Matsayin /N/ Da /R/ A Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci (4)

 

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SHAMSUDEEN BELLO HAMMA’ALI



KUNDIN DIGIRIN FARKO A HAUSA (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN NAZARIN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU DANFODIYO SAKKWATO.


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BABI NA UKU: JUMLAR HAUSA


3.0 SHIMFI’DA


A ciki wanann babi za a dubi yadda masana suka ba da gudummuwarsu wajen bayyana ma’anar jumla. Sannan aka kawo yadda tsarin da aka gabatar wajen kassafa nau’o’in jumla da kuma nuna yadda fasalin sassauk’ar jumla Hausa take da tsarin da ake bi wajen yanka ta zuwa sassa biyu daga nan ne za a fi mai da hankali a wannan nazarin, ta inda za a dubi yankin suna, daga k’arshe sai a nad’e babin.

3.1 MA’ANAR JUMLA


Masana da dama sun ba da gudummawarsu wajen fito da ma’anar jumla, daidai da fahimtarsa. Misalin irin wad’annan masana sun had’a da:-

Sani (1999) ya bayyana jumla da cewa:-

“Jumla Magana ce cikakkiya mai ma’ana wadda aka gina bisa wasu k’a’idojin harshe na musamman”.

Zaria (1981) cewa ya yi:

“Jumla magana ce da take nufin yadda ake tsara kalmomin harshen Hausa wajen kira mai ma’ana, tare da bin k’a’ida don bayar da wani furuci ingantacce wanda za a iya rubutawa”.

 

Ibi (2006) ya kira jimla da cewa:

“ Jumla zance ne k’unshe a cikakkiyar ma’ana, wanda aka gina bisa tsarin nahawun harshe”.

Bisa la’akari da irin bayanan da masana suka gabatar za a iya fahimtar cewa, jumla ba komai ba ce illa, duk wani zance da aka gina bisa wata tsararriyar k’a’ida ta nahawun harshe da masu amfani da shi, suka yarda ko suka aminta da ita.

3.2 RABE-RABEN JUMLOLIN HAUSA

Masana sun raba jimlar Hausa zuwa gida hud’u domin samun sauk’in nazartar ta. Ga yadda suka raba.

  1. Jumalar Umurni

  2. Jumlar Tambaya



  • Jumla Sassauk’a



  1. Jumlar Korewa


A cikin wad’annan kason da masana suka gabatar guda hud’u aikin zai maida hankali ne a kan jumla sassauk’a tare da duba ajin kalmomin da take d’auke da su, a inda za a dubi ajin sifa domin a kawo yadda k’wayoyin ma’anar –n da –r suke fitowa. Duk da haka za a yi d’an tsokaci a kan sauran jimlolin a tak’aice.

 

3.2.1 JUMLAR UMURNI


Wannan jimlar ta umurni, jimla ce wadda akasarinta takan zo da tsarin kalma d’aya tak, ta musamman ba tare da an k’ara wata kalma a cikinta ba. Saboda haka jimla ce da ake furta ta cikin hanzari, domin samun sauk’in d’aukar mataki na gaggawa ga wani abu da ake son a wanzar ba tare da an sami wata matsala ba. Kalmar da jimlar kan zo da ita a wajen furta wa ita ce kalmar aikatau. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Gad’i!                                                        Hwad’i!

Zauna!                                               Zamna!

Anshi!                                               Amshi!

A k’arshen jimlar takan zo da alamar ayar motsin rai, domin nuna a halin da aka samar da jumlar.

3.2.2 JUMLAR TAMBAYA


Jumlar tambaya, jumla ce da ta k’unshi kalmomin tambaya a cikinta, kowanne harshe yana da nasa tsarin da yake gudanar da tambayarsa. Don haka dole ne a samu bambanci a wajen tsara jimlar ta tambaya. Hausa tana buk’atar kalmomin tambaya su zo a gaban jimla kafin abin da za a yi tambayar a kansa ya bayyana.

 

Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Wa ye aka kama?                               Wa anka kama?

Me ya sami shehu?                             Mis sami Shehu?

Yaushe aka dawowa makaranta?         Yaushe za a koma makaranta?

Duk kalmomin da aka tura, kalmomi ne na tambaya a tsarin ginin jimlar tambaya ta Hausa.

3.2.3 JUMLAR KOREWA


Hausa tana d’auke da wasu kalmomi na musamman da ake amfani da su wajen nuna korewa a jumlar Hausa. Ta amfani da wad’annan kalmomi ana samun korewa iri biyu a tsarin jumlar Hausa, korewar jimla gaba d’ayanta, da kuma korewar sashen jumla.

Kalmomin korewa na jumlar Hausa su ne kamar haka:

  1. Ba (ba/a…………………..ba/a)

  2. Ba (ba/a…………………...ba/)



  • Ba (ba/…………ba/)



  1. K^ar/k\ad/a


Ga yadda tsarin korewar take a harshen Hausa.

 

 

KOREWAR JUMLA GABA ‘DAYA


A wajen irin wannan korewar ta jumla gaba d’aya ana samun kalmar korewa a farkon jimla, da kuma k’arshenta, ko ta zo a gaban jimlar. Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

  1. Ba za ni je makaranta ba           Ba ni zuwa makaranta

  2. Baa Amina za ta tafi kasuwa ba Baa Amina zat tahi kassuwa ba



  • Ba zan zo ba Ba ni zuwa



  1. Ba ni da kud’i Ban da kud’d’i

  2. Kada ka tafi koina Kakka tahi ko’ina


Wad’annan su ne wasu hanyoyin da ake amfani da su wajen nuna korewa ta jimla gaba d’aya a daidaitacciyar hausa da Karin harshen sakkwatanci.

KOREWAR SASHEN JUMLA


Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

  1. Musa ba tare da shehu su ka tafi ba Musa ba tare da shehu sunka tahi ba

  2. Keke da rediyo Dauda ya sayoo Keke da rediyo Dauda yassayoo



  • Daud rediyo yaa sayo ban da keke Daud rediyo ya ssayo ban da keke



  1. Akwai kud’i a banki da asusu. Babu kud’d’i a asusu, sai banki


A misalai na sama an ga yadda ake kore sashin jimla ba tare da an ta’ba d’aya sashen ba.

 

3.2.4 SASSAKUK’AR JUMLAR HAUSA


Sassauk’ar jimlar Hausa tana k’unshe da wani tsari na musamman wanda ake bi domin gudanar da gininta saboda a sami sauk’in nazarin ta. Tsarin shi na raba ta gida biyu, wato yankin suna (Yns) da yankin abin da aka fad’i a game da suna (Yafgsn). Misali:

Daidaitacciyar Hausa                          Karin Harshen Sakkwatancci

Musa ya tahi makaranta                      Musa ya a tahi makaranta.

Bisa la’akari da yadda sassauk’ar jimlar Hausa ta zo gida biyu, yankin suna da yankin abin da aka fad’i a game da suna (Amfani 2015 laccar aji hud’u), wannan aikin zai dubi ‘bangaren yankin suna ta fuskar mu’amalar suna da k’wayoyin ma’anar -n da -r.

 

3.3 NA’DEWA


A wannan babin an tattauna a kan ma’anar jumlar Hausa, tare da kawo nau’o’i ko rabe-raben jumla, inda aka bayyana yadda fasalin jimlolin suke tare da nuna misalin kowace jumla daga nau’o’in na jumla.

K’arshen babin an nuna yadda masana suka yanka sassauk’ar jumlar Hausa, wanda a nan ne ake son nuna yadda zamantakewar suna da k’wayoyin ma’anar -n da –r suke kasancewa, tsakanin daidaitacciyar Hausa da karin harshen Sakkawatanci.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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