Hausa Language Academic Website

Monday, 10 July 2017

Fannin Bincike Na Kamanci Da Bambanci Tsakanin Harsuna (ContrastiƂe Analysis)

Na
Hirabri Shehu
Suleiman Mansur
Zaharadden Abubakar Mainiyo
Usman Iliyasu
Mainasara Abdulkadir



GABATARWA


Wannan aiki zai yi bayani dalla-dalla a kan fannin bincike na kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harsuna (Contrastive Alysis) tare da kawo misalai masu gamsarwa. Sai dai aikin zai keƂanta ne a tsakanin harsunan Hausa da Ingilishi. Amma kafin nan za a kawo ma`anar.
a. Compare
b. Contrast
Compare: Na nufin a kwatanta abu biyu mabambanta waďanda wannan na da wani abu, wannan bai da shi. Misali
Mai kuďi da maras kuďi
Mai ilmi da maras ilmi
Mace da namiji
Contrast: Na nufin a samu abubuwa biyu kamar Mrs A da Mrs B, a ce kowannensu na da kuďi sai dai Mrs A ya fi Mrs B kuďi, amma dukansu suna da kuďi. Haka kuma kamar sarkin Kano da sarkin Zazzau kowannensu sarki ne amma kowannensu da yankin da yake mulki.
ContrastiƂe Analysis Ƃangare ne, na ilimin kimiyar harshe da ake nazari kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harsuna biyu ko fiye, kamar harshen Hausa da Ingilishi, ko Arabiya da makamantansu.
A kwai matakan da ake amfani da su wajen nazarin kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harsuna wato (Contransive Analysis). Matakan sun haďa da:
1. Cikakken bayani na yanayin kwatance (Description).
2. Kwatanci tsakanin harsunan da ake kwatantawa (comparision).
3. Hasashen yadda kwatance yake (prediction statement or contrast)
Ta hanyar waďannan matakai ne ake bincike na kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harsuna (Contrastive Analysis).
Nazarin kamanci da bambanci ana yin sa ne ta waďannan fannoni kimiyar harshe waďanda suka haďa da:
1. Syntaď (ilimin ganin jumla)
2. Phonetics (ilimin gundarin sauti)
3. Morphology (ilimin Ƙirar kalma)
4. Phonology (ilimin tsarin sauti)
5. Semantic (ilimin ma`ana)

1. Ilimin Ginin Jumla (Syntax)


Akwai kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harshen Hausa da Ingilishi a wannan fanni kamar haka:
a. Suna da tsarin sassaukar jumla iri ďaya.
b. Suna da sifa.
c. Suna da cincirindon sifa.
d. Suna da kalamomin korewa.
a. Tsarin SassauƘar Jumla
Mataki na farko
1. Cikakken bayani na yanayin kwatance (Description):
Hausa da Ingilishi suna da tsari iri guda na sassauƘar jumla.
Mataki na biyu
2. Kwatanci tsakanin harsuna da ake kwatantawa (comparision)
Hausa: Mansur Kashe Kare
S V O
Ingilishi: John Kill Dog
S V O
3. Prediction/Statement Contrast (hasashen bincike)
A wannan tsarin na S.Ƃ.O a Ingilishi(S.A.K a Hausa) Hausa na buƘatar a fayyace mata aikau (subject) ta fuskar jinsi da adadi. Haka kuma tana buƘatar a fayyace mata karƂau (object) ta fuskar lokaci da taki. Idan an yi wa harshen Hausa haka, buƘatarsa ta biya.
Ga yadda Hausa ke son a fayyace ta, ta fuskar jinsi da adadi:
1. Namiji tilo
2. Mace tilo
3. Jam`i
1. Ta fuskar namiji tilo ana amfani da mafayyaciya /ya/ misali
Mansur [ya] a kashe kare
2. Ta fuskar mace tilo ana amfani da mafayyaciya /ta/. Misali
Hauwa`u /ta/ a kashe kare
3. Ta fuskar jam`i anan ba a maganar jinsi sai dai adadi kawai ana amfani da mafayyaciyar /su/. Misali
Yara /su/ n kashe kare
Hausa na buƘatar wannan tsarin na fayyacewa kuma za a gan shi fili (overt).
Ingilishi na da irin wannan tsarin amma a Ƃoye yake wato (convert).
Haka kuma Hausa na buƘatar a fayyace mata aikatau ta fuskar lokaci da taki. Ma`ana lokacin da aka yi aiki.da kuma taƘi ma`ana nuna aiki ya cika ko bai cikaba. Misali
Mansur ya /a/ kashe karee
Hauwa`u ta /a/ kashe karee
Yara su /n/ kashe karee
Haruffan da ke cikin baka biyu su ne ke nuna lokaci da taki.
Ingilishi na da irin wannan tsarin sai dai a Ƃoye yake wato (convert) ba kamar na Hausa ba dake a fili (overt).

B - SIFA


Step 1: Description
Hausa da Ingilishi suna da siffa
Step 2: Comparision
Hausa:
a. Sabon gidaa
b. Gidaa saaboo
Ingilishi:
New House
Step 3: Prediction or statement of contrast
Hausa ta yarda sifa ta zo kafin suna, kamar saabon gidaa. Haka kuma ta yarda sifa ta zo bayan suna kamar gidaa saaboo.
Ingilishi ya yarda sifa ta zo kafin suna kamar new house. Amma bai yarda ta zo bayan suna ba. Kamar Hause new ď.
C - Cincirindon Sifa a Ingilishi da Hausa
Step 1: Description (stacking of adjective). Hausa da Ingilishi suna da cincirindon sifa.

Step 2: Comparism
Hausa: Wani Zabgegen baƘin Ƙaton Ƃarawo
Det Np Adj Adj Adj N

Ingilishi: A young black beautiful girl
Det Np Adj Adj Adj Adj

Step 3: Prediction/statement of contras
Hausa: ba ta cika buƘatar cincirindon sifa gabanin suna ba.
Ingilishi: cincirindon sifa na zuwa gabanin suna. Amma bai yarda cincirindo sifa ya zo bayan suna ba.
D - Tsarin Kalmar Aikatau a Cikin Jumla
Step 1: Description: Hausa da Ingilishi suna da kalmar aikatau.
Step 2: Comparision
Hausa: Na da tushen kalma da wasalin Ƙarshe
Say i = Sayi
Tushe wasalin Ƙarshe
Ingilishi: Ba ya da tushen kalma sai dai ana samun Ƙari kamar:
Kill
Killed
Killing
Kills
Step 3: Prediction/statement of contrast
Hausa na Ƙari ne ga aikatau domin a samu giredi.
Ingilishi yana Ƙari ne domin samun lokaci.
2- Phonetics: Ilimin Gundarin Sauti.
Ilimin Gundarin sauti fanni ne da ilimin kimiyar harshe da ke kula da sautuka da yadda suke a cikin harshe. A wannan fannin akwai kamanci da bambanci (contrastive analysis) tsakanin harshen Huasa da Ingilishi.

Stage 1. Description: Cikakken bayani na yanayin abin kwatamci.
Hausa da Ingilishi sun yi tarayya wajen lissafin kalmomi sautuka wato “phoneme inƂentory” a cikin rumbun kalmomi ko sautukan harsunan duniya wato “International Phonetics Alphabet” (I P A).
Stage 2. Comparision: Kwatanta abun kwatamci tsakanin harsunan kwatamci.
Misalin sautukan Ingilishi da suka bambanta da na Hausa:
x, v, q
Misalin sautukan Hausa da suka bambanta da na Ingilishi:
Ƃ, ď, Ƙ,
Stage 3. Prediction or statement of contrast (Hasashen yadda kwatanci yake).
Hausa da Ingilishi kowane yana amfani da sautukan, baƘaƘe da wasulla sai dai na kowane sun bambanta ko mafi yawansu sun bambanta kamar yadda bayani ko misali ya gabata.

3- MORPHOLOGY


1. ďafi
2. Harďantawa
Morphology
A harshen Hausa da Ingilishi duk sun yi tarayya a wajen kamance a Ƃangaren ďafi haka zalika da kuma wasu bambance-bambance.
ďafa goshi: Hausa da Ingilishi suna da ďafa goshi sannan kuma ďafin yana zuwa ne a farkon kalma wanda Ingilishi suke kira “prefiď” sannan tsarin guda ne da Hausa.
Hausa : ďafa-goshi a Hausa shi na zuwa ne a farkon kalma kamar haka:

Tushe ďafa-Goshi Kalma

Hausa Ba- Ba haushe
Sakkwato Ba- Ba sakkwace
Rubutu Ma- ma rubuciya

Ingilishi: ďafa-Goshi (prefiď) shi ma yana zuwa ne a farkon kalma (wato tushen kalma) ga misalai kamar haka:

Tushe ďafa-Goshi Kalma

Market mini- mini-market
AdƂantage dis dis-adƂantage
Possible im im-possible

Hausa da Ingilishi dukansu suna amfani da ďafofi ko dai ďafa goshi “prefiď” ko dai ďafa ciki “Infiďes ko ďafa goshi suffiď”.
Ingilishi ba a cika samun ďafa ciki ba kamar Hausa.
Kwatance ta Fuskar ďafa-Ciki
Hausa: ďafa-ciki watau ďafin da ke zuwa a tsakiyar kalma, sai dai ďafin ko wani lokaci ďafi yana zuwa ne a matsayin wasali kamar haka:

Tushe ďafa-ciki Kalma

Gurgu a- Guragu
Murhu a- Murahu
Aska a- Asake

Wannan shi ne yadda kwatancen ta fuskar ďafa-ciki a Hausa yake samuwa.
Sannan haka Ingilishi yana da shi sai dai bai cika faruwa ba.
Ingilishi: (Infiďes) ďafa ciki ďafin da ke zuwa a tsakiyar tushen kalma.
ďafin dai ya fi zuwa ne a wasali kamar haka:

Tushe ďafa ciki Kalma

Man e_ men
Goose e_ geese
Fall e_ fell

Kwatance ta Fuskar ďafa Ƙeya
Hausa: ďafa Ƙewa yana zuwa a Ƙarshen tushen kalma.
Hausa da Ingilishi duk suna da Ƙeya ‘suffiďes’ ďafin na zuwa na a Ƙarshen kalma. Ga misali kamar haka:

Hausa ďafa-Ƙeya Kalma

Hausa wa_ Hausawa
Mata ye_ mataye

Ingilishi: (suffiď) ďafa-Ƙeya ďafin da ke samuwa a Ƙarshen tushen kalma kamar haka:

Tushe ďafa-Ƙeya Kalma

Free dom_ freedom
Happy ness_ happiness
Friend ship_ friendship
Kind ship_ kinship

Harďantawa (compounding)
A wannan Ƃangaren ma an sa,mu kamance a tsakanin harsuna biyu inda ake samun kalmomi guda biyu a haďa domin samar da sabuwar kalma. Misali a Hausa:

Kalma Sabuwar Kalma

Rigaa-kafi rigaa kafi
Kumburin-ďinki kumburi na ďinki
Farin-jini fari – jini

Ingilishi Kalma Sabuwar Kalma

Head-boy Head Boy
Auto-mobile Auto mobile
Power-bike power bike

Statement of Contrast/prediction:
- Hausa da Ingilishi suna da Harďantawa.
- Hausa na haďa kalmomi biyu ko fiye a wajen samar da sabuwar kalma.
- Ingilishi ba a cika samun harďantattun kalmomi fiye da biyu ba, kamar yadda Hausa ke yi.

KAMMALAWA


Waďannan bayanai da misalan da suka gabata su ake nufi da fannin bincike ko nazarin kamanci da bambanci tsakanin harsunan Hausa da Ingilishi wato (ContransitiƂe Analysis). Inda aka kawo ma`anar compare da contrast tare da yin bayani mai gamsarwa, da kawo misalai dalla-dalla a kan contrasnsitiƂe analysis ta fannonin ilimin ginin jumla (syntaď) da ilimin gundarin sauti (phonetics) da ilimin Ƙirar kalma da makamantansu.

Karanta wani

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/08/hausar-yan-siyasa-arewacin-nijeriya-babi-na-biyar/

Manazarta


Amfani, A. H. (2005). Waiwaye Adon Tafiya Bitar Rabe-Rabe Azuzuwan Kalmomi: Dundaye Jounal VOL.01, No. 2 Dec 2005.
Amfani, A. H. (2016/2017). ALH 408 Contrastive Studies in Hausa
Amfani, A. H. (2016/2017). Lecture Note on Alh 401: Issues in Hausa Phonology Usmanu ďanfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Amfani, A. H. (2016/2017). Lecture on ALH 401: Issues in Hausa Syntax, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Fagge, U. U. (2013) Ƙirar Kalma A Hausa, Ahmadu Bello University Press Zaria.
Muhammad, I. A. (2013/2014). Lecture note on ALH 205: Hausa Morphology Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

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