:

4.3.2.1 MANUNIN MALLAKA JINSIN NAMIJI


Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Nawa -  abokan                       Nawwa Abokan

Naka -   Naka  takalmin             Naka - Naka takalmin

Naki -   Naki  Gidan                   Naki - Naki Gidan

Nasu -   Nasu Karen                     Nasu  - Nasu Karen

Namu -  Namu ajin                      Namu - Namu       ajin

Nasa -   Nasa  biron                     Nasa  - Nasa          biron

Nata -    Nata   Kallabin                Nata - Nata   Kallabin

Wad’annan su ne hanyar da ake bi domin nuna mallaka ta amfani da k’wayoyin ma’anar -n da -r na kai tsaye.

 

 

 

 

4.4 KWAYOYIN MA’ANAR -n Da -r A AJIN SIFA TA FUSKAR CI GABAN ZAMANI


Masanan farko da suka nazarci harshen Hausa Turawa na sun yi k’ok’arin aza nazarin nahawun harshen Hausa bisa tsarin harshen Ingilishi (Amfani 2004:4). Bayan sun wuce ‘yank’asa irin su Galadanci (1976) sun e suka biyo bayansu, amma duk da haka akwai wasu gurabe da aka bar su a dunk’ule ba a warware su ba. Ta haka suka ci gaba da gudanar da nazarinsu bisa waccan turbar. Ajin sifa yana d’aya daga cikin azuzuwan kalmomi da aka gudanar da mahawara akansa. Galadanci (1976) ya kira wannan k’wayar ma’ana da mahad’i a yayin da ta zo tare da ajin sifa. Haka kuma ‘yar’aduwa (2007) ya kira su da suna malik’iya duk wad’annan masana suna tare da masanan farko nne. Amma masanan zamani irin su

Yusuf (1991) ya bayyana wannan k’wayar ma’ana da cewa “k’wayar ma’ana ta mai nuna yarjejeniya na yadda sifa ta zo tare da suna”.

Inda ya bayar da misalinsa kamar haka:-

Daidaitacciyar Hausa

Sifa cikakkiya                 Tushe          Manunin Yarjejeniya

Farii                               Far                        ii

Bak’ii                             Bak’                     ii

Farfaru                           Farfar                    uu

Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Sifa cikakkiya                 Tushe          Manunin Yarjejeniya

Hwarii                            Hwar                    ii

Bak’ii                                       Bak’                     ii

Hwarhwaru                    Hwar Hwar           uu

 

Amfani A.H (1996) ya bayyana yadda tsarin k’wayar ma’anar -n da -r suke a fagen nazarin ta a ajin sifa, bayan ya fahimci aikin da Yusuf ya gabatar a shekarar (1991). Inda ya bayyana cewa, aikin Yusuf haka yake amma sai dai abin da Yusuf ya kira da manunin yarjejeniya abu biyu ne a wuri guda. Ya ci gaba da bayanin k’wayar ma’anar mai zuwa bayan sifa tana k’unshe ne da abubuwa biyu, manunin yarjejeniya (Agreement suffix) da manunin bagire (locatin marker). A inda ya bayyana cewa manunin bagire shi ke nuna muhallin da sifa ta zo tare da suna, ko dai a gaban suna ta zo ko a bayan suna. Misali:

4.4.1 MANUNIN BAGIRE LOKACIN DA SIFA TAKE A GABAN SUNA


Ana samun k’wayoyin ma’ana kamar haka:-

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

-n      - Farin Dooki                                     Hwarin dookii

-r       - Farar Jakaa                                      Hwarar jakaa

n-      - Farfarun Gidajee                    Hwarhwarun gidaajee

4.4.2 MANUNIN BAGIRE LOKACIN DA SIFA KE BAYAN SUNA


Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Dookii Fari                     -i                 Dokii Hwari          -i

Jakaa Fara                       -a                Jikaa Hwara          -a

Gidaajee Faraare             -e                Gidaajee Hwaraaree -e

 

Abin lura a nan shi ne amfani ya bayyana matsayin manunin bagire (location marker) amma bai nuna matsayin manunin yarjejeniya (Agrement suffix) ba. Amfanin manunin yarjejeniya shi fayyace matsayin sifa ta fuska sanin jinsin da sifar take Magana a kai da kuma bayyana adadin sunan da sifar ke fayyacewa, kamar yadda aka gain a misali na ‘bangare zuwan sifa kafin suna k’wayoyin ma’anar n da ta r suke nuna wannan aikin. Sai kuma a misali na (i) da (ii) da (iii) a inda aka ware kowace k’wayar ma’ana zuwa ‘bangaren da ta dace.

 

4.5 KWAYOYIN MA’ANAR -n DA -r A MANUNIN ISHARA


Wannan wata hanya ce da ake amfani da ita a wajen nuna abu d’aya ko abubuwa da yawa, a kusa ko a nesa. Akwai hanyoyi biyu da ake amfani da su wajen nuni a cikin ishara. Hanya ta farko it ace kamar haka:-

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

  1. –n nan Jakin nan               i. –n ga        Jakin ga

  2. –n can ‘Dakin can            ii. –n can     ‘Dakin can



  • –r nan Hular nan              iii. –g ga      Hullag ga



  1. –r can Rigar can              iv. –c can     Rigac can


Wannan ita ce hanya ta farko wadda ake amfai da gajerun kalmomi manunin ishara. Daga misalan da suke a sama za a iya ganin yadda suka rabu zuwa gida biyu wad’anda suka k’are da kalmar “Nan” da kuma wad’anda suka k’are da na “Can”. Wad’anda suka k’are da kalmar “Nan” sune kalmomin manunin ishara na kusa su kuma wad’anda suka k’are da kalmar “Can” sune manunin ishar na nesa.

 

Hanya ta biyu ita ce amfani da kalmomin manuni ishara dogaye. Wato dogon manuni da ake amfani da shi wajen nuna wani abu da ke kusa ga mai nunawar ko kuma nesa da shi. Misali

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Wancan       yaron                    Wancan Yaron

Wannan       allon                     Wanga Allon

Waccan       yarinyar                Waccan Yarinyat

Wad’annan  mootoocin             Wad’anga Mootoocin

Wad’annan  kayan                    Wad’anga Kayan

A wad’annan misalan an yi amfani da dogayen kalmomin nuni na ishara, na kusa da na nesa. Na kusa suna k’unshed a kalmomin “wad’annan” da “wannan”, su kuma na nesa an yi amfani da kalmomin “waccan” da “wancan” da “wad’ancan”. Sannan ana amfani da k’wayoyin ma’ana na N da R a lik’e jikin sunan da nunin ya fad’a kansa.

 

4.6 NA’DEWA


A cikin wannan babi an nuna mahimman wuraren da wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar, suka ba da gudummawar su da inganta ma’anar jimla, tare da kumbura kalma da ma jimla gaba d’aya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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BABI NA BIYAR: TAK’AITAWA TARE DA KAMMALAWA


5.0 SHIMFI’DA


A cikin wannan babin za kawo bayanin tak’aita abin da babin ya k’unsa sannan ayi jawabin kammalawa don bayyana irin abin da binciken ya gano. Kuma a kawo jerin litattafan da aka duba tare da sauran takardu a mujallu da k’asidu dam asana suka gabatar a matsayin sakamakon bincken da suka aiwatar don nuna yadda aka gudanar da nazarin binciken da aka yi.

5.1 TAK’AITAWA


A babi na farko an gabatar da tsarin aikin ta bayyana hanyar da za a gudanar da shi inda ake kasa shi zuwa babi – babi har guda biyar. A inda aka kawo bayanan ayyukan da masana suka gabatar tare da bayyana hanyoyin da dalilai da kuma kawo yadda aikin zai samu cigaba da wanzuwa da irin muhimmancin da aikin zai bayar.

A babi na biyu an kawo gudunmawar da masana suka bayar dangane da ma’anar k’wayar ma’an da rabe –raben ta, har guda biyar wad’anda suka had’a da, d’aurarriya, ninkakkiya, da ta gurguzu, da ‘yar mai mai, da banbantacciya, da kuma bud’ad’d’iya tare da bayarda misalai da dama, ta yadda mai nazari zai iya fahimtarsu.

 

A babi na ukku kuwa, an kawo ma’anar jumla da rabe-rabenta inda aka kawo nau’o’inta har guda hud’u tare da ba da ingantattun misallai. An kawo makamantan nau’oin jumla na dai-daitacciyar hausa daga karin harshen sakkwatanci.

A babi na hud’u a nan ne aka baje kolin aikin, a inda aka kawo mahimman wuraren da k’wayoyin ma’anar suka ba da gudummawarsu dangae da tsarin ginin jumala dai-daitacciyar hausa da ta karin harshen sakkwatanci. A cikin wannan kason an bayyana ire-iren wad’annaan mahimman wuraren da k’wayoyin ma’anar kan fito. Ire – iren wauraren sun had’a da gurbin mallaka, da na nasaba, da manuni jinsi da adadi, da kuma yadda suke kasancewa a cikin ajin sifa tare da bayyana irin gudummawar da masana suka bayar. Inda aikin ya ba da gudummawa dangane da ‘bangare ajin sifa inda Amafani ya bayyana matsayin manunin bagire amma ya mance da matsayin manunin yarjejeniya.

A babin na biyar shi ne za a kammala aikin ta fuskar tak’aitawa da kawo jawabin  kammalawa, inda manazarta za ta zamowa aikin marfi.

 

 

 

 

5.2 KAMMALAWA


Cikin wannan aikin an gudanar da tattaro mahimman ayyukan da masansa suka gabatar, tare da bayyana irin ci gaban da aka samu ta fuskar wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar. Wanann aikin ya kawo mahimmiyar gudummawa ta fuskar bayyana ma’anonin k’wayar ma’ana daga masana daban-daban sannan aikin ya bayyana tasa fahimtar a k’ark’ashin kowace ma’ana da masanan suka bayar. Aikin ya sake bin sawun ma’anar jumla sannan ya nuna matsayin k’wayar ma’ana.

Nazarin ya dubi duk wasu muhimman wuraren da wad’annan k’wayoyin ma’anar na –n da –r suke fitowa don nuna yadda ake amfani da su a cikin karen harshen sakkwatancci. Yin hakan yana nufin taimakawa wad’anda basu cika fahimatar karin harshen sakkwatancciba don su samu sauk’in fahimtar sa kai tsaye.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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