Hausa Language Academic Website

Monday, 31 July 2017

Daidaiton Adadi Tsakanin Ƙirgau Da Suna A Yankin Suna Na Jumlar Hausa

Daga


Sama’ila Umar
Department of Nigerian Languages
Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies
Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
E-MAIL: samzariya@gmail.com , samzariya@outlook.com
Phone No. 07031948326 & 08022857551



TSAKURE


Yankin suna a fagen nazarin jumla wani babban yanki ne da masana suka gudanar da bincike na ilmi a kansa. Masana da dama sun nuna yadda matsayin suna da ‘yan rakiyarsa suke a yankin suna na jumla. Haka kuma sun nuna ire-iren kalmomin da sukan zo tare da suna a matsayin ‘yan rakiyar suna, a ciki har da ƙirgau. Galadanci, (1976) da ‘Yar’Aduwa, (1984) da Bagari, (1986) da Zarruƙ da wasu, (1987) da Amfani, (1996), Sani da wasu, (1997) da Sani, (1999) da Newman, (2000) da Jaggar, (2001) da Amfani, (2010) da Umar, (2012) duk sun gudanar da bincike kan ‘yan rakiyar suna da kan zo domin su raka suna don ya faďaďa ya zama yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Sannan sun nuna yadda rabe-rabensu yake. Burin wannan takarda shi ne, ta sake waiwayar ďaya daga cikin nau’o’in ďan rakiyar suna ƙirgau da yakan zo a yankin suna, wanda yake fito da adadin suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. ƙirgau ďan rakiya ne mai nau’o’i da dama, don haka wannan aikin ya ƙuduri niyyar gabatar da wani nau’i nasa da ake kira ƙirgau kadina. Ƙirgau kadina nau’i ne na ƙirgau mai sauƙin fahimta. Wannan ba shi ne aiki na farko a kan ƙirgau ba, za a waiwayi ayyukan da aka gudanar ne, don a warware matsalar fahimta da ake samu ta fuskar yanayin rakiyarsa a yankin suna.

ABSTRACT


Noun phrase consist of a head noun and optional modifiers. The modifier can be premodifier or postmodifier. Many scholar gives contribution for the analysis of Hausa noun phrase. And they try to point out the types of modifiers and the lexicon used as modifiers in Hausa language. Noun phrase in syntactics analysis of Hausa language is wide area, where many scholars give their contribution to bring out the clear structure of nominal system in Hausa syntax. Such scholars are as follow; Galadanci, (1976), ‘Yar’aduwa, (1984), Bagari, (1986), Zarruƙ at el, (1987), Yusuf, (1991), Amfani, (1996), Sani at el, (1997), Sani, (1999), Newman, (2000), Jaggar, (2001), Amfani, (2010) and Umar, (2012). All those scholars have been done alot of reasearch on Hausa nominal system. And they discussed on Hausa modifiers and their classification. The main purpose of this research is to review and highlight on one of the Hausa postmodifier called cardinal quantifier. Quantifier is one of the postmodifier in Hausa Language with difficult understanding. In this paper an attempt was made to show the agreement between the head noun and the cardinal quantifier in Hausa nominal phrase, where an examine have been made to show how cardinal number qualify noun in times of number. And also to point out about the agreement between noun and cardinal quantifier during the modification in times of number. This is not the first research about the cardinal quantifier, many work have being done.

1.0 GABATARWA


A Hausa akwai nau’o’in ƙirgau da dama, ďaya daga cikin nau’o’insa shi ne ƙirgau kadina. Ƙirgau kadina nau’in ďan rakiya ƙirgau ne, kuma yana iya cin gashin kansa. Wato yana iya zuwa shi kaďai ya ba da ma’ana, haka kuma yana iya zuwa tare da suna, ba tare da taimakon wata kalmar nahawu ba a lokacin rakiyar tasa. Aikin ƙirgau kadina shi ne ya fito da adadin sunan da yake rakawa, don a san sunan tilo ne ko jam’i. Burin wannan muƙalar shi ne, bin sawun yanayin rakiyar da ƙirgau kadina kan yi wa suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Sannan kuma a nuna yadda yarjejeniyar zamantakewa take aukuwa a lokacin rakiyar.
Yin hakan ba wani sabon abu ba ne a fagen nazarin ‘yan rakiyar suna da kan zo tare da suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Idan aka waiwayi ayyukan masana irin su; Kraft da Kirk-Green, (1973) da Galadanci, (1976) da ‘Yar’aduwa, (1984) da Bagari, (1986) da Newman, (2000) da Jaggar, (2001) da Amfani, (2010) da Umar, (2012), duk sun yi bayanai kan abin da ya shafi ƙirgau.

2.0 Ra’i


Aikin ‘Yar’aduwa, (1984) nazari ne da aka gudanar kan ďan rakiya ƙirgau, a wannan binciken ‘Yar’aduwa ya bi sawun nau’o’in wannan ďan rakiyar da kyau. Kuma ya yi bayaninsa daidai gwargwado, sai dai ƙirgau ďan rakiya ne mai wuyar fahimta ga ďalibai, don haka wannan muƙalar take ganin ya dace a sake yin ƙarin haske kan wasu wurare da ‘Yar’duwa ya taƙaita bayanin su. Don haka wannan muƙalar take son yin dogara da ra’in ‘Yar’aduwa (1984) wajen gudanar da wannan binciken.

3.0 Waiwaye Kan Ayyukan Magabata Da Suka Shafi Ƙirga


Masana ilimin ginin jumla sun gudanar da bincike kan yankin su, tare da ‘yan rakiyar suna da kan zo tare da suna domin su raka shi ya faďaďa ya zama yankin suna. Duk da cewa suna kaďai ba tare da wata kalma ta biyo shi ba yana iya zama yankin suna. Haka nan kuma masanan sun gudanar da bincike kan ‘yan rakiyar sunan. Ɗaya daga cikin ‘yan rakiyar da masanan suka nazarta shi ne ƙirgau. Masanan da suka gudanar da ayyuka a kansa su ne; Kraft, C.H. and Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. (1973) da Galadanci, M.K.M. (1976) da ‘Yar’aduwa, T.M. (1984) da Bagari, D. M. (1986) da Newman, P. (2000) da Jaggar, J.P. (2001) da Amfani, A.H. (2010) da Umar, S. (2012). Duk waďannan ayyuka ne da aka yi game da ƙirgau, wasu kai-tsaye wasu kuma misalai kaďai aka bayar kan ƙirgau. Ayyukan da aka yi kai-tsaye game da ƙirgau su ne ‘yar’aduwa (1984) da ‘Yar’aduwa, (2008) Umar, (2012). Sai dai a wannan muƙalar za a daddagi nau’in na ƙirgau kadina ne don a yi cikakken bayani kansa, ganin cewa ba kowa ya san ko me ake nufi da wannan ďan rakiyar ba.

4.0 Hanyoyin Gudanar Da Bincike


Wannan muƙalar ta yi amfani da kundaye da muƙalu da mujallu da aka gabatar a jami’o’i da wuraren tarurukan ƙarawa juna sani, wajen tattaro bayanan da suka shafi ƙigau. Sannan kuma an yi amfani da yanar gizo (internet), don samo bayanan da masana suka gudanar a kan wannan ďan rakiyar, wato ƙirgau. Muƙalar ta bi diddigin fitattun ayyukan da masana suka yi ne don samo madogara kan manufar wannan muƙalar. Sannan an tattauna da masana ilimin ginin jumla kan daidaito tsakanin suna da ƙirgau. Wanda aka tattauna da shi kuwa shi ne Amfani A. H. don samun cikakken bayani game da tsarin yankin suna da kuma yanayin zuwan ‘ya rakiya tare da suna. Ayyukan da aka duba su ne; Kraft, C.H. and Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. (1973) da Galadanci, M.K.M. (1976) da ‘Yar’aduwa, T.M. (1984) da Bagari, D. M. (1986) da Newman, P. (2000) da Jaggar, J.P. (2001) da Amfani, A.H. (2010) da Umar, S. (2012).

5.0 Ƙirgau Kadina


A Hausa akwai kalmomin lissafi irin su; ďaya, biyu, shida, tara, goma, Goma sha bakwai, gomiya, hauya, ashirin, ashirin da biyar, talatin, talatin da ďaya, ďari, ďari da goma sha huďu, dubu, dubu uku da ďari biyu da hamsin da ďaya da makamantan su. Waďannan su ake kira da kalmomin lissafi na Hausa, kuma su ake kira ƙirgau kadina idan suka fito a yankin suna na jumla, a fagen nazarin adadi na yankin suna a jumlar Hausa.
Akwai yarjejeniyar zamantakewa tsakanin ƙirgau kadina da sunan da yake rakawa a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Wannan matsayin na ƙirgau kadina na harshen Hausa ya yi daidai da na sauran harsunan duniya kamar yadda Crystal (1980:65) ya nuna a inda yake cewa “ƙirgau kadina ajin lambobi ne da ake lissafa suna da su; kamar ďaya, biyu, goma, ďari, dubu da sauran su”.
Waďannan kalmomin na adadin ƙirga ne tsurarsu a fagen lissafi, ba tare da an nuna yadda suke rakiyar suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa ba. Kalmomin na ƙirga waďanda suka shafi lissafi, suna iya zama masu cin gashin kansu ba tare da an jingina su da suna ba kafin su ba da ma’ana kamar yadda aka gani a misali na sama. Waďannan jerin kalmomin da aka samu na lissafi su ke komawa kalmomin ƙirgau, idan suka zo tare da suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Misali
(i) Gidaje bakwai/ suka ƙone.
(ii) Mootoocii biyar/ sun yi karo
(iii) Buhu ďaya/ aka ba Audu.
(iv) Hula biyar / aka raba wa ďalibai.
(v) Yara shida / suka dawo gida.
Wannan shi ne matsayin kalmomin ƙirgau daga ra’ayin masana kamar yadda ‘Yar’aduwa (1984) ya kawo, tare da misalan da aka bayar don ƙarin haske kan ma’anar ta ƙirga da aka samar da kalmar nahawu ta ƙirgau daga gare ta.
6.0 Yanayi Da Yarjejeniyar Rakiyar ƙirgau Kadina A Yankin Suna Na Jumlar Hausa
Masanan da suka nazarci ƙirgau na Hausa da nau’o’insa a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa; irin su Kraft da Kirk-Greene (1973) da Galadanci (1976) da ‘Yar’aduwa (1984) da Bagari (1986) da Newman (2000) da Jaggar (2001) da Amfani (2010) da Umar (2012) duk sun amince da cewa ƙirgau kadina ya kan zo ne a bayan suna a lokacin rakiyar da yake yi wa suna don fito da adadinsa. Misali
Tebura biyar suka karye.

Sn ƙgkdn
A wannan misalin kalmar ‘tebura’ ita ce kalmar suna kuma jam’i, kalmar ‘biyar’ kuwa ita ce kalmar ƙirgau kadina wadda ta wuce adadin tilo (wato ďaya). Masana nahawun harshen Hausa da suka nazarci ƙirgau a harshen Hausa sun yi bayanai daban-daban kan al’amurran da suka shafi zamantakewar ‘suna’ da ‘ƙirgau kadina’ a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Alalmisali sun dubi yanayin zuwan suna da ƙirgau kadina a yankin suna, kuma sun amince da cewa tilas ne suna ya gabaci ƙirgau kadina a yayin rakiyar da ƙirgau ďin yake yi wa suna. Kamar yadda aka nuna a misalai na sama.
Masanan sun nuna cewa Hausa ba ta yarda da ‘ƙirgau kadina’ ya gabaci suna ba. Kamar yadda za a gani a wannan misalin
* Hamsin awaki suka Ƃata.

Sn ƙgkdn
Yanayin muhallin zuwan ƙirgau kadina a lokacin rakiyarsa a yankin suna ya fi dacewa da ya zo a bayan suna ba a gabanin suna ba. Saboda idan har ya zo kafin suna ma’anar yankin sunan ba za ta fito ba. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, dole ne ƙirgau kadina ya biyo bayan sunan da yake rakawa, don ta haka ne zai iya ba da ma’ana ingantacciya, wato ta haka ne za a iya fahimtar adadin sunan da aka raka.
Wani mahimmin abu da wannan muƙalar take gani ya dace ta waiwaya shi ne, matsayar daidaito na adadi tsakanin suna da ƙirgau kadina a lokacin rakiya. Wasu masanan na ganin idan ƙirgau kadina adadinsa ya wuce ďaya, to dole shi ma suna ya wuce tilo. Misali:
gidaje talatin

Sn ƙgkdn
(jam’i) (fiye da ďaya)
Wasu masanan irin su, Kraft da Kirk-Greene (1973) da Bagari (11986) suna ganin wannan daidaiton na adadi ba dole ba, kamar yadda cancantar wannan yankin sunan ya nuna;
* gida talatin

Sn ƙgkdn
Abin lura a nan shi ne, shin ‘gida talatin’ da ‘gidaje talatin’ ma’anarsu ďaya ce? Daga binciken da aka gudanar an fahimci cewar akwai ďan bambanci ma’ana tsakanin su. Da alama a ko da yaushe harshen Hausa ya fi son ‘suna’ da ‘ƙirgau na kadina’ su yi tarayya a adadi a lokacin da ƙirgau kadina ke ƙoƙarin raka suna a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Wato ke nan Hausa ta fi son a ce
gidaje goma
Wannan ya fi sauƙin fahimta, kuma ya fi ďaukar ma’ana ta kai waye. Inda ake amfani da rashin daidaito tsakanin suna da ƙirgau kamar haka:
gida goma
Wuri ne na musamman, kuma sai Bahaushe sosai zai iya amfani da irin wannan tsari na ‘suna’ da ‘ƙirgau kadina’ domin sun bambanta a adadi.
A duk lokacin da aka yi amfani da wannan tsarin na rashin daidaiton adadi tsakanin suna da ƙirgau kadina, za a tarar yankin suna yana da wata ma’ana dunƙulalliya ta musamman. Alal misali;
Ƙato bakwai
A wannan misalin za a tarar da cewa ‘ƙato’ kalmar suna ce mai nuni da namiji babba kuma tilo, inda kalmar ‘bakwai’ adadin ne da ya fi ďaya, cewa ‘ƙato bakwai’ ya nuna ke nan mutum ďaya har sau bakwai. Wannan yankin suna yana da wata ma’ana ta daban da ta wannan misalin:
Ƙarti bakwai
A wannan misalin yankin sunan ya nuna cewa mutane ne manya har guda bakwai. Inda a misali na samansa yake nuna cewa ma’anar adadin ƙirgau ba na rakiya ba ne, da wuya a ce suna tilo ya ďauki adadi fiye da ďaya. Wato sai dai kawai mai saurare ya yi hasashe, ya gane cewa ‘ƙarti bakwai’ ake nufi ko kuma akasin hakan. Irin wannan bayani na dunƙulalliyar ma’ana shi ake samu a irin waďannan misalan:
(i) unguwa uku ( sunan wata unguwa a Kano)
(i) mutum biyu ( sunan wani gari a Jihar Taraba)
(ii) gada biyu (sunan wata unguwa a Gusau)
(iii) magama huďu (sunan wata unguwa a Sakkwato)
(iv) baki biyu (yin magana da sake ta)
(v) hannu biyu (zuwa wani wuri ba tare da mutum ya riƙe wani abu da zai kai wurin ba)
Sanin cikakkiyar ma’anar ire-iren waďannan yankunan sunan sai cikakken Bahaushe ko wanda ya ƙware kan harkar magana da harshen Hausa. Waďannan yankunan sunan suna da wasu ma’anoni na musamman da suke a dunƙule.

Wannan zai burge ku:

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/30/sulhun-tankiya-a-cikin-rubutattun-wakoki-da-wakokin-bakan-hausa/

7.0 KAMMALAWA


Duk da cewa ra’ayoyin masana sun bambanta kan daidaiton adadi tsakanin kalmar suna da ta ƙirgau kadina a lokacin da suka bayyana a yankin suna na jumla tare. Wannan wani abu ne da ya kamata a lura da shi dangane da daidaiton adadin. Wannan daidaito na adadi tsakanin suna da ƙirgau shi ke samar da tsayayyiyar ma’anar da ake buƙatar samu na adadin sunan da ake yi wa rakiya. Domin in har daidaiton adadin ya saƂa, to lallai adadin sunan da ake yi wa rakiyar ba zai bayyana ba, ta yadda za a fahimci cikakken adadin da suna ya ƙunsa kai-tsaye. Kusan duk inda aka sami saƂanin daidaiton za a tarar maganar adadin sunan bai bayyana ba. Wato yankin sunan ya kan sami wata sabuwar ma’ana da ta saƂa wa tsarin rakiyar. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, yankin sunan kan ďauki sabuwar ma’ana wadda ta saƂa wa maganar adadi da ake nazarta a lokacin zamantakewar suna da ƙirgau a yankin suna na jumlar Hausa. Inda yankin sunan kan koma suna cikakke wanda ba a buƙatar kula da adadi a lokacin da ake amfani da shi don gina jumla.

MANAZARTA


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Crystal, D.1980. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics.U.S.A:
Blackwell Publishing.
Galadanci, M. K. M. 1976. An Introduction to Hausa Grammar. Zaria: Longman Nigeria Limited.
Jaggar, J. P. 2001. Hausa. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Kraft, C. H. and Kirk- Greene, A.H.M. 1973. Hausa: A complete course for beginners. London: Hodder Headline Plc.
Newman, P. 2000. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Referance Grammar. New Have: Yale University Press.
Sani, M.A. Z. 1999. Tsarin Sauti da Nahawun Hausa. Ibadan: University Press plc.
Umar, S. 2012. “Matsayin ‘Yan Rakiya A Yankin Suna: Tsokaci A Kan Ƙirgau”. Kundin Digiri Na Biyu. Sakkwato: Sashen Koyar Da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.
‘Yar’aduwa, T. M. 1984. “Quantifiers In Hausa”. Zaria. M.A. Thesis Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Nigerian and African Languages.
‘Yar’aduwa, T. M. 2008. The Syntactic And Sementic Description of the Hausa Quantifiers. The Ph.D Thesis modified to a book. Kano. Clear Impressions Limited.

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