Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Ashe Harshe Yana Mutuwa?

Daga


Salisu Ahmed Yakasai
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Syakasai2002@yahoo.com
+ (234) 8035073537 , 8096426093


MaƘalar da aka miƘa a matsayin gudummawa ga Mujallar ALGAITA, Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Najeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, a watan Satumba na 2010.



1.0 Gabatarwa


Mutuwar harshe wani al’amari ne da ke faruwa a yayin da al’ummu majiya harsuna biyu ko fiye suka sami kansu cikin barazanar manyan harsuna. A yayin da haka ta auku, to majiya harsuna biyu kan Ƃige da jin harshe guda kawai. Wato annoba ta Ƃacewa ko mutuwa ta kama ďaya harshen da ba a amfani da shi (domin cikakken bayani kan matsayin harsuna ‘yan tsiraru cikin dangantakar al’umma a Nijeriya, duba Yakasai 2005).

Akwai kuma wasu hanyoyi guda biyu da harshe ka iya nakasa ba tare da mutuwa ba. Na farko dai yana faruwa ne a sakamakon zama ko kasancewa harshen musaya, tamkar dai yadda harshen Spanish ya mamaye gurbin Latin. Na biyu kuma shi ne inda al’umma gaba ďayanta ke mutuwa, kamar dai yadda ya faru ga Tasmaniyawa da kuma harshen Yaki (Swadesh, 1948:226).

Wannan maƘala za ta maida hankali ga taƂarƂarewar harshe wanda ke zama sanadin mutuwar harshen gaba ďaya. Akwai muhimman al’amura na harshe (zubi da tsari), waďanda kuma kan sassauya ta yadda ba sa hana aukuwar taƂarƂarewar balle kuma mutuwar harshen gaba ďaya. Da so samu ne, da an tanadi wani ra’i da zai yi bayanin tsananin sauye-sauyen da ake samu, dangane da muhimman al’amuran harshe. Sauran maganar ita ce, duk da cewa babu wani ra’i kan taƂarƂarewa da kuma mutuwar harshe, za mu yi amfani da wasu hanyoyi da za su taimaka wajen bayyana yadda harshe yake mutuwa.

2.0 Sigar Al’umma Majiya Harshe da Yawa


Kafin mu yi tsokaci cikin yanayi da tsarin mutuwar harshe, ya kamata mu ďan waiwayi sigar al’umma majiya harshe da yawa, musamman ma da yake a irin wannan yanayin ne harsuna daban-daban kan sami kansu cikin barazana iri-iri. Ga misali, a lokacin da harshe ya tasam ma halaka, wato taƂarƂarewa ta tsananta, to abubuwa ne da yawa ke faruwa gare shi, waďanda kuma dalilai ne masu nasaba da harshe da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa suke taimakawa ga mutuwarsa gaba ďaya.

Nijeriya Ƙasa ce mai Ƙabilu da al’umma majiya harshe da yawa. A bayanin Wikipedia kan harsunan Afirka (2009), akwai kimanin harsuna ďari biyar da goma da Nijeriya mai kimanin mutane miliyan ďari da hamsin ke amfani da su. Ana amfani da waďannan harsuna ne kafaďa da kafaďa da harshen Ingilishi kawai a matsayin harshen hukuma. Sai kuma harshen Faransanci, harshen da gwamnatin marigayi Janar Sani Abacha ta ďaga darajarsa zuwa harshen hukuma na biyu a 1996.

Duk da cewa Larabci ba shi da matsayin harshen hukuma, to amma kuma shi ne baƘon harshe na uku a Nijeriya, kuma ana amfani da shi a arewacin Ƙasar inda musulmi suka fi yawa. Buroka kuwa wani harshe ne da yanayin zamantakewa (musamman mu’amala tsakanin mutane majiya harshe daban-daban da ba su da harshen hulďa) ya haifar.

An karkasa harsunan Nijeriya zuwa matsayi daban-daban, wato kama daga manya, ‘yan tsiraru, waďanda suka haƂaka, masu haƂaka da marasa haƂaka (Emenanjo 1990 a Chumbow 1990). Adadin majiya waďannan harsuna da kuma bunƘasarsu suna daga cikin matakan da ake la’akari da su wajen cigabansu ko kuma irin barazanar da suke fuskanta (wadda kuma ka iya kai su ga mutuwa). Ga misali, an kasa Hausa da Igbo da Yoruba a matsayin manyan harsuna da suka bunƘasa saboda yawan majiya da kuma ďimbin ayyukan da suke aiwatarwa da su. Daga nan kuma sai rukunin Efik da Izon da Fulfulde da TiƂ da Idoma da Ibibio da Urhebo waďanda suke da Ƙa’idojin rubutu, amma kuma suna matsayin ‘yan tsiraru masu bunƘasa saboda taƘaitaccen adadi da ayyukan yi.

Sai dai kuma rashin Ƙiyasi kan adadin majiya harsuna (musamman ma da yake babu wata sahihiyar Ƙidaya da aka gudanar) ya haifar da shakku dangane da mizanin da aka yi amfani da shi wajen tantance adadin harsuna. Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, matsayi da tsarin mulkin Nijeriya ya bai wa Hausa, Igbo da Yoruba ne, ya ďaga darajarsu ta kasancewa manyan harsuna, da mu’amala ta kafafen yaďa labarai da kuma kasancewa harsunan gudanarwa a majalisun tarayya da jihohi. Ta haka ne baya ga Ingilishi, waďannan harsuna suka samu kulawa da karƂuwa.

Dangane da halayyar harsunan kuwa, akwai karsashi tsakanin majiya wasu harsuna daban, musamman ma da yake sun ďauki waďannan harsuna uku a matsayin jagoran sauran Ƙabilu, kuma harsunan hulďa da mu’amala a zubi da tsarin Nijeriya. Mulkin mallaka a Nijeriya ya haďa al’ummu daban-daban a ƘarƘashin tsarin gudanarwa guda.

Sai dai kuma yanayin Ƙasar cikin barazanar mulkin mallaka ya rura wutar Ƙabilanci maimakon samar da Ƙasa ďaya mai al’umma ďaya. Wannan ne dalilin da ya hana samar da tsarin amfani da harshe guda a Ƙasar, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da irin sakamakon matsalar ta fuskar zamantakewa da tarihi da tattalin arziƘi da kuma siyasa.

Batun zaƂin harshen hulďa ko samuwarsa a tsakanin sauran harsuna abu ne da ka iya haifar da matsaloli da zarar aka nemi tilasta lamarin. Abin sha’awa ne a gane cewa manyan harsunan nan uku (wato Hausa da Igbo da Yoruba) ko da yaushe sukan yi kaka-gida cikin jagorancin Ƙasar, kuma hakan ne ya kawo rarrabuwa maimakon haďin kai. Su kansu harsuna ‘yan tsiraru sun sha Ƙorafi kan danniya da manyan harsuna suke yi musu.

Ga misali, a Ƙudurin ‘yan Ogoni na tabbatar da ‘yancin ďan-Adam da aka sanar da duniya a watan Disamba 1991, ‘yan Ogonin sun yi Ƙorafin cewa harsunansu ba su bunƘasa ba, kuma ana tilasta musu amfani da wasu harsuna daban. Haka kuma a shekara ta 2007 ne al’ummar yankin kudancin Ƙasar nan suka koka da cewa an mamaye su. Yawan tada-zaune-tsaye na ‘yan Niger Delta ya haifar da Ƃarna da asara ga Ƙasa baki ďaya. Haka kuma shi ya tilasta jam’iyyar PDP ta ba da muƘamin mataimakin shugaban Ƙasa ga yankin.

Haka kuma gwamnatin tarayya ta yi wa yankin goma sha-biyu na arziƘi. Da yawa mutane suna ganin yankin ya fi Ƙarfin gwamnati, musamman ma da yake yankin ya daďe yana barazanar Ƃallewa daga Ƙasar cikin iƘirarin mallakar kai. A maimakon maida hankali ga buƘatun Ƙasa gaba ďaya, Ƙungiyoyi a Nijeriya na ďaukar kansu a matsayin al’ummu masu cin gashin kansu kamar Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, TiƂ, Ijaw da sauransu. Wannan yanayi ya dace da ra’ayin Geller (1973:409) cewa, “lamarin da ake kira Ƙabilanci a Afirka matsala ce gama-gari da ke tauye al’ummu cikin tsarin shugabanci iri guda”.

A Nijeriya, ana amfani da harshe a matsayin wata kafa ta haďa kan al’umma. Wato da harshe ne al’umma ke bayyana dangantaka da taimako da girmamawa da saye da kuma Ƙabilanci. Duk da cewa rukunin jama’a ba ďaya yake da Ƙabila-Ƙabila ba, to a wani yanayin suna haďuwa.

A ra’ayin Wolf (2000:202) rarrabuwar jama’a cikin tsarin dangantaka (Ƙaramin matsayi ko babban muƘami) lamari ne da ke ďamfare da mizanin awo cikin harshe da hali da shekaru da jinsi da Ƙabila da iyali da addini da tattalin arziƘi da baƘo ko ďan gida da kuma asali ko tushe. A cikin al’ummun Nijeriya, ba lallai ba ne lamarin rarrabuwar jama’a ya dangana ga Ƙabila-Ƙabila ba, to amma kuma akwai zaton samun danganataka mai Ƙarfi tsakanin mulkin mallaka ko iko da kuma tushen Ƙabila. Tsarin raba daidai na gwamnatin tarayya da ke fifita himma da Ƙwazo bisa Ƙabilanci ya isa misali.

Masana irin su Bamgbose (1990), Wolf (2000) da kuma Elugbe (2009) sun bayyana cewa yawan harsuna yana hana samuwar haďin kan al’ummar Ƙasa. A ra’ayinsu, ruďani ne kawai tsakanin shugabanni cewa al’ummu majiya harshe da yawa za su inganta sahihiyar zamantakewa. Masanan sun yi amfani da Rwanda da Burundi a matsayin misali, wato sun yi ittifaƘi cewa Ƙabilu mabambanta kamar Hutu da Tutsi sun yi tarayya da juna wajen amfani da harshe ďaya. Sai dai kuma tarihi ya nuna cewa, haďaka cikin amfani da harshe ďaya ba ya hana al’umma yamutsi da yaƘin basasa da kuma kisan gilla.

Ana iya amincewa da waďannan masana, musamman ma da yake yanayin Nijeriya ya bayyana yadda yawan Ƙabilu da tsarin majiya harshe da yawa ya haifar da matsalar rashin haďin kai fiye da tsarin amfani da harshe guda. Saboda haka, kamar yadda muka gani a Nijeriya, batun bambancin harshe na rura wutar Ƙabilanci gaskiya ne. Wato a maimakon a ci gajiyar yawan harsuna cikin ďimbin al’adun da ke Ƙasar, ‘yan siyasar Nijeriya na amfani da yanayin domin cimma bukatunsu na siyasa. [aya dalilin da ke biye da wannan shi ne addini.

A ‘yan shekarun baya, an samu yawaitar rigingimun addini a arewacin Nijeriya. A arewan ne kuma aka fi samun masu zafin a}idar addini da kuma adawar siyasa. Waďannan misalai sun ba da Ƙiyasi mai ban tsoro, wanda kuma da yawa mutane ke ganin yana iya kawo cikas ga tafarkin dimokuraďiyya.

Ga misali, a ranar 26 ga watan Nuwamba na shekara ta 2008, zaƂen kansila da aka gudanar a Ƙaramar hukumar Jos ta arewa a jihar Filato, ya haifar da rikici tsakanin Hausawa Musulmi (da ake ďauka zuwa suka yi) da al’ummar Anagusta da Afizere da Biron kiristoci. A kowane lokaci, su waďannan ďin sukan Ƙyamaci wani baƘo ya tsaya takarar muƘamin shugaban Ƙaramar hukuma.

A wannan tashin hankali, fiye da mutane 500 aka kashe, kuma aka lalata gidaje 200, coci-coci 6 da masallatai 3, baya ga kimanin mutane 4,500 da suka rasa matsuguni. A tsakanin shekarun 1991 zuwa 2009, jihar Bauchi ta yi fama da rikicin addini fiye da sau goma, da kuma rikicin siyasa da ya yi sanadin mutuwar fiye da mutane 10,000, Ƙananan gidaje 3,500 da kuma tozarta coci-coci 300 da masallatai 20. {iyasin asarar da aka yi ya kai naira biliyan biyar (e-Guardian, Fabrairu 27, 2008).

Haka kuma, kasa kawo Ƙarshen rashin jituwa tsakanin Ƙabilu daban-daban a Numan ya kawo barazana a jihar Adamawa. Barazanar ta samo asali ne daga gabar da ke tsakanin al’ummar Numan kiristoci da ake wa laƘabi Bwatiye, da kuma baƘi musulmi mazauna wurin da suka zo daga jihar Sakkwato.

Rikicin addini cikin barazanar jahilcin marasa aikin yi da matasan da ‘yan siyasa ke amfani da su domin biyan bukatunsu, shi ne kanwa-uwar-gami da ke haďa kudanci da arewacin Ƙasar, kiristoci da musulmi, ‘yan tsiraru da manya, baƘi da ‘yan Ƙasa. A Ƙarshe dai, rashin doka da oda na kare haƘƘoƘin ‘yan Ƙasa da ke zaune a wurare daban-daban a shekaru masu yawa, da kuma rashin hukunta masu aikata laifin ya sa ake ďaukar ‘yan siyasa a matsayin maƘiya haďin kan Ƙasa.

3.0 Yanayi da Tsarin Mutuwar Harshe


Kowane harshe na duniya yana da wani tsari na musamman na shirya kalmominsa bisa Ƙa’ida don tayar da jumloli. Tun da yake kowane harshe na da Ƙa’idojin da yake bi na musamman wajen Ƙirar jumlolinsa, ashe kuwa tilas ne mu sakankance cewa lalle kalmomin kowane harshe ba haka nan suke kara zube ba. Kalmomin kowane harshe a rarrabe suke bisa Ƙa’ida, kuma ana iya raba su gida-gida kamar sunaye, aikatau, sifa, wakilin suna da dai sauransu.

Da yake rabon ba ana yinsa ba ne ta yin la’akari da ma’anar kalmomin, sai dai kawai ta barbazuwarsu cikin jumla, shi yasa da wuya a samu haƘiƘanin yawan gidajen da za a iya raba kalmomin baki ďayansu. Dan haka, yawan gidajen ya bambanta daga harshe zuwa harshe. Ko da yake kalmomin harshe sun rabu gida-gida, duk da haka, ba tilas ba ne dukkan kalmomi ‘yan gida ďaya su riƘa nuna halayya iri ďaya a cikin jumla.

A gaba ďaya, ajin nahawu aji ne rufaffe wanda ya Ƙunshi waďansu Ƙayyadaddun Ƙwayoyin ma’ana waďanda kasancewarsu cikin jumla ta dogara ne kan wata dangantaka ta musamman da sauran kalmomi a cikin jumla. Wannan yanayi shi ke haifar da walwalar harshe cikin mu’amala da dangantakar sadarwa. Ta haka ne sannu a hankali, matsalar mutuwar harshe kan shafi muhimman al’amuran harshe na nahawu da na walwalar harshe ta yadda ba makawa sai harshe ya halaka. Bari mu ga yadda abin yake a waďannan muhimman Ƃangarori na nahawu da walwalar harshe.

3.1 'Bangaren Nahawu


Wasu masana na ganin cewa yawan tsarmi daga harshe zuwa wani alama ce ta mutuwar harshe. Sai dai kuma tsarmi kawai ba ya zama cikakken dalili na kawo mutuwar harshe, musamman ma da yake ana iya magance aukuwarsu. Hasali ma, ai da ba a magance tsarmi, to da wasu masana ba su da aikin yi ke nan. Sai dai kuma aro ma, wani al’amari ne da kan taimaka wajen bunƘasa ko kuma kashe harshe. Ga misali, harshen Ingilishi shi ne kan gaba wajen aron kalmomi daga wasu harsuna (ko da yake wasu harsuna ma kamar Hausa sun yi aro daga Ingilishin).

Duk da haka, muna iya tantance al’amura dabam-daban da ke ďamfare da harshe. Na farko shi ne yawan aron kalmomi daga babban harshe zuwa mai zaman kawai. Sauran nau’in aron ya shafi aron kalmomin da suka shafi adabi da al’ada cikin harshe mai zaman kawai (duba ayyukan Dorian 1982b; Fasold 1984). Yawan aukuwar tsarmi yana bayyana tsananin dogaro na al’ummar harshen kawai ga babban harshe ta kowace hanya cikin zamantakewa (domin cikakken bayani kan tasirin harshen mallaka, duba aikin CalƂet, 1974).

A wasu lokutan kuma, kalmomin da aka aro daga harshen da ya yi mamaya kan yi taƘaitaccen aiki (wato ayyukan da ba su shafi tsarin sauti da Ƙirar kalma ba). Sai dai kuma a wasu lokutan akan yi amfani da su kamar sauran kalmomin ďaya harshen (domin Ƙarin bayani duba ayyukan Dressler da Wodak 1977; Hill da Hill 1977; Knab da Hasson de Knab 1979; Dorian 1981; Dressler 1982).

Saboda haka, kalmomin aron da ba su sami karƂuwa ba, ba sa taimakawa wajen inganta harshe, sai dai kawai a musanya su da kalmomin harshe na asali. Wannan musanya a ganin Hill da Hill (1977) ba wani abu ba ne illa bauta cikin amfani da harshe (wato musayar kalmomin harshen asali da na kalmomin baƘon harshe). Haka ma aron tsarin ďafau shaida ce ta mutuwar harshe, matuƘar dai an Ƙi amfani da tsarin ďafin harshen asali, kamar dai yadda tsarin Ingilishi ya mamaye harshen Dyirbal na Australia (Schmidt, 1985).

Wani abu kuma cikin lamarin mutuwar harshe shi ne na samun rauni da gazawar dokokin Ƙirar kalmomi. Su dokokin Ƙirar kalmomi su ne ke inganta kalmomin harshe cikin ƘirƘira. Ta haka ne hanyoyin sadarwa ke bunƘasa a harshe gaba ďayansa, da kuma sauƘaƘa fasali na ƘirƘira kalmomi (Dressler da Wodak 1977, 1981, 1982; Schlieben-Lange 1977; Hill da Hill 1977; Knab da Hasson de Knab 1979; Williamson, Ƃan Eerde da Williamson 1983).

Lalurar ƘirƘira sababbin kalmomi daga dokokin ƘirƘira na baƘon harshe na faruwa ne a sanadiyar canje-canje cikin fasaha da al’ada da yayi zuwa harshe mafi rinjaye. Wannan shi zai zama jagora ga majiya harshen da nauyin ƘirƘirawa da baddalawa zai faďa hannunsu a nan gaba. Ga misali, a Ƙarni na goma sha-tara ne turawan Ingilishi suka fassara ƘirƘirarriyar kalmar Faransanci ta batt-euse (injin casa) da dorn-erez, amma kuma a Ƙarni na ashirin sai aka ďau sabuwar kalmar moissonneus-batteuse (injin noma) ta Ƙunshe lamarin noma gaba ďaya.

3.2 'Bangaren Walwalar Harshe


Babbar matsala cikin tsarin zamantakewa, da ke kawo barazana ta mutuwar harshe ita ce halin-ko-in-kula cikin mamayar da manyan harsuna ke aiwatarwa bisa ‘yan tsiraru (Denison, 1982). Sakamakon wannan yanayi shi ke sa matsakaitan majiya su kasa fahimtar irin illar da ake wa harshensu. Su kuma tsofaffin majiya sukan dangana su saddaƘar da batun aiwatar da gyare-gyaren annobar da ta afka wa harshen nasu.

Wannan shi ya kawo canji cikin halayyar al’umma game da matsayin harshensu, wato harshen da ke fuskantar barazana ba a bakin komai yake ba ke nan (domin Ƙarin bayani duba Ryan 1979; Yakasai 2005). Bugu da Ƙari, irin wannan halayyar ce dai ke kawo cikas cikin zamantakewa da walwala da amfani da harshe, da kuma hana aron kalmomi.

Alamomin da ke fara bayyana cikin mutuwar harshe sun haďa da yawan hana ko daina amfani da sunayen yanka a harshen asali cikin taƘaitacciyar mu’amala (Dressler da Wodak 1977; Dressler 1982; Williamson da wasu 1983). Ga misali, a shekarun baya, turawan Ingila da ake kiransu da sunan Francois, a yanzu ana kiransu da sunan Franch a makusanciyar mu’amala. A yanzun ma hatta turawan da ke cikin matsakaicin rukunin jama’a ana kiransu da Francois.

Barazanar mutuwar harshe kuma na bayyana a sanadiyyar yawan amfani da salo iri guda (Dressler da Wodak 1977; Dorian 1977; Giacolone Ramat 1983). Irin wannan canji cikin salo wata tawaya ce a muhallai daban-daban na magana. Bayan haka kuma, ana samun gushewa ta tsarin walwala a salon magana (domin cikakken bayani duba Dressler 1982; Dressler da Wodak 1977).

Bugu da Ƙari, yawan amfani da salo guda wata siffa ce ta harsunan buroka, waďanda amfani da nahawu a kalmominsu taƘaitacce ne. Wannan yanayi shi kuma ya kawo rashin dace cikin nau’in kalmomi da dokokin Ƙirarsu da kuma jumlolin da ake sarrafawa. Hasali ma, ai amfani da aikin harsunan buroka taƘaitacce ne, musamman ma da yake suna biyan buƘatun sadarwa ne kawai a wasu muhallai na magana.

Shin ko mutuwar harshe wani akasi ne na haihuwar wani harshe, da yake buroka suna ba da dama ne ta sadarwar yau da kullum (domin cikakken bayani kan wannan tambaya, duba ayyukan Dressler da Wodak 1977; Trudgill 1977; Dorian 1978, 1981; Dressler 1981, 1982; Gal 1979; Giacolone Ramat 1983; Schmidt 1985)? Sai dai kuma duk da waďannan batutuwa, akwai bambance-bambance tsakanin harsuna da aka mamaye da kuma na buroka.

Da farko dai muhallin amfani da kowannensu ya bambanta, tamkar ta yadda masu amfani da su suka sha bamban. Na biyu, hanyar samuwar buroka ma ta bambanta da wadda ta samar da harsunan da aka mamaye (duba Trudgill 1977; Dorian 1981, 1982b; Dressler 1981; Schlieben-Lange 1977; Williamson da wasu 1983). Na uku, harsunan da aka mamaye suna da siffa ta bambanci fiye da buroka; kamar yawan aukuwar takwarorin gundarin sauti (duba Jackson 1955; Miller 1971; Dressler 1972; Dressler da Wodak 1977; Kieffer 1977; Trudgill 1977; Denison 1979; Dorian 1982b; Giacolone Ramat 1983).

Wannan bambanci yana aukuwa ne saboda Ƙaruwa ta yawaitar rashin amfani cikin harshen mamaya da kuma sararawar sarrafa harshe cikin zamantakewa. Na huďu, tsarmi ko juyawa cikin amfani da harshe a tsakanin wanda ya mamaye da kuma wanda aka mamaye, yana kawo barazana ta mutuwar harshe. Hakan yana aukuwa tsakanin majiya harsunan biyu, amma kuma ba haka abin yake ba a buroka (domin Ƙarin bayani kan dangantakar tsarmi da harsuna masu fuskantar barazanar mutuwa, duba Trudgill 1977; Gal 1979; Dorian 1981; Williamson da wasu 1983).

4.0 Yadda Harshe ke Mutuwa


Dangane da ainahin yadda harshe ke mutuwa kuwa, yana da wuya a samar da cikakkun bayanai cikin lamura daban-daban da ke aukuwa a tsakanin harshen da aka mamaye da kuma wanda ya yi mamayar. Gaskiyar magana ita ce, a mafi yawan lokuta irin waďannan lamura ne ke shafar zubi da tsarin harshe ta yadda sannu a hankali tsananin barazana zai kai ga taƂarƂarewa da mutuwa gaba ďaya.

Saboda haka, akwai waďansu dokoki na canje-canje a harshe da suka shafi hanyoyin da harsuna ke fuskantar barazana da mutuwa, duk kuwa da tsarin da ake da shi a Ƙasa (wato dokoki da matsaloli da wakilci da sauransu) a cikin harshe mai mamaya. A Ƙaramin taƘadiri, harshen da aka mamaye yana mutuwa a sakamakon (a) matakan mutuwar harshe gaba ďaya (b) dalilai masu nasaba da harshe, kamar bambancin zubi da tsari na harsunan biyu, da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa, kamar canjin halaye dangane da matsayin harsunan biyu.

Sai dai kuma kash, lamarin mutuwar harshe lamari ne da ake magana a kai a ko da yaushe. Ga misali, Knab da Hasson de Knab sun rawaito abin da ya faru a Meďico dangane da mutuwar harshe. A ganinsu, abubuwan da suka faru sakamako ne na sauye-sauyen mu’amala cikin jagorancin tattalin arziƘin Ƙasar da kuma sauran al’umma da halayyarsu ta rashin goyon baya cikin tabbatar da Ƙima da matsayi da darajar harshe (1979:481).

Daga abin da ya gudana a Ƙasar, babu wanda zai yi musun cewa canje-canjen tattalin arziƘi da na siyasa su ne suka haifar da matsalar barazana ga harshen Ƙasar. Haka kuma sun gudanar da makamancin wannan bincike cikin matsalar tattalain arziƘi a tsakanin majiya Aztec da ke gefen kogin Pueba. Sai dai kuma bunƘasar tattalin arziƘi irin na jari-hujja, ba lallai ba ne ya zama sanadin mutuwar harshe ba, musamman da yake harsuna da yawa sun sha mutuwa a Ƙasashe masu matsakaitan tattalin arziƘi.

Dalilai masu nasaba da zamantakewa ma suna taka rawa cikin lamarin mutuwar harshe, wato halayya cikin bambancin fahimta dangane da matsayi da ďabi’un majiya ba Ƙaramar illa suke yi ba wajen haddasa mutuwar harshe. Saboda haka, wajibi ne a yi la’akari da waďannan dalilai masu nasaba da zamantakewa cikin amfani da ra’i daban-daban domin samun fahimtar lamarin mutuwar harshe.

5.0 Kammalawa


[an abin da ya gabata tsokaci ne kan mutuwar harshe, wato lamarin da yanayin al’umma majiya harsuna da yawa kan zama dandalin samar da barazana daban-daban ga harsuna, kana daga baya su taƂarƂare su mutu. Dalilai da yawa ne kan taimaka wajen mutuwar harshe, wato dalilai masu nasaba da harshe da kuma masu nasaba da zamantakewa. Saboda haka ne ma, Ƃangaren nahawu da kuma na walwalar harshe suka fi jin jiki cikin yanayi da tsarin mutuwar harshe.

Domin ceto harsuna da yawa da ke fama da barazanar Ƃacewa da kuma macewa gaba ďaya, wajibi ne a koma ga lamarin adana harshe, musamman ma a yanayi na majiya harshe da yawa (domin cikakken bayani kan fa’idar adana harshe, duba Yakasai, 2010). Ta haka ne za a ceto waďanda ke fuskantar barazana domin gudun macewa gaba ďaya. Adana harshe yana kuma taimakawa wajen inganta tushen sauran sassan ilimin harsuna da kuma sassan da ke amfana da bayanan da suka shafi al’umma majiya harshe.

Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, muhimman bayanai da ake amfani da su wajen adana harshe su ne maganganu cikin mu’amala da aka ďauka domin ji da gani (labarai da hira da taďi da sauransu) da kuma ‘yan rubuce-ribuce da aka yi a lokacin ďauka a rukoda a matsayin Ƙarin bayani, ko kuma rubutaccen bayanin tushe ko asali da wani mai amfani da harshe ya rubuta. Irin waďannan bayanai ne ake tattarawa cikin tsari, domin samar da su ta kowace hanya a matsayin kayan aiki. Ta haka ake adana harshe, wato a kuƂutar da shi daga kowace irin barazana da ka iya kai harshe ga nakasa ko mutuwa gaba ďaya.

Duba wannan

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/19/identifying-hausa-man-hausa-prose-contemporary-challenges/

MANAZARTA


Breitborde, L. B. (1983) “LeƂels of Analysis in Sociolinguistic eďplanation: bilingual code switching, social relations and domain theory”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 39: 5-43.

Bamgbose, A. (1990) Language and the Nation: The Language Ƙuestion in Sub-Saharan Africa, Edingbrang University Press.

CalƂet, L. J. (1974) Linguistics and Colonialism, Paris Payot.

Chumbow, S. (1990) “Languages policy for democratic Nigeria” in Emenanjo, E. (ed) Minority Languages, Multilingualism & Language policy in Nigeria, Agbor, Central Books.

Denison, N. (1982) “A linguistic Ecology for Europe” Folia Linguistica 16: 5-16.

Dorian, N. C. (1977) “The problem of the semi-speaker in language death”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 12:23-32.

--------------- (1978) “The fate of Morphplogical compleďity in language death”. Language 54: 590-609.

---------------- (1981) Language death: the life circle of a Scottiish Gaelic dialect. Philadephia: University of PenyslƂania Press.

---------------- (1982a) “Defining the speech community to include its working margins”. In S. Romaine (Ed) Sociolinguistic Ƃariation in speech communities. London: Arnold.

--------------- (1982b) “Language loss and maintenance in language contact situations”. In R. D. Lambert & B. F. Freed (Eds) The loss of language skills. New York: Rowley.

Dressler, W. (1972) “On the phonology of language death”. Papers of the Chicago Linguistic Society 8: 448-57.

-------------- (1981) “Language shift and languge death- a protean challenge for the linguist”. Folia Linguistica 15: 5-28.

--------------- (1982) “Acceleration, retardation and reƂersal in language decay” In R. Cooper (Ed) Language spread. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Dressler, W. & Wodak, R. (Eds) (1977) “Language death”. Journal of the Sociology of Language 12 (= Linguistics 19.1).

Emenanjo, E. (1990) “In the Tradition of the Majors: Lessons in Language Engineering for Minority Languages” Emenanjo E. (ed) Minority Languages, Multilingualism & Language Policy in Nigeria, Agbor, Central Books Ltd.

e-Guardian (guardiannewsng.com) February 27th, 2009.

Elugbe, B. (2009) “Multilingualism, National Languages & Linguafrancas in Nigeria” Paper at the 2nd LiCCOSEC International Symposium RIWL, Osaka University Japan.

Fasold, R. (1984) The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gal, S. (1979) Language shift: social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. New York: Academic Press.

Geller, S. (1973) “Statebuilding and Nation-building in West Africa” in Einsenstadt, S. & Rokkan, S. (Eds) Building States and Nations, Ƃol. 1 BerƂerly Hills; Sage Publications.
Giacolone Ramat, A. (1983): Language shift and Language death. Folia Linguistica 17: 495-507.

Giacoline Ramat, A. (1983) “Language Shift and Language death”. Folia Linguistica 17:495-507.

Hill, J. & Hill, K. (1977) “Language death and releďification in Tlaďcalan”. International Journal of the sociology of language 12: 55-69.

Jackson, K. (1955) Contributions to the study of Manď Phonology. Edingburgh: Nelson.

Kieffer, C. (1977) “The approaching ends of the relict Southest Iranian languages”. International Journal of the Sociology of language 12: 71-100.

Knab, T. & Hasson de Knab, L. (1979) “Language death in the Ƃalley of Puebla: a sociographic approach”, Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society 5: 471-83

Miller, W. (1971) “The death of language or serendipity among the Shoshoni”. Anthropological Linguistics 13: 114-120.

Ryan, E. B. (1979) “Why do low-prestige language Ƃarieties persist?” In H. Giles & St. Clair (Eds) Language and Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.

Schlieben-Lange, B. (1977) “The Language situation in southern France”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 12:101-8.

Schmidt, A. (1985) “The fate of ergatibity in dying Dyirbal”. Language 61:378-96.

Swadesh, M. (1948) “Sociologic notes on obsolescent languages”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 14: 226-35.

Trudgill, P. (1977) “Creolization in reƂerse: reduction and simplification in the Albanian dialects of Greece. Transactions of the philological society: 32-50.

Wikipedia (2009) Languages of the African Union.

Williamson, R. C., Ƃan Eerde, J. A. & Williamson B. (1983) “Language maintenance and shift in Briton and Welsh sample”. Word 34, 2: 67-88.

Wolf, H. (2000) “Language and Society” Heine, B. & Nurse, D. (Eds) African Languages: An Introduction, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Yakasai, S. A. (2005) “Matsayin harsuna ‘yan tsiraru cikin danganatakar al’umma” in [unďaye Journal of Hausa Studies, Ƃol.1, No. 2, NLD, UDUS.

-------------- (2009) “Trends and Implications of the growing dominance of writing and digital electronic deƂices oƂer traditional patterns of language and cultural preserƂations in Hausa society” paper at the 3rd LiCCOSEC International Symposium, Osaka University, Japan.

-------------- (2010) Adana harshe: Yaya yake kuma mece ce fa’idarsa? Paper at the 2009/2010 departmental seminar series, NLD, UDUS.

1 comment: