Hoton Tsafin Maguzawa A Cikin Littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa

Amsoshi




Alamuna Nuhu


Tsangayar Fasaha


Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya da Kimiyyar Harsuna


Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna


Alamunan@gmail.com


08030472882,08029414085


 

1.0 Gabatarwa


Hausawa kan ce, “Tsafi gaskiyar mai shi.” Hanyoyin rayuwar Maguzwa cike suke da tanade-tanade wad’anda ke yi masu jagoranci wajen gudanar da harkokin rayuwarsu, Abdullahi (2008:01). Rayuwar Maguzawa ta dogara ne bisa imani da tunani na gargajiya. Gargajiyar tasu ta had’a da addininsu, da yanayin rayuwar da suka gada iyaye da kakanni musamman ga Maguzawan da ba su Musulunta ba.

Mak’asudin wannan nazari shi ne fito da hoton wasu tsafe-tsafen Maguzawa da suka yi tasiri a cikin littafin “K’arshen Alewa K’asa,” da ya ginu bisa k’agawar Bature Gagare a matsayin rubutaccen k’agaggen labari. Gina labari kan Maguzawa ba zai yiwu ba a kauce wa kawo hoton imani da tunanin rayuwarsu ta gargajiya. A tak’aice dai, nazarin ya yi  k’ok’arin bayyana rayuwar Maguzawa ta fuskar tsafe-tsafe domin neman biyan buk’ata ta jin dad’in rayuwa, ko kawar da cuta, ko cutarwa, ko kariya da tsaro, ko sanin gaibu da suka fito cikin wannan littafi.

 

2.0 Littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa


Littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa yana d’aya daga cikin littattafai guda bakwai na Hausa da suka sami nasara a gasar shekarar 1980, wanda hukumar Al’adun Gargajiya ta Tarayya ta shirya (Furniss 1996: 39-41) . Gasar an shirya ta ne domin samar da littattafan rubutattun k’agaggun labarai daga mawallafa ‘yan k’asa. Marubucin littafin ya yi rawar gani na bin k’a’idar wannan gasa wajen rubuta littafin. K’a’idar ita ce, a tsara labari domin ciyar da al’adun gargajiyar Nijeriya gaba. Shi kuwa marubucin sai alk’alaminsa ya za’bi  Maguzawa wajen gina labarinsa. Su kuwa Maguzawa rayuwarsu ta gargajiya ce, in kuma sun sami sauyin rayuwa akan ga tasirin gargajiyar nan tasu a wasu ‘bangarori na rayuwa.

Muhimman al’amuran rayuwar Maguzawa da marubucin ya bayyana a littafin su ne: Farauta, da k’ira, da noma, da bautar gargajiya, da neman aure, da shugabanci, da tsaro, da yadda ake neman mulki, da sharholiya, da tsafi. Wad’annan suna daga cikin hoton rayuwar Maguzawa da marubucin ya bayyana. Ko da yake ba za a ce ya fayyace komai na rayuwarsu ba, amma dai ya kawo hoton yadda rayuwarsu take daidai iyawarsa.

3.0 Alak’ar Maguzawa da Tsafi


Rayuwar Maguzawa ta yi tanadin tsafi a kowane lungu da sak’o nata. Abdullahi (2008: 01) na cewa, “Rayuwar Maguzawa da tsafi kamar dangantakar tsoka da jinni ce, kuma tsafi ginshik’i ne da ke d’auke da rayuwarsu, wato bai ke’banta ga bauta kawai ba.” A tunani irin na Maguzawa duk wani abu na farin ciki idan ya faru, da taimakon tsafinsu suka samu. Idan kuwa akasin haka ne, to akwai yiwuwar an sa’ba wa tsafi. Wannan shi ya kawo batun hidima ga tsafi domin samun amfani, da zuwa bai wa tsafi hak’uri idan an ga mummunan abu ya faru ga wani ko al’umma gaba d’aya. To sai dai kowane gida ko gari ko k’asa, da irin nasu tsafin da suke yi wa bauta (Ibrahim 1982: 30-31) da (Bunza 2006: 39-40).

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/05/falsafar-daurin-auren-maguzawa/

4.0 Hoton Tsafin Maguzawa Cikin Littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa


Ba za a iya cewa ga iyakar tsafin Maguzawa ba, sai dai a yi nazarin abin da aka ji ko aka gani da wanda wasu manazarta suka tabbatar. Hakan na faruwa ne saboda bambance-bambance na muhalli da ake samu a tsakanin Maguzawan, amma duk aljani ake yi wa  hidima. Hanyoyin da ake bi ne suke shan bamban. Daga cikin tsafin da wannan nazari ya hango hotonsa a littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa akwai:

4.1 Tsafin Bauta

Wannan tsafi shi ne tsafin da aka d’ora shi kan wani abu musamman aljani a wani lokaci na musamman. Ibrahim (1982: 30-33), da Sheshe (1989: 18-21)  sun bayyana cewa irin wannan tsafin shi ne wanda Kanawa suka yi wa Tsumburbura a dutsen Dala. Shi kuwa Bunza (2006: 40) cewa ya yi, tsafin bauta tsafi ne wanda ake gudanarwa wajen wasu bukukuwan ta hanyar yi wa iskoki hidima ana bautar su. Iskoki na halarce a wurin, don haka kai tsaye za su taimaka.

Cikin littafin an bayyana mutanen garin Tsaunin Gwano cewa Maguzawa ne. Suna yin bautar gargajiya na neman albarkar noma, da sauran bukatun rayuwa ga wani aljani da ke cikin suri a duk shekara. Dangane da wannan zance, ga abin da marubucin  ke cewa:

“Ita dai fadar Sarkin Dodanni wani irin wuri ne inda yake da wani irin babban suri wanda girmansa ya kai tsawon mutum uku dogaye. Wannan suri yana k’ark’ashin wata babbar tsamiya ce kuma. A kowace rana Sarkin Arna yakan sanya yaranshi su share wurin nan fes. Sarkin Arna da jama’arsa talakawa, sun yarda cewa wai a cikin wannan surin akwai wani tsohon aljani, shi wannan aljanin an san shi a cikin sifar maciji, ko da yake an ce kuma ba abin da ba ya rikid’a.

Abin da kowa ya sani shi ne, wannan maciji ba wani wanda ya san lokacin da ya fara zama a wannan suri, amma ga shi har yanzu bai mutu ba. Ko da shi Sarkin Arna wanda shi ne kuma limaminsu na tsafi, bai san lokacin da wannan abin mamaki ya fara ba, su dai abin da suka ji kaka da kakanni shi ne: Wannan aljani sunansa Sarkin Dodanni. Haka kuma shi ne abin da za su bauta ma wa. A kowace shekarar sarkin Arna yakan zo ya yi sujada, kuma ya kawo ma sarkin Dodanni ‘yar gaisuwarsu. Dalilin wannan shi ne wai domin a sami albarkar damina, hatsi ya yi kyau, kuma su rok’a a kare su daga bala’in fari”. (Shafi na 11)

Tsafi gaskiyar mai shi. Wannan bayani da aka tsakuro ya kawo hoton bautar gargajiya wadda Maguzawa ke yi a zahiri. An bayyana suri wanda ke jikin tsamiya nan ne mazaunin aljanin da ake wa bauta.[i] Ga shi akwai masu yin  hidima na tsaftace wurin, kuma sun yi imani da hakan kamar yadda suka gada daga iyaye da kakanni. Bayanin ya nuna suna ta’allak’a duk amfanin gona da za su samu daga biyayyarsu ga wannan abin bautar. Haka ma suna nema tsari ne daga wannan aljani dangane da bala’o’i da za su iya fad’a wa rayuwa. Ba sa yin bauta sai shekara-shekara bisa jagorancin sarkin Arna ta hanyar kai wata gaisuwa ta musamman domin neman biyan buk’ata. Lallai wannan bayani hoto ne na bautar Maguzawa a gargajiyance da aka bayyana cikin aikin adabi. Nazarce-Nazarcen Maguzawa da aka yi , shaida ce domin tabbatar da wannan zance.

4.2 Hidima da Kiyaye K’a’idojin  Abin Bauta

Ma’anonin da aka bayar na tsafi sun nuna cewa dole ne a yi wa aljani hidima kafin a sami biyan buk’atar abin da ake nema. Bin k’a’ida kuwa a lokacin aiwatar da tsafi ta zama dole. Sabawa kuma na tattare da ganin mummunan sakamako. Irin wannan hidima ta k’unshi yin wani aiki, da kiyaye wasu dokoki ko k’a’ida, da yin yanka na dabba. A ‘bangaren hidimar da kiyaye k’a’idar tsafin bauta cikin littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa, an bayyana cewa:

A kowace rana Sarkin Arna yakan sanya yaranshi su share wurin nan fes. Wani abin ban mamaki shi ne, mu idan za mu kai gaisuwa wajen sarkinmu, to al’adarmu shi ne mu cire takalma don ladabi. Wanda kuwa zai shiga turakar Sarkin Dodanni, ba wai takalma kurum ba, duk har da tufafin jikinsa. Ko ‘yar shara ma idan sun zo su yi shara a tsirara haihuwar uwarsu suke yi. Wannan abu tun kaka da kakanni haka yake.” (Shafi na11-12).

Wannan al’amari na yin hidima da bin wasu k’a’idoji, tsafi ne kad’ai ake iya yi wa. Kodayake share wuri kullum tsafta ne, to amma yin tsirara ya sa shi ma ya zama wani rukuni na bautar. Yin haka kuwa ya tabbatar da abin da ke aukuwa a hak’ik’anin tsafin Maguzawa. Wannan abu bai tsaya kan  masu shara kad’ai ba, ga duk wanda zai shiga wurin shi ma hakan zai yi. Dad’in dad’awa, sai an dubi irin gaisuwar da suke yi wa wannan aljani a duk shekara. Nan ne za a tantance lallai suna yin cikakkiyar hidima ta tsafi. Gaisuwar da ake kai wa aljanin duk shekara an yi bayaninta da cewa:

Irin gaisuwar da sarkin Arna ke kawowa tana da nauyi k’warai. Watau kyautar da ake yi ita ce rai guda na mutum. Idan za a bayar da mutum wajen sarkin Dodanni, sai Sarkin Arna ya zo ya rusuna ya ce, “Damina ta kewayo ya Sarki. Muna rok’o a ci gaba da kare mu. Bayan haka ni Sarkin Arna da sauran masu neman taimakon ka, mun ba ka wane/wance (a nan sai a ambaci sunan wanda ake so za a bayar) gaisuwarmu ke nan ta wannan shekarar ya Sarki. Na barka lafiya”. (Shafi na 11).

Tirk’ashi! Hidimar da ake yi wa tsafin wannan gari tana da nauyi k’warai. Ga shi Sarkin Arna yana ganewa cikin kwana bakwai wanda aka bayar zai mutu. Idan kuwa bai mutun ba, to aljanin ya yi fushi bai amshi gaisuwar ba, sai an sake wani. Babu wani saukakken addini da ke irin wannan hidima face Maguzanci da masu tsafi[ii]. Duk addinin da ya gindaya ake wa wannan hidima, to lallai gargajiya ce ake yi.

4.3 Biyan Buk’atar Rayuwa

Hausawa kan ce, “Bayan wuya, sai dad’i.” A duk lokacin da aka yi wata hidima, ana sa ran a ga amfanin wahalar da aka yi. Tsafi al’amari ne da ya k’unshi sha yanzu, magani yanzu. Labarin da aka bayar a wannan littafi, ya nuna an sami biyan buk’ata nan take a wuraren da aka yi tsafi. Akkati wata Bokanya ce kuma matsafiya wadda burinta shi ne d’anta ya yi sarauta. Ta sami biyan buk’atarta a dalilin tsafi. Ga abin da bayanin ya zo da shi daga littafin:

A cikin garin nan akwai wata tsohowar Majusiya, wadda don tsananin dad’ewa a duniya har gemu gareta. Tana harka da aljanu k’warai ainun, wanda ta kai har duk garin babu kamarta, kuma ba wadda aka fi jima tsoro. Kowa ya san cewa wannan tsohuwa ta kashe mutane wajen d’ari duk don saboda d’anta ya sami sarauta. Wannan kuma ta sami nasara domin a halin da ake ciki d’anta ne a kan gadon sarautar Jinjin Wawa. Wannan mace sunanta Akkati mai rauhani”. (Shafi na 20)

Neman biyan buk’ata yana d’aya daga cikin k’unshiyar ma’anar tsafi. A nan bayani ya tabbatar cewa, wannan mata ta yi amfani da hanyar tsafi domin neman biyan buk’atar rayuwa, kuma ta samu biyan bukata saboda ta yi imani da hanyar da ta yi amfani da ita.

4.4 Neman Kariyar Kai Da Tsaro

Bauta ba ita kad’ai ce dalili yin tsafi ba. Wasu sukan yi tsafi ne domin kariyar kai da tsaro. Masu yin wannan nau’in tsafi suna yi ne saboda tsaron lalura ta ‘barayi ko abokan gaba.[iii] Da yake masu yi sun yarda da tsafin nasu, sai a ga sun sami kariya da tsaro na abin da suka yi wa tsafin. Akwai wurin da aka yi amfani da tsafi domin kare kai cikin littafin na K’arshen Alewa K’asa kamar haka:

Akkati ta ce, “To, ka ga abin da nake so. Idan ka isa gida kafin ka je wajen fadar Sarkin Dodanni, ina so ka fara zuwa gidan Sarkin Arna tukuna. Idan ka shiga ciki, duk wani abin tsoro da ya taso maka idan har ka barbad’a wannan garin da na fara ba ka to kuwa abin tsoron nan zai ‘bace.” (Shafi na 22)

Wannan garin magani da Akkati ta bayar a yi amfani da shi na tsafi ne. Dalili kuwa shi ne, matsafiya ce ta bayar da shi. Haka kuma daga an barbad’a garin maganin abin da ya bayyana na tsoro zai ‘bace. Irin wannan aiki na al’ajabi kuma nan take sai dai tsafi. Matar ta sake ba Mailoma wani magani na kare kai inda aka ce:

To yanzu ina fata ka amince da ni. Sai ta d’auko wani jik’on magani ta ce amshi sha. Mailoma ya kafa kai ya shanye ruwan magani. Akkati ta ce, “Wannan asiri na rashin tsoro ne. Idan ka yi gaba ka yi gaba ke nan”. (Shafi na 20-21)

Abin da wanann mata ta ba Mailoma, da kuma irin aikin da maganin zai yi idan an yi amfani da shi, shi ake kira tsafi. Duk abin da zai yi maganin rashin tsoro, kuma ya sa mutum idan ya yi gaba babu dawowa baya, tsafi ne mahad’insa ko ma tsafin ne dukansa.

A d’aya ‘bangaren kuwa, akan sami tsafin da ake yi domin tsaro na dukiya ko makamancin haka. Fitaccen tsafin da ke yin tsaro a al’ummar Maguzawa shi ne “Tsafin Uwar Goma.” Tsafin Uwar Goma shi ne tsafin da Maguzawa suka yi imanin cewa yana ba su albarkar noma, da tsare shi daga ‘barayi masu sata, (Ibrahim 1982: 32-33) da  (Sheshe 1989:17) da (Bunza 2006: 40). Cikin wannan fasali an sami wurin da aka yi amfani da tsafi domin tsaro inda marubucin ke cewa:

Yana nan a bisa Katanga yana kallon gidan nan sai tsafin Sarkin Arna ya shiga aikinsa. A nan sai wani abin mamaki ya faru. Mailoma ya ji kansa ya ba da wani abu dum. K’waram babu gafara sai k’ura ta turnuk’e gidan nan duk. Iska ya kwashi Mailoma zai wurgar da shi ya fad’o ya karairaye. A nan gaban idon Mailoma sai kurum ya ga duk iyakar fad’in wurin nan ya koma teku ga ruwa nan fari fat har da farin wata. Babban  abin da ya k’ara ba shi tsoro shi ne, da wata  igiya ta murd’o wajensa kamar za ta tafi da shi. A cikin igiyar ruwan kuma sai ya ga wani irin kifi-kifi da ko labarinsa bai ta’ba ji ba. Shi wannan kifi girmansa babu iyaka, hak’oransa guda kuwa ya kusa kai tsawon Mailoma. Yana fesa ruwa ta saman kansa kamar famfo”. (Shafi na 24-25

Duk wannan abu da ake bayani, ya faru ne cikin k’ank’anin lokaci. Gidan Sarkin Arna ya ‘bace, k’ura ta turnik’e. Teku ya bayyana tare da igiyar ruwa, da wani babban kifi. Wannan al’amari tsafi ne na tsaro wanda Sarkin Arna yake da shi a gida domin tsare gidansa, da duk abin da ke ciki. Hakan da Mailoma ya gani, tsafi ne da zai kare Sarkin Arna daga mai son shiga gidansa domin cuta masa. Bayyanar abobuwan al’ajabi iri daban-daban cikin k’ank’anin lokaci domin hana bak’o shiga gidan, shi ya tabbatar da shi tsafi na tsaro.

4.5 Tabbatar Da D’iyauci

Rayuwar Maguzawa ta yi tanadi na musamman domin tabbatar da cewa yarinya Budurwa ba ta ta’ba yin lalata da d’a namiji ba kafin ta yi aure. Akwai hanyoyi daban-daban da Maguzawa ke amfani da su gwargwadon yadda tsarin rayuwarsu take don gudanar da wannan al’adar.[iv] Ana iya samun bambanci tsakanin Maguzawan wannan wuri da na wancan wuri wajen yadda za a tabbatar da d’iyauci. Cikin littafin, an yi amfani da wannan tsafi ta wannan hanya kamar haka:

“Har ma idan dai ka tuna, a lokacin da za ta tare gidanka, sai da Sarkin Arna ya tilasta dole sai ta kwana a gindin kuka domin a gwada ta. Ka sani kuwa lallai wadda ta kwana gindin kukar nan, to mutuwa za ta yi matsawar dai ta ta’ba lalata da wani namiji.” (Shafi na 21)

Ana gudanar da irin wannan tsafi ne ga Budurwar da aka yi wa aure domin a tabbatar da ta kai d’iyaucinta kafin aure. Abin da ke faruwa shi ne, ita wannan bishiyar Kuka da aka ambata (cikin rubutu mai tafiyar tsutsa) nan ne wurin da tsafin yake domin aiwatar da wannan al’adar. Idan kuwa Budurwata kuskura ta kwana alhali ta ta’ba sanin d’a namiji, to babu shakka za ta mutu. To amma ganin cewa Tayani ta kwana lafiya, an yarda tsafin ya yi aiki, kuma an yarda cewa ta kare d’iyaucinta.

4.6 Sanin Gaibu

Maguzawa sun yi imani cewar iskar da suke yi wa bauta tana iya ba su labarin abin da zai faru kafin faruwar lamarin. Haka kuma sun yarda cewa ta hanyar tsafi ana iya hasashen abin da zai faru na alheri ko sharri a shekara. Hoton irin wannan tsafi na sanin gaibu ya fito a wurin da Akkati take ba Mailoma labarinsa da abin da ya yi dalilin mutuwar matarsa. Ga abin da take cewa:

“Mailoma za ya bud’a baki ta ce, “ Yi shiru. A yanzu za ni ba ka labarin aka yi matar ka Tayani ta mutu. Amma kada ka yi mamaki ko ka yi shakkar magana ta, domin gaskiya za ni ba ka d’anyarta.” Ta dube shi ta ce, “Sunan ka Mailoma d’an Chiwake kuma mijin Tayani, shekarunka sha bakwai da watanni uku da kwana uku-an haife ka da kai da d’an’uwanka ranar litinin, haka ne? Mailoma ya d’aga kansa ya ce, “ E haka aka yi”. (Shafi na 20).

Wad’annan bayanai na Akkati kai tsaye tsafi ne. Dalili kuwa, daga ganin mutun ka fad’a masa sunansa, da wurin da ya fito, da bayanin lokacin haihuwarsa har ya zuwa lokacin da ake magana. Dad’in dad’awa, ta fad’i shekaru da watanni da kwanakin da ya yi a duniya, da dalilin da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar matarsa. Irin wannan aiki sai tsafi. Ko da yake akwai Hausawa Musulmai da ke amfani da taurari, da d’iyan k’asa, da ma wasu dabaru[v] wajen fad’in gaibu a yanzu haka.

4.7 Cutarwa

Wata hanya da ake amfani da tsafi ita ce domin a cutar da wani ko wasu. Maguzawa sukan yi tsafi musamman domin cutar da wani. Tana iya yiwuwa ramuwar gayya ce, ko k’eta. A nan tsafin da aka yi domin cutarwa an yi ne domin k’eta. Dalili shi ne, wanda ake son yi wa tsafin za a raba shi da ransa da kuma mulki. Haka shi ma wanda aka ba aikin, idan ya k’i aikatawa za a salwantar da rayuwarsa. Shi kuwa mai aikatawar, in har ya sami sa’a burinsa ya cika. In ma wani ya yi masa wargi, to zai had’u da ‘bacin rai. Hoton irin wannan Tsafi ya fito a cikin littafin.

“Akkati ta yi dariya ta ce, “ Har dai idan ka kori Sarkin Dodanni daga wannan suri, to kuwa k’aryar Sarkin ku ta k’are. Wannan d’an dutsen da za ka d’auko mani ba komi ba ne illa ran Sarkin Arna. Idan na kashe shi sai d’ana ya gaje shi ke nan. To yanzu ka ji gaskiya, idan kuwa ka k’i bin umurni kai kuwa kwananka sun k’are.” A nan kuma sai Tayani ta sake shigo masa rai. Ya ce a ransa, bari tun da har Sarkin Arna ya kashe mani mata, shi ma kuwa sai na kashe shi. Mts, tsiyar tsafi ke nan, ko da an maka asiri ka mutu ba shaidu. Sai dai mutum ya rama tsafi da tsafi. Ashsha ,gashi kuwa ai duk ba wanda ya fi shegen  Sarkin  nan namu tsafi. Kai ni ba za ni bari banza ta shawo ni ba, sai na rama. Idan na kashe Sarkin Dodanni yau d’innan, kuma gobe sai in kashe Sarkin Arna. Har ma idan Dano ya sa baki za ni murje shi.”  (Shafi na 22-23)

Niyyar cutarwar da Akkati mai rauhanai da Mailoma suka shirya wa Sarkin Arna, da Sarkin Dodanni ta hanyar tsafi ke nan. To sai dai kowannensu yana shirin ya yi cutar ne bisa wata manufa ta daban tsakanin wanda zai yi aikin, da wanda aka sa ya yi aikin. Bayanin ya nuna cewa akan yi tsafi a cutar da wani ba tare da an ga sheda ba. Idan kuwa wanda aka yi wa ya san tsafi ne, shi ma yana iya ramawa ta wannan hanya.

Kammalawa:


Nazarin hoton tsafin Maguzawa cikin littafin K’arshen Alewa K’asa, ya k’ara bayyana cewa lungu da sak’o na rayuwar Maguzawa tsafi ne ke jagoraninsa. Haka kuma, tsafin nasu na sha yanzu magani yanzu ne. To sai dai, nazarin ya fahinci cewa, duk abubuwan da Maguzawa suke yi wa tsafin na neman abin duniya ne, da kare kai da samar da tsaro, da kawar da cuta, da cutarwa. Babu wani hurumi da ke nuna samun wani amfani a wata duniya daban da wadda ake ciki. Ke nan duk da kasancewar tsafi hanyar rayuwar Maguzawa, suna yi ne domin amfanin rayuwar duniya. Ko da suke yin tsafi domin bauta, ba su sa ran hidimar da suke yi ko abin da suke bauta wa ya yi masu wata fa’ida a wata duniyar. Haka kuma, ba a iya cewa ba su lura da hakan ba amma dai har  gobe abin bai canza zani ba. Dalili shi ne, an gaji abin ne iyaye da kakanni. Haka kuma, akwai kunya a wajen Bamaguje a ce kowa ya saki gadon gida ba tare da samun wanda ya gaji iyaye da kakanni ba.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/05/bukin-hawan-sadaka-na-maguzawa/

 

 Manazarta:

 

Abdullahi, I.S.S. (2008). Tsafe-Tsafen Maguzawa da Suka Shafi Aure da Haihuwa. Deparmental Seminar Series, Department of Nigerian Languages, Sokoto: Usmanu D’anfodiyo University.

 

Abdullahi, I.S.S. (2008). Jiya Ba Yau Ba: Waiwaye a Kan Al’adun Matakan Rayuwar Maguzawa na Aure da Haihuwa da Mutuwa. Kundin Digiri na Uku. Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu D’anfodiyo.

 

Abdullahi, I.S.S. (2008). Fitattun D’abi’un Maguzawa. Maiduguri Journal of Linguistics and Literary Studies (MAJOLS) ‘Bolume d’ Department of Linguistics, Maiduguri: University of Maiduguri.

 

Adamu, M.T. (1983).  Asalin Tsibbu Yad’uwarsa da Tasirinsa ga Al’umar Hausawa. Kundin Digiri na D’aya. Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Adamu, M.T.  (1995). Duba da Kanki. Kano: Salma Yaasin Publication LTD

 

Blumczynska, O. (2010). The Image of The Religious Life of Maguzawa in The No’bel K’arshen Alewa K’asa by Bature Gagare. M.A Thesis, Department of African Languages and Cultures, Warsaw: University of Warsaw. 

 

Bunza, A.M. (2006). Gadon Fed’e Al’ada. Lagos: Tiwal Nigeria Ltd.

 

Furniss, G. (1996). Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture In Hausa. London: Edinburgh University Press.

 

Gagare, B. (1980). K’arshen Alewa K’asa. Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company Limited.

 

Ibrahim, M.S. (1982). Dangantakar Addini da Al’ada: Tasirin Musulunci a Kan Rayuwar Hausawa. Kundin Digiri na Biyu, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Malumfashi, I.A.M. (2009). Adabin Abubakar Imam. Kaduna: Garkuwa Media Ser’bices.

 

Magaji, A. (2002).Wasu Al’adun Hausawa: Yanaye-Yanayensu a K’asar Katsina. Kundin Digiri na Uku. Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Nuhu, A. (2015). Hoton Maguzawa da Maguzanci a Wasu Rubutattun Littattafan Adabin Hausa. In Proceeding of 1st International Conference on Hausa People, Language and History: Past Present and Future. Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics, Kaduna: Kaduna State University.

 

Sarki Gulbi, A. (2013). Hanyoyin Tsafe-Tsafe Domin Magani a Al’ummar Hausawa. Procceding, First National Conference, Center for the Studies of Nigerian Languages, Kano: Bayero University.

 

 

Sheshe, S.A. (1989). Tsumburbura: Asali da Tasirinta ga Kanawa. Takardar da aka Gabatar a Taron K’ara Wa Juna Sani, Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

 

Sa’id, B.  da Wasu (ed) (2006) K’amusun Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.

 

Umar, M.B. (1987). Dangantakar Adabin Baka da Al’adun Gargajiya, Kano: Triumph Publishers.

 

 

 

[i] Al’adar Hausawa ta yarda cewa Suri da Tsamiya wurare ne na zaman aljanu. Akwai gamsasshen bayani kan mazaunin iskoki cikin Bunza, A.M. (2006) Gadon Fed’e Al’ada. Lagos: Tiwal Nigeria LTD. Shafi na 10-14.

[ii]  Mafi yawan abin da ake yanka ma tsafin Maguzawa shi ne dabbobi, ko su ma akan fad’i irin dabbar gwargwadon abin da aka saba yi wa tsafin.

[iii] Shi ma wannan tsafi ana samunsa wajen Hausawa. A ra’ayin Bunza (2006) irin wannan tsafi na buwaya da magani ne. A dubi lamba ta 1 shafi na 41-51 akwai gamsasshen bayani.

[iv]                          Binciken Abdullahi, I.S.S. (2008). Jiya Ba Yau Ba: Waiwaye a Kan Al’adun Matakan Rayuwa Maguzawa na Aure da Haihuwa da Mutuwa. Kundin Digiri na Uku. Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu D’anfodiyo Sakkwato ya tabbatar da hakan a babi na uku, da kuma Abdullahi, I.S.S. (2008). Tsafe-Tsafen Maguzawa da Suka Shafi Aure da Haihuwa. Deparmental Seminar Series, Department of Nigerian Languages,  Usmanu D’anfodiyo University, Sokoto,  shafi na 7-8.

 

 

[v] Kundin digirin  Adamu, M. T. (1983).  Asalin Tsibbu Yad’uwarsa da Tasirinsa ga Al’umar Hausawa. Kundin Digiri na D’aya. Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero ya yi faffad’an bayani kan haka. Haka ma littafinsa Adamu, M. T.  (1995). Duba da Kanki. Kano: Salma Yaasin Publication LTD.   

 

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