Hausa Language Academic Website

Monday, 31 July 2017

Kakkabe K’ura Ga Adabin Mishan: Daidaita Akalar Adabin Hausa A K’arni Na 21

Daga


Umar Aliyu Bunza
Sashen Koyar Da Harsunan Nijeriya,
Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato
Lambar Waya: 07063532532, 07014529336
Ƙibďau: aliyubunzaumar@yahoo.com


MaƘalar da aka gabatar a taron Ƙara wa juna sani na Ƙasa da Ƙasa na farko kan Nazarin Hausa A Ƙarni na 21da Sashen Koyar Da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano ya shirya daga ranar 10-13 ga Nuwamba, 2014.



Abstract


Hausa literature is a channel through which Hausa people’s life is studied. The literature was highly deƂeloped as a result of means of writing Hausa either in Ajami or Boko that is, Roman scripts. Boko was introduced by the White men since before colonialisation. Through ‘Boko’ scripts the White men preserƂed Hausa folklore and started writing fiction and drama in order to achieƂe their hidden agenda. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the hidden agenda of the White men’s-missionaries so-called helping hand in the introduction of ‘Boko’ scripts and the Hausa literature in Boko system of writing, that is, the Roman Script.

1.0 Gabatarwa


Adabin Hausa wata kafa ce muhimmiya da ake hangen dukkanin rayuwar al’ummar Hausawa daga cikin ta. A cewar Ɗangmabo (1984), adabi shi ne madubin ko hoton rayuwa na al’umma. Al’ummar Hausawa al’umma ce da ta daďe da kasancewa ma’abociya zirga-zirga da yawace-yawace na kasuwanci da neman ilmi da ci rani da sauransu. Dalilin wannan ya sa adabin Hausa ya bazu a sassan duniya masu yawa musamman a nahiyar Afirika da wau Ƙasashen Larabawa kamar Libiya da Tunisiyya da Moroko da sauransu. Ta hanyar samuwar hanyoyin rubuta Hausa na Ajami da Boko sai lamarin adabi ya Ƙara faďaďa. A maimakon taskace adabin baka kaďai, sai aka sami wanzuwar rubutaccen adabi na waƘoƘi da zube da kuma wasan kwaikwayo tun lokaci mai tsawo. Manufar wannan maƘala ita ce nazarin wasu Ƃoyayyun manufofin da suka sa Turawa suka shiga cikin aikin samar da adabin Hausa na Boko da kuma inganta shi. Wannan zai ba manazarta na wannan lokaci wani haske na abin da ya gudana a baya da kuma sanin yadda za a daidaita adabin Hausa a yau.

2.1 Saduwar Turawa Da Adabin Hausa


Turawa sun fara saduwa da adabin bakan Hausa ne tun lokaci mai tsawo ta dalilin yawace-yawacen Hausawa na kasuwanci da neman ilmi da bauta da sauransu. An nuna cewa, Turawa sun fara samun labarin Hausawa ne tun a wajajen shekarar 1535 lokacin da aka sami wani Balaraben Afirika ta Arewa mai suna Al-Hassan ibni Muhammad Al-Wizas Al-Fasi wanda ya sauya sunansa zuwa Leo Africanus da ya rubuta littattafai bakwai cikin harshen Larabci a lokacin da ya yi zaman kurkuku a Ƙasar Italiya inda ya bayar da labarin tafiye-tafiyensa cikin daulolin Afirika. A cikin littafi na bakwai ne ya kawo ziyarar da ya kai Ƙasar Borno da wasu dauloli na Ƙasar Hausa a tsakanin shekarar 1513 zuwa 1515. Ya nuna Ƙasar Borno na da nasu harshen magana, ita kuma Ƙasa ďaya (da bai ambaci sunanta ba wadda ita ce Ƙasar Hausa) ya nuna suna amfani ne da harshen Gobir (Yahaya, 1988 da Hair, 1994). Duk da wannan tsawon lokaci da Turawa suka share da samun haske game da al’ummar Hausawa, sai a wajajen shekarar 1841 aka sami wani abu na adabin Hausa ya sadu da Turawa.A yawace-yawacen da J. F. Schon da Henry Barth da Kolle suka yi a sassan Ƙasashen Afirika ne suka rubuta wasu batutuwa na adabin bakan Hausa da suka tsinta a lokuta daban-daban.
Karo na farko da sassan adabin Hausa masu yawa suka sadu daTurawa shi ne lokacin da aka je da wani yaro ďan Ƙasar Hausa mai suna Dorugu a Ƙasar Jamus da Ingila. Dorugu ya isa Ingila ne tare da wani Bature mai suna Henrich Barth (Abdulkareem da Hausa) wanda ya yi yawo a sassan Ƙasar Hausa da wasu Ƙasashe masu maƘwabtaka da Ƙasar. A shekarar 1855 Barth ya sauka London tare da Dorugu mai shekaru kamar 16-17 da wani ďan Ƙabilar Margi mai suna Abbega ( Schon, 1862). A wannan tafiyar ce J. F. Schon ya karƂi aron matasan biyu inda ya yi amfani da hikimar Dorugu ya tatsi rassan adabin bakan Hausa biyu (zube da waƘa) ya samar da muhimmin Ƃangaren fitaccen littafin adabin Hausa na farko na Bature mai suna Magana Hausa a shekarar 1885.
Idan aka yi la’akari da gudummuwar Dorugu za a ga cewa, ita ce ta kasance zuciyar littafin. Gudummuwarsa ce ta fi birge Schon abin da ya sa har ya keƂe wani sashe na gudummuwar zuwa babi na musamman. Haka kuma Schon ya jinjina wa Dorugu tare da yaba masa a wasu kalamai inda ya ce,
‘Dorugu Bahaushe ne na tsintsa, ya iya magana da harshen sosai. Ba a taƂa samun ďan Afirika da ya shigo Ƙasar nan ba wanda yake da amfani kamar sa ba; yana da cikakken bayanin rayuwarsa, ďan shekaru kamar 16 ko 17, amma kuma koyaushe shirye yake ya yi magana. Ya ba ni labarai daban-daban, ya ba ni bayanin rayuwarsa da tafiye-tafiyensa cikin Afirika cikin harshensa. Ya zauna sa’o’i yana ba ni labarai, wani lokaci har cikin dare. Da haka na samar da littafin Hausa mai shafuka ďaruruwa’ (Schon, 1862).

Shi kuma rubutaccen adabin Hausa ya fara saduwa da Turawa ne daga wajajen shekarar 1891-1896. A wannan lokaci ne C. H. Robinson ya yi wa Ƙungiyar Church Missionary Society aikin leƘen asiri a wasu sassan Ƙasar Hausa, musamman a tsakanin Ƙasar Kano da Zazzau. A lokacin wannan aikin ne, C. H. Robinson ya samar da wasu waƘoƘin Hausa 6 da wani tarihi da ya nuna fassara ne daga Larabci ya wallafa littafinsa mai suna Specimens Of Hausa Literature. A cewarsa, ya wallafa littafin ne domin musanya abin da Schon ya gabatar na cewa, shi ne ya fara samar da rubutu cikin Hausa (Robinson, 1896).
Littafin Specimens Of Hausa Literature ya Ƙunshi Ƃangarori biyu. Ɓangare na farko shi ne na rubutun Ajami Hausa. Ɓangare na biyu shi ne na rubutun Hausar Boko da kuma fassara a harshen Ingilishi. Daga Ƙasan wannan Ƃangare ne ke da sharhi na matanin adabin. Wannan littafi ne ya kasance na rubutaccen adabin Hausa da Turawa suka fara samarwa.
Idan aka dubi Ƙunshiyar wannan littafi, za a ga cewa, ko bayan kasancewarta cikin harshen Hausa, ta yi kama Ƙwarai (musamman waƘoƘi) da na malaman Ƙasar Hausa ta fuskar jigo da zubi da kuma salo.
Wanzuwar mulkin mallaka ne ya kasance mataki na Ƙarshe kuma mafi girma da yalwa da ya ba Turawa damar saduwa da adabin Hausa da kuma yin tasiri kansa. Daga shekarar 1900 ne Turawa mabambanta suka zauna cikin Ƙasar Hausa. Zaunawarsu ta sa suka cuďanyu da adabin Hausa tun daga na baka zuwa rubutacce. Da wannan suka Ƙara samar da wasu littattafan adabi na taskacewa da kuma juyawa. Haka kuma suka samar da wani sabon aji na rubutaccen adabi na ƘirƘira littattafan labarai da kuma na wasan kwaikwayo. Haka kuma suka koyar da ‘yan Ƙasa da kuma kula da dabarun samar da adabin.

3.1 Wasu Manufofin Turawa Ga Samuwar Adabin Hausa


Idan aka dubi zamanin da Turawa, suka fara aiki kan adabin Hausa na taskace shi da aza harsashin nazarinsa za a ga cewa, abu ne mai muhimmanci ga tarihin ci gaban lamurran adabin. Kowane abu ana tsara shin kan manufa wadda tana iya kasancewa a bayyane ko Ƃoye. Manufa ta bayyane ita ce wadda ake gani ko ji ta la’akari da wasu abubuwa kamar samar da littattafai da kundaye. Manufar Ƃoye kuwa ana fitar da ita ne daga nazari da sharhi da kuma lura da wasu abubuwa da suka biyo bayan wanzuwar wani lamari kamar sauya ainihin abin ko gurƂata shi da sauransu. Aikin Turawa ga adabin Hausa yana Ƙunshe da wasu Ƃoyayyun manufofi. Waďannan manufofin su ne leƘen asiri da gurƂata tarihi da sauya akalar adabin Hausa da suka taras.

3.1.1 LeƘen Asiri


Tun kafin saduwar Hausawa da Larabawa da Turawa Hausawa suke da shimfiďaďďen tsarin rayuwa da kyakkyawar zamantakewa kamar gaskiya da amana da sauransu. Ire-iren waďannan halaye da tsare-tsare suka samar wa Hausawa yanayin walwala da tsaro da tattalin arziki yalwatacce. Dukkan waďannan tsare-tsare an taskace su cikin adabin bakan Hausa.
Kasancewar adabi madubi na rayuwar al’umma sai Turawa suka shiga taskace shi domin ya kasance musu wata kafa ta leƘo lamurran rayuwar Hausawa don sanin yadda za su shigo cikinsu cikin sauƘi ta kowane mataki. Turawa masu yawa sun nuna wannan ce manufarsu ta farko, kuma ƘwaƘƘwara da ta sa suka rubuce adabin bakan Hausa. Ga misali, J. F. Schon ya bayyana irin wannan manufa ga aikin da ya yi na taskace adabin, ya samar da littafinsa da shi na Magana Hausa. Ga yadda ya bayyana manufarsa ga adana labaran cikin littafin nasa,
Labarin rayuwa da tafiye-tafiyen Dorugu ya fito da sirruka masu yawa kan yanayin Ƙasa kuma za a ji daďin karatunsa. Sa idonsa da dafuwar abincin Ingilishi zaman kalaci da al’adu ya nuna wayo da rayuwarsu kulawa. Su kuma labarai sun nuna hanyar tunanin ‘yan Ƙasa da na ja-in-jansu, sun ba mu haske kan sirrukan zaman iyali da rayuwar jama’a, mun karanci wani abu na bauta, da na Ƙasa, da faďace-faďace da rikice-rikice da ke aukuwa saboda al’adar auren mace fiye da ďaya, da yadda suke Ƙin al’adar cikin fitattun waƘoƘi da adabinsu; da tunaninsu kan lamarin sama da wuta, da rana da wata da taurari; haka kuma da son kuďi, abin da yake ruwan dare ga baƘin mutum; da yawan hanyoyin yaudararsu musamman cikin mata. Haka abin sha’awa ne a san cewa duk wani ilmi da ya wanzu cikinsu suna watsa shi ne ta ire-iren waďannan labarai (Schon , 1862).
Shi kuma Rattray (1913) ya bayyana manufarsa ga littafinsa inda ya ce,
‘Ga sauran, na ďauke shi cewa, nazarin adabin bakan Hausa na ba ďalibai sha’awa matuƘa saboda kawai kira da ake yi na rairaye shi da auna shi kan mafi tsattsauran nau’i. Al’adun Hausawa ta kowace fuska ba su kasance masu yawan abubuwan wulaƘantarwa, ko duhun kai ba. Sun sha samun kutsawa daga Ƃangaren Fulani da sauran baƘin haure. Wasunsu sun karƂi Musulunci. Suna harakokin kasuwanci wanda shi ne ya ba su damar hulďa da mutane da yawa na yammacin Afirika. Tattare da wannan, sun yi nisa Ƙwarai daga halin kaďo maras laifi wanda kai tsaye yake sa koyaushe al’ada na Ƙara ciyar da kanta gaba ta hanyar labarai waďanda yawanci ta fatar baki ake ba da su, ba su saƂa tsarin fasalinsu ba, sun bambanta da masu shigo su da cuďanya da su.
Shi kuma M. G. Smith a shimfiďar da ya yi wa littafin Neil Skinner (1969) wanda ya fassara daga littafin da Frank Edgar ya rubuta na Hausa Tales and Traditions an English translation of Tatsuniyoyi na Hausa, ya kawo manufa da muhimmancin adanawar inda ya ce,
Abu na farko shi ne tanadar wa jami’an mulkin mallaka abubuwan nazarin Hausa. Abu na biyu shi ne Ƙara wa jami’an ilmi game da halin zaman Hausawa da al’adunsu ta hanyar kawo musu waďannan tatsuniyoyi da al’adu. Dukkan ra’ayin Gwamnatin Ingila shi ne fasalin tsarin mulki kaikaice wanda take fatar mulkar wannan babbar Ƙasar Hausa-Fulani da shi ta hanyar sarakunansu na gargajiya. Irin wannan tsarin mulki na buƘatar jami’an Ingila su sami ingantaccen ilmin harshen ‘yan Ƙasa’ (Sa’id, 1997).
Idan aka yi la’akari da waďannan bayanai za a ga cewa kowane littafi na adabin bakan Hausa da Turawan suka rubuta, yana Ƙunshe da tsare-tsaren rayuwar Hausawa cikin adabinsu na tatsuniyoyi da labarai da sauransu. La’akari da waďannan bayanai ya tabbatar da cewa, ta hanyar taskace adabin Hausa ne Turawa suka sami haske dangane da tsarin rayuwar Hausawa masu yawa tun kafin zamansu na dirshan cikin Hausawa. Akwai ire-iren waďannan tsare-tsaren rayuwa cikin littattafan adabin da Turawan suka rubuta. Ga misali, a cikin littafin Magana Hausa akwai dabarun kusantar Sarakuna da magani da zaman iyali da tsaron Ƙasa da tattalin arziki da sana’o’i da yanayin Ƙasa da sauransu.

3.1.2 Gurɓata Tarihi


Ƙasar Hausa Ƙasa ce mai yawan faďin Ƙasa da yawan jama’a tun lokaci mai tsawo. Ƙasar ta kasance mai Ƙunshe da abubuwan tarihi mai yawa. Babban abu na tarihi, kuma wanda ya kafa harsashin adana ingantaccen tarihi shi ne bayyanar addinin Musulunci cikin Ƙasar. Shigowar Musulunci ya buďa wa Hausawa wata kafar wayewar kai da ci gaba a ilmance. Wannan ci gaba ya ba Hausawa damar sarrafa baƘaƘen Larabci suka rubuta harshen Hausa. Fasahar rubutu ta ba Hausawa ďaukaka suka kasance kaďan daga cikin al’ummun Afirika da suka rubuta harshensu tun kafin shigowar Turawa (Robinson, 1896). Adabin Hausa ta hanyar sarrafa baƘaƘen Larabci ya Ƙara bunƘasa a lokacin rayuwar malamai masu jihadi. Jihadin ya sa addinin Musulunci ya kafu sosai a Ƙasar Hausa, ya kuma mamaye rayuwar Hausawa, ya kuma zaunu a muhallan mulki da shari’a a lokacin jihadin Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.
Rubuce-rubuce da malamai suka samar cikin Larabci da kuma Ajami sun kasance wata kafa ingantacciya ta adana tarihin Ƙasar Hausa da al’ummar cikinta. Rubuce-rubucen sun haďa da littattafai da waƘoƘi da huďubobi da wasiƘu da sauransu.
Ko da Turawa suka shigo Ƙasar Hausa sun sami al’amurran Ƙasar na gudana bisa tsari na addinin Musulunci daidai gwargwado. Irin wannan yanayi na watsuwar Musulunci da cigabansa cikin Ƙasar Hausa ya zama wani tarnaƘi babba ga rukunin Turawa Mishan da ke ƘoƘarin dasa addinin Kirista cikin Ƙasar (Miller, 1936).
Charles Henry Robinson ne ďan Mishan na farko da ya sami zagaya wasu sassan Ƙasar Hausa har kuma ya wallafa littafin adabin Hausa. Littafinsa Specimens Of Hausa Literature ya Ƙunshi waƘoƘin Hausa 6 da zube guda. WaƘoƘin 6 Robinson ya jingina asalin rubuta su ga wasu malaman Ƙasar Hausa uku. Ya jingina waƘoƘin ga malaman ba kan kowace hujja ba. Idan aka yi la’akari da Ƙunshiyar littafin Specimens Of Hausa Literature ana iya tabbatar da cewa, Robinson ya shirya littafin ne saboda wasu manufofi da yake son ya cimma.
GurƂata tarihin shigowar Musulunci da watsuwar sa cikin Ƙasar Hausa na cikin Ƃoyayyun manufofin Robinson ga wallafa wannan littafi. Ana iya gane haka idan aka yi nazarin bayanin da ya rubuta a sharhin waƘa ta 5 (E) da ya jingina wa Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo. Ga abin da ya ce,
Manufarta ita ce zuga mutane su shiga yaƘin da ya fara da Hausawa, shi Shaihu Usmanu wanda yake Bafillace ne. Sakamakon Ƙarshe na yaƘin shi ne Shaihu ya ci yankuna masu yawa na daular Ƙasar Hausa, da kuma tilasta su karƂar addinin Musulunci (Muhammadu) ( Robinson, 1896: 60).

Idan aka yi nazarin wannan batu aka kuma kwatanta shi da tarihin shigowa da watsuwar Musulunci Ƙasar Hausa za a ga cewa, bayanin yana gurƂata gaskiyar tarihin ne kawai. Malaman tarihi sun yi saƂani dangane da farkon shigowar Musulunci Ƙasar Hausa. Akwai masu ganin cewa, Musulunci ya fara shigowa Ƙasar Hausa ne tun a zamanin sahabban Annabi (SAW). Wasu kuma sun nuna a wajajen Ƙarni na10 ko na 11 ne ya fara shigowar Ƙasar Hausa (Yahaya, 1988:8-9 da Gada, 2010: 3). An Ƙarfafa zaton fara samuwar rubutaccen adabin Hausa cikin Ajamin Hausa tun a wajajen Ƙarni na 17 daga wasu ‘yan Ƙasa da suka sami zurfin ilmin Musulunci irin su Sheikh Ahmad Tila da Sheikh AbdulƘadir Tafa da Abdurrahman Tajuddin da sauransu (Yahaya, 1988: 31).
Shi kuma Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo an haife shi ne a ranar Lahadi 15 ga watan 12 shekarar 1754 (miladiyya). Ya yi karatunsa daga wurin mahaifinsa da wasu malaman Ƙasar Hausa kamar malam Jibrila. A shekarar 1804 ya Ƙaddamar da jihadi kan wasu daulolin Ƙasar (Bunza da wasu 2009). Wannan ya kawo tabbatar da Musulunci a matsayin tsarin gudanar da mulki da shari’a da sauransu. Haka kuma aka assasa daula mai cikakken tsarin Musulunci mai suna ‘Daular Usmaniyya’.
Idan aka dubi tarihin rayuwar Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo za a tabbatar da cewa, tun kafin haihuwar sa addinin Musulunci ya watsu cikin Ƙasar Hausa, kuma har an sami malamai da rubuce-rubuce na ‘yan Ƙasa. Ke nan a nan, bayanin da Robinson ya kawo a wannan littafi nasa (Specimens Of Hausa Literature, 1896 , 60) wanda ya nuna jihadin Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo ne abin da ya sa mutanen Ƙasar Hausa suka karƂi Musulunci wani abu ne da ke gurƂata ainihin tarihin watsuwar Musulunci cikin Ƙasar. Musulunci ya watsu Ƙasar Hausa tun kafin wannan jihadi na Shaihu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.

3.1.3 Sauya Akalar Rubutaccen Adabin Hausa Zuwa Na Turawa


Rubutaccen adabin Hausa abu ne da aka fara samarwa tun zamanin shigowar Musulunci da watsuwarsa cikin Ƙasar Hausa. Rubutaccen adabin da ya fi zama ruwan dare a lokacin shi ne waƘa. WaƘoƘin Hausa da aka samar a lokacin suna rubuce ne cikin Ajamin Hausa saboda ita ce kaďai ingantacciyar hanyar da Hausawa ke rubuta Hausa kafin mulkin mallaka. An sami malamai masu yawa da suka yi rubuce-rubuce cikin Ajami tun kafin jihadi da kuma bayansa.
Adabin Hausa (waƘa da sauran littattafai) da aka samar a wancan lokaci suna Ƙunshe ne da jigogin addinin Musulunci. Rubuce-rubucen an yi su domin a karantar da mutane al’amurran Musulunci daban-daban tun daga tauhidi da ayyukan ibada da zamantakewa da yabon Annabi (SAW) da siyasa da sauransu. Bisa irin waďannan jigogi Turawa suka sami rubutaccen adabin Hausa.
Daga shekarar 1900 ne Turawan Ingila suka Ƙaddamar da aniyarsu ta mulkin mallaka a Ƙasar Hausa. Muhimman batutuwan mulkin da tsaro da kuma ilmi ne Turawa suka fi mayar da hankalisu a kansu, musamman a farko-farkon shekarun mulkin nasu. Wannan ya sa Turawan suka shiga kiran taruka na ganawa a ƘarƘashin shugabansu Gwamna Lugga (Lugard). A wannan shekara Likita Miller ya nuna shawarar musanya hanyar karatun Hausawa ta Muhammadiya da ta boko domin ta haka ne masu tasowa a gaba za su tashi da tunani irin na Kirista –Turawa a maimakon na cikin adabin Musulmi wanda yake na addinin Musulunci (Miller 1936: 200-201).
A shekarar 1901 Gwamna Lugga ya kira wani taron ganawa da jami’an mulki da ilmi da addini. A wannan taron aka sami halartar Manjo Burdon da Likita Miller da wasu jami’ai inda suka tattauna batun bayar da ilmi ga Hausawa. Abin da ya dami taron shi ne sautukan da za a zaƂa (Larabci ko Ingilishi) don rubuta adabin Hausa. Ga abin da likita Miller (wakilin Ƙungiyoyin addini) ya rubuta game da zaman nasu,
Lokacin farko-farkon shekarun mulkin mallaka muhimmiyar matsala da ake neman walwalewa ita ce ta ilmi. Cikin wane tsarin rubutu za a samar da adabi nan gaba; cikin Larabci, ko Ajami, ko kuma Romanci? Masana gaba ďaya da wasu da yawa daga cikin jami’an mulki-musamman Manjo Burdon da saura gaba ďaya saboda la’akari da alaƘar da ke tsakanin Ƙasar Hausa da Ƙasashen Gabas, wato Musulunci da suke jin ya fi kyau a kiyaye, sun yi fatar a ci gaba da amfani da Larabci. A wajena wannan babbar matsala ce, na ji cewa sosai akwai buƘatar ďaukar matakin da ya dace. Ƙwarai akwai Ƙwararan dalilai masu yawa na zaƂen Larabci: shi ne wanda ake amfani cikin dukkan makarantun Musulunci na Ƙasar; shi ne hanyar da ake rubuta adabi cikin Ƙasar; uwa-uba, shi ne hanyar rubutu da dukkan Musulmi suke girmamawa saboda asalinsa, da kuma zamansa sautukan da aka rubuta AlƘur’ani mai girma da su. ƊabbaƘa wani zai zan kamar an yi batali (watsi) da dukkan waďannan dalilai masu Ƙarfi da kuma cin fuska ga addini, domin Hausawa Musulmi ne na sosai. Da wannan na tsabbace gefe, na kuma gamsu sosai cewa, in nuna Ƙyama ga wannan in zaƂi nasu in kuma yi fafutuka don shigo da tsarin rubutun Romanci. Wannan ya fi sauƘin koyo ga yara bisa ga Larabci. (Miller, 1936: 200).
Idan aka yi la’akari da wannan bayani za a ga cewa, Likita Miller ya nuna Ƙyama ga adabin da suka sami Hausawa kansa. Ko da suka shimfiďa tsarin mulkinsu sun sami Hausawa sun gwane ga rubuta Larabci da Ajami na wa’azi da sauransu waďanda suke yi ta hanyar amfani da ayoyin AlƘur’ani da hadisai. Fannonin addini da mu’amala masu yawa malamai sun yi rubutu kansu cikin Hausa da Larabci. Shi kuma Likita Miller wanda shi ďan Mishan ne na Ƙungiyar CMS gurinsa shi ne samun wata hanya da za su shiga su yi tasiri cikin rayuwar Hausawa cikin ruwan sanyi. Sanin ta hanyar ilmi ne kaďai za su sami haka, ya sa ya jajirce kan musanya sananniyar hanyar ilmin Hausawa da wata sabuwa ta Boko (Romanci). Ta wannan hanyar Hausawa za su naƘalci aƘidojinsu da al’adunsu da ke rubuce cikin sautukan Romanci. A wani littafin nasa ya faďaďa bayanin taron nasu inda ya ce,
...cikin tsarin ilmi wanda da ma H. E ya fara tunani kansa, wa ne abu zai zama Ƙa’ida ta rubutu? Shin za mu ďauki sautukan Larabci waďanda da ma su ake amfani da su a dukkan yankin Arewa, rubutun adabin Musulmi, da AlƘur’ani da hadisai ko kuma baƘaƘen Romanci waďanda wata rana za su mayar da matasan Arewacin Nijeriya magada ga adabin Girkawa da Romawa da Yahudu (Judea) da ma sauran Ƙasashen duniya da suke da wayewar kai. Daga cikin manyan mutane da jami’an mulki waďanda Lugga ya zaƂo tare da shi, kusan duk sun goyi bayan Larabci ne. Na yi fafutuka sosai na kawo muhawarori masu zafi a tsare don goyon bayan baƘaƘe da rubutun Romanci. Na ga dukkanin alamu da ke nuna shi kansa gwamna yana goyon bayana, sai dai ya yi shiru ne tukuna... Kafin wani lokaci buƘatata ta biya, ina cikin farin ciki sosai ganin an amince da amfani da baƘaƘen Romanci. Na ga alamu sosai da suka nuna shi ma Gwamna yana goyon bayana, sai dai ya saurara ne kawai (1949: 28-29).
Adabin Girkawa da Romawa da sauran Ƙasashen Turawa su ne waďanda Turawa ke ganin su ne na wayewar kan duniya. Likita Miller na sane da irin yadda lamurran adabin Hausawa ya ci gaba ta fuskar waƘoƘin wa’azi da ilmantarwa wanda yake na tsintsar addinin Musulunci ne. Idan gwamnatin mulki ta goya wa adabin baya, zai Ƙara Ƙarfafa, ya hana wanda Turawan Mishan suke son bazuwarsa karƂuwa ga Hausawa. Wannan ya sa ya yi wa Turawan nuni ga abin da shi ne Ƙasashensu suke kansu. Da yake bori ďaya suke wa tsafi, sai shugaban taron ya bi bayansa, sauran su ma suka miƘa wuya.
Bayan Ƙare tattaunawarsu sai suka shiga lalaben wanda za a ďaura wa alhakin jagorancin fito da hanyar da za a bi don nasarar lamarin nasu. Wannan ya sa aka ďauko Hans Ƃischer (Ɗan Hausa). Hans Ƃischer ya fara shigowa Ƙasar Hausa ne a 1901 don aikin Mishan. A shekarar 1902 ya sauya riga zuwa mulkin mallaka. A shekarar 1908 ya gabatar wa gwamna rahotonsa kan lamarin bayar da ilmi ga Hausawa. A cikin rahoton ne ya bayyana ra’ayin musanya tsarin rubutun Ajami da na Boko. Ya yi haka ne domin a sami hanyar da za a sauya akalar adabin Hausa daga na Musulunci zuwa na duniya. Ga yadda ya taƘaita manufar tasa a lambar rahoton ta 2 b.
Ta hanyar Ƙarfafa karatun sautukan Larabci, haƘiƘa Gwamnati za ta taimaka watsuwar addinin Musulunci.

Idan aka yi nazarin waďannan bayanai za a ga cewa, tunanin Turawa na samar da hanyar rubuta Hausa da sautukan Romanci (Boko) shi ne, sauya akalar manufar marubuta adabin Hausa cikin Ajami daga na addinin Musulunci zuwa na sharholiyar duniya cikin Hausar Boko. Wannan zai sa rubuce-rubucen Hausawa su dace da irin waďanda Turawan suke so kamar na Girkawa da Farisawa da sauransu.
Bayan daidaituwar ra’ayin Turawa ga manufar sauya akalar adabin Hausa, sai suka shiga hidimomin buďa makarantun boko da samar da littattafan koyon karatu cikin Hausa. Burdon ya buďa tasa a Sakkwato a shekarar 1905. Miller ya buďa ta CMS a Zariya a 1906. Hans Ƃischer ya buďa ta yankin Arewa cikin birnin Kano a 1909 (Ozigi da Ocho,1981 ). Haka kuma a shekarar 1901 Miller ya wallafa littafin koyon Hausa mai suna Hausa Note. Shi kuma Hans Ƃischer a shekarar 1911 ya wallafa nasa littafin Ƙa’idojin rubuta Hausa mai suna Rules For Hausa Spelling. A makarantun na Boko aka ci gaba da koyar da yaran Hausawa karatu daga labaran da aka fassara na littafin Linjila da kuma littattafan tatsuniyoyi don kau da hankalin ďaliban da shagaltar da su daga adabin Musulunci da suka saba da shi da kuma gina wani sabon tunani cikin zukatansu. Haka Turawa suka ci gaba da koyar da Hausawa karatu da rubutu cikin Hausar Boko.
A shekarar 1919 Hans Ƃischer ya aje aikin mulkin mallaka. Wannan ya ba shi dama ya haďu da wasu Turawa da suka yi ayyuka daban-daban a sassan nahiyar Afirika suka kafa wata cibiya. Tunanin kafa cibiyar ya taso ne a lokacin taron Mishan da wasu Turawa da aka yi a High Leigh cikin Satumba 1924. A watan Satumba 1925 jami’an cibiyar suka amince su yi wani taro a School of Oriental Studies, London. A wajen taron aka samar da wani kwamitin gudanarwa, aka kuma ba Mr. Hans Ƃischer sakatare. A watan Yuni 1926 aka sake ba shi muƘamin mataimakin Darakta, aka kuma amince da kafa wannan cibiyar hukumance daga 1-7-1926. Daga cikin manufofin wannan cibiyar akwai kafa hukumar da za ta tattara bayanai don hukumomi da ďaiďaikun mutanen da ke da sha’awa ga ilmin harsuna da bincike-bincike da kuma aikin ilmi a cikin Afirika. Akwai kuma taimako don buga littattafan adabi na ilmi cikin harsunan Afirika. Domin a Ƙarfafa ‘yan Afirika su riƘa rubutu cikin harsunansu, a watan Disamba 1928 kwamitin ya yanke shawarar sanya gasar rubuta adabi cikin harsunan Afirika kuma daga ‘yan asalin Afirika. A shekarar 1931, aka zaƂi harshen Hausa, aka kuma gabatar da wasu littattafai guda 5. (Smith, 1934: 1-6). Abin da Turawa suka gani a waďannan littattafai ya nuna haƘarsu ta kusa cimma ruwa domin Hausawa sun fara sarrafa fasaharsu su rubuta adabin da ba na Musulunci ba.
A nan cikin Ƙasar Hausa kuwa, tun a shekarar 1929 aka kafa Hukumar Fassara don a fassaro labarai daga wasu harsuna zuwa cikin Hausa. A shekarar 1932 wannan hukumar ta aza gasar rubuta Ƙagaggun labaran Hausa don ‘yan Ƙasa . ‘Yan Ƙasa suka gabatar da littattafansu na hira da ba su danganci addinin Musulunci ba kai tsaye, aka zaƂi guda 5 daga cikin su aka buga. Likita Miller ya bayyana sha’awarsu ga yadda hukumar ta fara samar da irin adabin da suke son Hausawa su rubuta. Ya ce,
Mr East na Hukumar fassara da ke Zariya ya fara wani aikin gwaji kuma ya cancanci goyon baya tare da sa idon Ƙungiyoyin Mishan. Yana Ƙarfafa guiwar fitattun yara ‘yan makaranta da matasa da ke cikin manyan azuzuwan makarantu da kwaleji na gwamnati da ke Arewacin Nijeriya don su rubuta littattafai cikin Hausa. Tuni an fara samar da Ƙananan littattafai a kan tafiye-tafiye da tarihi da Ƙagawa da kuma adabin baka, kuma suna ba mu mamaki ganin irin Ƙwarewarsu da ingancin littattafan (Miller, 1936: 204).
Ta fuskar rubutattun waƘoƘin Hausa waďanda kafin shigowar Turawa da shimfiďa manufofinsu cikin Ƙasar Hausa, dukkan waƘoƘin ana rubuta su ne kan jigogin addinin Musulunci, sai aka sami rukunin wasu Hausawa suka rubuta waƘoƘi kan jigogin al’amurran duniya daban-daban. Malam AlƘali Haliru Wurno ya rubuta waƘar Honda. Malam Aliyu Na Mangi ya rubuta ta Keke. Shi kuma AlƘali Bello Giďaďawa ya rubuta ta Railway, inda Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari ya rubuta waƘar Nijeriya. Malam Abubakar Ladan ya rubuta waƘar Haďin Kan Afirika. Tun daga wannan lokaci lamarin waƘoƘin Hausa ya ďauki wani sabon salo da jigo. Ana rubuta na addini tsantsa, ana kuma samun na duniya da soyayya da yabon wani mutum da siyasa da sauransu.
Idan aka dubi yadda lamarin rubuta adabin Hausa ya taso daga hannun Turawa da ire-iren abubuwan da suka shiga adabin , za a ga cewa, sauya akalar adabin ne babbar manufar Turawan. Sun sauya sautukan rubuta Hausa suka ďabbaƘa wa Hausawa nasu, suka koyar da ‘yan Ƙasa rubuta adabin sharholiya, suka kuma fifita shi da kyautuka a maimakon na Musulunci. ‘Yan Ƙasa suka naƘalci dabarar rubuta adabi kan kowane abu na duniya. Wannan ya sa wasu masu yawa musamman matasa ‘yan boko suka karkata tunanin rubutunsu daga addini zuwa wani abu daban. Da yawa wasu kan shirya adabin nasu don neman abin duniya ko neman suna ko bayyana wani abu sabon shigowa Ƙasar Hausa da dai sauransu. Haka yanayin adabin Hausa ya ci gaba har zuwa yau.

Wannan zai burge ku:

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/30/sulhun-tankiya-a-cikin-rubutattun-wakoki-da-wakokin-bakan-hausa/

4.1 Kammalawa


Saduwar Turawa da Hausawa da kuma shigarsu cikin samar da adabin Hausa tun kafin mulkin mallaka da bayansa ya sa adabin ya Ƙara faďaďa da Ƙara watsuwa cikin duniya. Ayyukan da Turawa suka yi na koyar da Hausawa wasu sababbin hanyoyin rubuta adabin Hausa da kafa hukumomin inganta shi wani muhimmin abu ne da ya taimaka ga taskace adabin da kuma ci gaba da wanzuwar rayuwarsa. Manufofin da suka ja Turawa ga wannan aiki, manufofi ne da ba za su yi nasarar su ba in har ba da shiga cikin adabin Hausa da aiki kansa ba. Shigarsu cikinsa ya sa manufofinsu suka wanzu, suka kuma kai ga nasara. A taƘaice, maƘalar nan ta tattaru ne kan bayanin waďannan manufofi da yadda Turawa suka yi amfani da wasu hanyoyin amfani da adabin Hausa suka cimma nasara. Wannan zai ba wasu manazartan wannan Ƙarni na 21 haske dangane da yadda Turawa suka inganta adabin Hausa don kai ga muradinsu. Sun cimma manufofinsu na sauya tunanin wasu marubuta cikin Hausa daga abin da suka taras na rubuce-rubucen Musulunci tsantsa zuwa ga rubutu irin na tunanin duniya. Da wannan sai a shigo da wata sabuwar kafa da tunanin daidaita akalar adabin Hausa na yau don ya dace da muradun al’ummar Hausawa a wannan Ƙarni.

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