Inter-Group Relations and Conflicts in Jos Metropolis: A Study of Hausa Migrants and Host Community, 1915-2022

Cite this article: Olu, D. J. and Adedeji, B. S. 2023. Inter-Group Relations and Conflicts in Jos Metropolis: A Study of Hausa Migrants and Host Community, 1915-2022. Sokoto Journal of History Vol. 12. Pp. 50-59. www.doi.org/10.36349/sokotojh.2023.v12i01.005
Inter-Group Relations and Conflicts in Jos Metropolis: A Study of Hausa Migrants and Host Community, 1915-2022

Dele John Olu
Department of History and International Studies, University of Jos
GSM: 08065955367
E-mail: delisman2011@yahoo.com


Babajide Sunday Adedeji
Department of History and International Studies, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State
GSM: 07067769196, 08159800941
E-mail: princessadedeji2014@gmail.com


The study of inter-group relations in Nigeria is a heavily tasked subject because of the impact it has had in the nation in the area of group conflicts, bitterness, rivalries and hatred. It is rather unfortunate that the various Nigerian groups, which in the past lived in harmonious and cooperative relations, now live in animosity. This paper is an attempt to examine the nature and significance of Inter-group Relations in Jos Metropolis with focus on Hausa Migrants and the Host Community between 1915 and 2022. Structurally, the paper is divided into several parts, the first of which is the introduction, sections two and three examine the settlement of Hausa community in Jos metropolis and brief explanation on the introduction of Islam to Jos and economic contributions of Hausa migrants to the growth of Jos metropolis. Part four examines the causes and course of conflicts between the Hausa migrants and their Jos hosts. Section four shed some light on the socio-economic effects of Jos conflicts on migrant groups and the host community, while the last section is the conclusion. The paper depends largely on primary and secondary sources of history. The field work conducted shows that inter-group relations between the Hausa and the host community have led to the loss of lives and properties destroyed. The paper in the final analysis put forward certain recommendations on how to maintain peace for sustainable development in the town.

Keywords: Inter-Group, Relations and Conflicts, Jos Metropolis, Hausa Migrants, Host Community


Jos metropolis is situated on a pear-shaped plateau composed of undulating hills that are geographically known as the Jos plateau. This upland mass stretches for approximately 104 kilometers from North to South and 80 kilometers from East to West, covering an area of about 8,600 square kilometers or 860,000 hectares. Characterized by impressive ridges and isolated rocky hills separated by extensive plains, the Jos town exhibits a variety of landforms possessing beautiful landscape which provided excellent picnic resorts and attractive to lovers of nature. It enjoys a near temperate climate averaging 220C (75F) daily with an average humidity of 60% and average annual rainfall of 11,400mm (56’). It maintains an average height of 1,200 meters (4,000 ft) above sea level, and reaches its highest peak in the Shere Hills where it strands as 1,766 meters (5,829ft).[1] This gives it a generally cool temperature against the backdrop of enchanting scenic beauty and alluring cool weather, which make it a haven for Nigerians and foreigners alike.[2] These factors account for Jos having the largest concentration of Europeans in Nigeria outside Lagos according to the 1963 national population census figure.[3] Situated almost at the geographical centre of Nigeria and about 288 kilometers from Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria, Jos is linked to the rest of the country by road, rail and air.

The town of Jos, nicknamed the tin city was established in 1915 as a tin transportation camp and its early history was closely linked to the prosperity of the tin mining industry. The movement of the administrative headquarters of colonial government in 1915 from Naraguta to Jos marked the beginning of it growth. In 1967 it became the capital of the defunct Benue-Plateau State and was transformed into the capital of Plateau State in 1975, thus becoming an important administrative and commercial centre. With a population of between 800,000 and 1,000,000, based on 2006 population census, Jos remains one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Nigeria.[4]

Until recently, Jos used to be a quiet and peaceful city such that it prides itself as the ‘Home of Peace’. The peaceful atmosphere that has long been associated with the tin city suddenly became interrupted and gave way to violence among the inhabitants of the city that was the traditional owners of Jos. The discovery of vast mineral deposits in the vicinity of Jos like tin and columbite were extensively mined in the area from time immemorial. The minerals were transported to both Port Harcourt and Lagos on the coast, for onward movement to Europe. Tin mining has led to the influx of migrants mostly Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa who constituted more than half of the population of the city.[5] This paper is an attempt to examine the relationships that existed between the Hausa and their Jos hosts in order to situate the entire conflicts that erupted between the duos.

The Hausa in Jos

The Hausa migrants constitute a formidable communal cultural group who has made numerous contributions to the social, economic, and political life of Jos metropolis, a fact which can hardly be challenged by the hosts. The presence of Hausa migrants on the Plateau and Jos metropolis in particular predated the colonial period but was to become more significant during colonialism when large-scale mining activities started.[6] Balarebe asserts that contact between Hausa migrants and their hosts in North Central Nigeria intensified following in-roads made by Jihadists into places such as Wase and Lere which became tribute collection centers for different emirates whose political supremacy was so recognized. Such vassal States attracted Hausa migrants and thus increased the possibility of cementing economic ties with the hosts. Commercial and trade links of this type and associated wave of migration led to the establishment of Hausa settlements in Plateau community. Hausa community in the town was the result of the settlement of itinerant Hausa traders involved in buying and selling the tin ore around the Plateau, and those who were involved in the constant raid of the Plateau for slaves prior to 1900.[7]

Apart from trade and commerce which led to increase contacts between the Hausa migrants and the host community, and which attracted the migration of the former into the later, there was also the ecological factor. James opines that drought and desertification which ravaged the arid and semi-arid zones to the North had, overtime, encouraged the Southward migration of pastoralists and agriculturalists. This led to the growth of several Hausa settlements in many parts of North Central Nigeria and Jos in particular. This was a very long historical process that begun before the advent of colonialism.[8] Furthermore, Hausa population that formed the bulk of African Native Soldiers who took part in the early expeditions of Jos Plateau also contributed substantially to the provision of labor for the mining companies following the discovery of Tin Fields in Naraguta and Bukuru. According to Egwu between 1907 and 1914, the Hausa speaking people of Kano, Zaria, Katsina and Bauchi accounted for more than 20 percent of the total labor force in the mining fields of Jos-Plateau. Hence, by the time Jos was officially established in 1915 following the removal of the colonial headquarters from Naraguta, there were enough Hausa migrants to justify the reference to it as ‘Hausa Settlement’. Hausa migrants especially traders and miners came in droves in the course of the consolidation of colonial presence and the expansion of tin mining activities. This is easy to explain given the long history of distance trade and commerce associated with the Hausa particularly those of Kanawa origin who actually dominated migrant Hausa population. As alluded to the above, the movement of Barde dan Galadima from Naraguta to Jos in 1915 encouraged the movement of a considerable number of Hausa population previously living at Naraguta.[9] Barde became the second Sarkin Jos after the death of Bunu who was appointed by the colonial government. However, the reign of Barde came to an end in 1920 following his conviction on account of corrupt practices. In 1929 an ex-sergeant major of the West African Frontier Force (W.A.F.F.) Saidu who died in 1931 was appointed Sarkin Hausawa (head of Hausa community in Jos) after a sterling performance. The last Sarkin Hausawa in Jos, Isiaku was appointed and died in 1948. The chief of Berom was now appointed as Sarkin Berom largely in recognition of the political ascendancy of Berom people.[10]

Apart from the claim to have discovered Jos the Hausa community in Jos often cite the hegemonic political role played in the early phase of colonial era. Between 1912 and 1948 the Hausa produced several Sarkunan Jos in succession and that it was not until 1948 that the first Berom, Mr. Rwang Pam, was appointed the chief of Berom. The fact that he was appointed Chief of Berom as opposed to Chief of Jos was emphasized to show that the institution of Gbong Gwom Berom (Chief of Berom) lacks authority and jurisdiction over non-Berom. It was only in 1969 that the title of Gbong Gwom Berom was changed to Gbong Gwom Jos (Chief of Jos) so that he can be chief over the people in Jos.[11] The presence of a large population of Hausa migrants in Jos at the onset of colonial rule provided an additional impetus to the British in introducing emirate type of administration. The first response of the British was to make the hereditary Hausa headman in Naraguta in the person of Bunu responsible for tax collection and maintenance of law and order in the area.[12]

According to Tijani the imposition of the colonial taxes and the insistence of its payment with the new coins were the prime movers in the development of migrant wage labor. The colonial taxes and currencies and the introduction of cash crops and new European goods integrated colonial economic policies in the town. The currency was introduced around 1900 and by 1912, it had become dominant. This was due to the insistence that the colonial taxes should be paid in coins. The colonial environment increased the movement of Hausa migrants into different parts of Nigeria. This was due to the effects of colonial taxes, roads and railway construction.[13]

In the opinion of Abdulkardir, the construction of a network of roads and railway lines equally contributed to the migration of Hausa to Jos. He further states that the presence of Hausa migrants in the area subsequently led to the introduction and spread of Islam in Jos. Between 1913 and 1927 important economic zones and the core north were linked by the railway. In 1913, the Bauchi Light Railway connected the Jos-Plateau with Zaria. The Port Harcourt-Kaduna Eastern Extension line connected Kafanchan and reached Jingere, Naraguta, Bukuru and Jos in 1926. The Jos-Plateau was the major tin mining centre attracting Hausa miners and workers to the area.[14]

Thus between 1969 and 1976, there were four prominent Hausa migrants who served as Magajin Gari Jos, these include Mallam Mammadi, Mohammed Dankarfala, Othman Na Garba and Ali Kazaure.[15]Bauchi Road, Faringada, Gadabiu, Massalacin Jumu’a, Gangare, Dogon Karfe and Terminus are outstanding locations where Hausa migrants in Jos were and are still concentrated.[16] These are areas where Hausa migrants live to create a distinctive socio-political life style to foster their cultural heritage and economic interests in the midst of different ethnic groups.[17] To foster unity and cooperation amongst the Hausa migrants in Jos, they organized themselves and formed an organization known as Jasawa Development Association, a predominantly Hausa-Fulani group. Through this association they have been able to channel their complains and grievances to the Plateau State Government.

Some Economic Contributions of Hausa Migrants in Jos

The impact of Hausa migrants in Jos metropolis is mostly felt in trade and service industries. One of the areas where Hausa traders are mostly found is in the trade of kolanut and livestock such as cattle, goat, and sheep.[18] Trade in livestock and kolanut involved a long chain of sellers, dealers, drovers, commission agents and other intermediaries, many of whom were either Hausa or members of the host community.[19] Kolanut is mostly imported from Southwestern parts of Nigeria into Jos. Hausa people were and are still known as lovers of the nut. One of the major markets within Jos metropolis where these stocks are sold is Kasuwar Annshanu (cattle market) located at Nassarawa Area of the town. The economic importance of livestock to the people of Jos cannot be over emphasized. Beef production, suya meat (meat roasted with pepper and other ingredients), kilishi (meat sliced into thin layers), ponmo (cow skin) and nono (cow milk) are some of the benefits derived from the livestock.[20] Hausa migrants in Jos also specialized in the making of Suya and Kilishi, in several parts of the town including restaurants and hotels, roundabouts, bus stops, motor parks and popular junctions[21]

Another area of Jos economy where the Hausa migrants dominate was/is in the sales of assorted goods. Hausa migrants in Jos are into the sales of stuff like wall clock, umbrella, sunglasses, transistor radio, wristwatch, electrical appliances like television, radio, water heater, fridges, water dispensers, fans, and various types of useful items. They are also into the sales of leather products for females and males such as bags, belts, slippers and purse. Some of the leather materials are produced in Jos while others brought from other parts of the North especially Kano. Some Hausa migrants were and are still into the sales of cosmetic materials, while others are involved in the sales of assorted fruits like oranges, Banana, apple, Watermelon, Pineapple, Carrots and many more. Some are into the sales of food stuff like Irish potato, Beans, Gari, Yam, Rice and some perishable items like Tomatoes, Pepper, Onions e.t.c.[22]Hausa traders especially those residing in Hausa dominated areas are involved in the distribution of different Islamic Paraphernalia such as Tesbeh(rosary), prayer mats, Quran cover and Islamic decorations. Interestingly, members of the host community as well as other migrant groups who professed Islam patronize the Hausa traders who normally brought the items from Kano.[23]

Another area of economic dominance of Hausa migrants in the economy of Jos metropolis is the trade in secondhand clothes, known as Gwanjo. They are mostly found in Terminus and Katako markets. Some of the Hausa traders involve in this form of business move around displaying their goods within the city of Jos. Another major economic activity of Hausa dominance in the commercial life of Jos metropolis was/is in the service of ‘bureau-de-change’.[24] Hausa migrants are engaged in buying and selling of foreign currencies ranging from the Saudi Riyadh, the German Dutch Mark, the Japanese Yen, the French Francs, the French West African CFA, the British Pound Sterling to the American Dollar. Though most of this bureau-de-change are illegal outfits, their owners and operators are able to sustain their business of exchanging foreign currencies from sellers at higher rates than the formal commercial houses and sell to their buyers. However, there is competition in the business as many of the Hausa bureau-de-change vendors solicit for clients openly. Their customers include tourists, businessmen and academics, e.t.c. With the presence of Hausa bureau-de-change vendors many people can easily exchange dollars or pounds sterling to Naira or vice versa without the formalities of the commercial houses.[25]

Trade in gold or jewelries popularly known as Yan Zinari is another major area of Hausa economic activity in Jos metropolis. Many Hausa traders engaged in buying and selling of gold. They buy new or used gold chains, bangles, and earrings.[26] Alkammawa in one of his works asserted that trade in gold jewelries emerged in the 20th Century and goes back to the period of the Goldsmith/Gold traders’ Ordinance of 1935 that granted license to the United African Company (UAC).[27] Another major economic activity of Hausa dominance in the commercial life of Jos metropolis is in the business of tailoring and fashion designing. Unguwar Rogo, Gangare, Rikkos, Nasarawa, Delimi areas e.t.c are places in Jos where Hausa tailors and fashion designers could be found. The Hausa tailors and designers make various Hausa dresses and designs in varying styles for their customers.[28]

Another crucial sector where the Hausa migrants are mostly found is in the business of shoe making and repairs. Most of them move from one part of the city to the other knocking their hammers on the tools box to draw the attention of prospective customers. However, most of the Hausa shoe repairers and makers use different shops for their business; some make use of umbrellas and sit under them with their tools. Hausa migrants were and are still important in the area of roadside mechanic. Like the Yoruba, the Hausa are actively found in this sector. Their services are needed in the repair of cars of the general public within the town of Jos. They are/were mostly found in Bauchi Road, Faringada and Delimi areas e.t.c. Several other Hausa migrants in Jos engaged in building construction, printing, carpentry, barbing, and driving.[29]

Conflicts in the Course of Inter-Group Relations

The word conflict emanates from the Latin word ‘conflictus’ which translates to ‘struck together’.[30] Adeola states that conflict means clash, contention, confrontation, battle or struggle, controversy or quarrel. Adeola further explained that conflict is a struggle over values and claims over status, power, and resources in which the aims of opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals. It is a reality of social life and exists at all levels of society. Actually, conflicts are as old as the world itself. We learn from history about individuals being in conflict with one another for various reasons. The trend has not changed today. Individuals, villages, tribes, political parties, nations, and other forms of groupings engage in conflicts.[31]

Usman and Badmus argue that many conditions have been attributed to the rise of conflicts in societies. Among the major conditions are competition and contestation for political and economic posts and resources.[32] The increasing awareness among different ethnic groups of their conflicting political and economic interests normally further divide the society along tribal, cultural, and religious lines, resulting into disputes and clashes. In Jos the capital city of Plateau State, widespread armed conflicts with political, religious, and tribal undertones leading to the destruction of lives and properties are common phenomena. The noticeable conflicts in Jos occurred in post-independent period. The conflicts usually pit one group against another. The most noticeable groups in these conflicts remain the occupational, ethnic, and religious groups. The conflicts have taken mainly religious dimension between Muslims and Christians, but ethnicity has played a central role. This is because the adherents of the two dominant religions are also divided along ethnic and cultural lines. The Muslims are predominantly Hausa/Fulani migrants while the Christians are the indigenous peoples such as the Berom, Afizere and Anaguta e.t.c.[33]

Signals pointing towards the manifestation of contentious issues between the Hausa migrants and the hosts started emanating in the 1990s amongst residents. This culminated in 1994 into open clashes mainly between the Berom indigenes and Hausa migrants over farmland and local chieftaincy titles. Jos metropolis registered a great deal of crisis beginning on dark Friday 7th September to 14th 2001 and again on 2nd May 2002 in the Etobaba area located within jos metropolis, followed, by numerous attacks by marauding Hausa/Fulani militias on host members living in the Northern senatorial Districts of plateau State.[34] The scene of attacks on both sides switched to the Southern Senatorial District which eventually culminated into major crisis that killed hundreds of citizens, first in Yelwa in February with the massacre of about a hundred Christians, 67 of them in COCIN Church Yelwa and later again reprisal killings in Yelwa with revenge killings by Christians in May 2004. The outcry by Muslims against the later killings led to the declaration of a State of Emergency on Plateau State by the then President Olusegun Obasanjo.[35]

Again, in November 2008, local government elections were conducted across Plateau State, however, the conduct of the election in Jos North and the dispute over the results ignited a renewed mass violence, leading to the death of over 700 people within two days. Unlike in 2001, the conflict was limited to Jos North. Even though the election process itself went smoothly and peacefully, the two parties had youth groups following the stages of vote gathering and the transportation of ballot boxes to the collation centres in order to protect their votes. To worsen the situation, the Jos North collation centre was relocated and neither side had been appropriately informed about it. This fueled uncertainties among the Hausa/Fulani migrants that their votes would be lost and also that the Plateau State Independent Electoral Commission would alter the votes in favor of the State’s ruling party, the PDP.[36]

Another conflict broke out in January 2010. While it was thought to be a reprisal attack for the 2008 conflict, some believed it was caused by lack of meaningful communication between the Hausa migrants and the hosts. However, it may have been drawn from existing schizogenesis and earlier violence.[37] The causes of conflicts in Jos are very important ingredients needed for proper and balanced diagnosis, the remote and immediate causes may vary and alternate in their significance to the conflict. Though religious and ethnic violence are said to be inevitable in a plural society like Jos, they usually have political, social, and economic undertones and their prerequisite include injustice, inequality, bad governance, discriminations, marginalization of people. Competition for scarce resources, poverty, and underdevelopment among others.[38]

Effects of Jos Conflicts on Migrant Groups and Host Community

Before the 2001 crisis, Jos used to be greatest centre of buying and selling exotic crops such as Irish potatoes, Apples, Grapes, Wheat, Barly, Vegetables and others, and a centre of tourism appreciated by many migrant groups in Nigeria and outside Nigeria alike. Since 2001 when ethno- religious conflicts started however, the city is no longer the economic strong hold of the North Central Nigeria. The conflicts have set Jos city and the entire Plateau State backward in terms of socio-economic growth. This was because many migrant communities who intended to either set-up businesses or engage in buying and selling in Jos have deserted the city.[39]

Abdulrahman and Abdulhafeez maintained that when the first major crisis occurred in 2001, members of the host community who are predominantly farmers still had confidence of going to their farmlands to cultivate their crops. But following the subsequent conflicts, the farming which was a key source of income to Plateau people suddenly became difficult to undertake. This was because farmers became targets of the warring groups in the name of reprisal attacks and destruction of land and properties. Consequently, agriculture became affected negatively, thus, affecting the ability of the State to achieve uninterrupted, positive economic growth.[40] According to Marren following the violence and conflicts of 2004, 2008 and 2010, many farmlands around the villages were burnt, so returning to the farmlands for some members of the host community was very difficult as the crops they initially planted were destroyed. The few that survived yielded nothing much after harvest, as a result of the loss of land nutrient. Farmers who were faced with challenges of insecurity had to abandon their farmlands in search of safety elsewhere.[41] Again, conflicts also created fluctuation and unstable prices of goods and services, making the cost of living very high. This in turn led to mass exodus of both skilled and unskilled labor force.[42]

Following the conflicts that erupted in Jos, economic activities have also been affected as the major markets like the popular terminus market where shops were always occupied have become a ghost of itself. It should be observed that people are ready to occupy the shops but due to the climate of war that still exists, they are afraid to do that. Even the Bukuru main market which used to be a beehive of activities has become rather scanty and lifeless as many people who usually transact business there have relocated from Jos and found alternative and safer places to practice their economic activities.[43] Bonkat opined that violent conflict creates a situation of uncertainty and insecurity, but the migrant groups and the hosts make efforts to continue their lives and survive despite these problems. They developed the act of tremendous resilience in the face of extreme forms of uncertainty and insecurity. Such people especially markets women have taken some actions to ensure they continue their lives despite violence in Jos.[44]

According to Josiah religious violence between the Muslim Hausa/Fulani migrants and their Christian hosts in Jos has become a potent instrument of underdevelopment. Each crisis often leaves behind memories of tears, sadness, frustration, and anger. It leads to mutual suspicious and acrimony. No meaningful development can be established and sustained under such unhealthy atmosphere. Violence is capable of scaring investors (migrants or host members) because it will amount to economic risk for anyone to invest in an environment that is not conducive for business.[45] Worst still, the state’s hard-earned currency which could have been channeled to positive development programmes like education, health and other social services is often spent quelling violence and conflicts which usually result in the defacing destruction of houses, businesses, Churches and Mosques. Therefore, as far as development in Jos metropolitan city is concerned violence displaces people, destroys human beings and properties, unleashes fear and insecurity, hampers educational, political, social, and psychological well-being of the city.[46]

However, the Muslim Hausa/Fulani migrants and their Christian Jos hosts must realize that God has no favorite religion, it should be clear to them that every person is also a servant of God no matter his or her religious background. To move the society forward, religious differences should not interfere with the brotherhood of all. The Hausa/Fulani migrants and Jos hosts should learn to be more accommodating and tolerant. Peaceful practice of religion with respect for other people’s religious views is a recipe for development in the society.[47] Government should create employment opportunities, as unemployment raises so also is the increase in violence and crime making the society insecure. Therefore, government should tackle and arrest youth restiveness by investing on job creation. Leaders of the two major religious groups in Jos should educate their followers on the great value of religious toleration in a pluralistic society like Jos city. Government should arrest and charge for assault all those who attack their fellow citizens in the name of religion.[48]

Finally, regarding the migration and settlement of Nigerians across the length and breadth of the federation, the constitution needs amendment to confer citizenship rights and privileges on all Nigerians irrespective of state of origin and place or region. The constitution should be made to tell all contending parties in Jos crisis that every person either of the Berom, Afizare, Hausa, Fulani, Anaguta, Yoruba, Igbo, or urhobo origin, is a citizen of Nigeria. It then logically follows that anybody so found qualified by the constituted authorities should be able to hold any position.[49]The constitution should be made to unequivocally and explicitly state that the home of a Nigerian citizen is the place that he/she has found conducive for residence and livelihood. Hence, the migrant groups and their Jos hosts would understand that they are at liberty to vote and be voted for any person or group of persons of their choice irrespective of whether he/she is from Oyo State or Plateau State, whether he/she is Hausa, Berom, Igbo, Yoruba or Itshekiri.[50]


The paper unravels the Inter-Group Relations and Conflicts in Jos Metropolis: A Study of Hausa Migrants and Host Community, 1915-2022. It shows that from 1915 when Jos city became the administrative headquarters of the colonialists Hausa migrants had lived and contributed to the development of the city. The paper concludes first that economic activities such as mining and trading attracted the Hausa migrants to Jos. Second that Hausa migrants did not limit themselves to trading alone, they dominate some sectors in the economy of Jos metropolis such as fashion designing and tailoring, bureau the change, shoe repair and making, and mechanical works e.t.c. Third, that series of armed conflicts and violence which resulted into killings of people and destruction of properties have erupted in the course of inter-group relations between the duos. Forth, that these conflicts hampered the socio-economic growth of Jos, and they are impediments to development. Fifth, that there is need for government of Plateau State to create job opportunities to address youth restiveness in Jos metropolis and that the constitution of Nigeria needs amendment in order to confer citizenship rights and privileges on all Nigerians irrespective of state of Nigeria.


[1]U.H.D. Danfulani, The Jos Peace Conference and the Indigene/Settler Question in Nigerian Politics, ASC, Leiden/University of Jos, Nigeria, Internet Source: www.ascleiden.nl, Retrieved on 08. 03. 2021, P. 2

[2]See Some Relevant discussions on the location and Geography of Jos Plateau in ASC, Leiden/University of Jos, Nigeria, Internet Source: www.ascleiden.nl, Retrieved on 08. 03. 2021, P. 2. Also see B. Dogo, ‘The Migration patterns of the Nomadic Cattle Fulani on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria’ MSc (Geography and Planning), Dissertation, UniJos, 1990, P.6

[3]This Information is Available in Plateau State of Nigeria Gazette, 2004, P.1

[4]For Further detailed on this See Plateau State of Nigeria Gazette, 2004, P.1 For more detailed Information see S.G. Egwu, Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case, 1960-2000’ PhD (Political Science) Thesis, UniJos, 2004, P.115 

[6]For more details see S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case, 1960-2000’ Ph.D (Political Science) Thesis, UNIJOS, 2004, PP. 117-251.

[7]M. D. Balarebe, ‘The Development of the Hausa Community in Jos Since 1916 to the Present Day’ B. A. (History) Project, UNIJOS, 1992, P. 3

[8]See I. James, The Settlement Phenomenon in the Middle Belt and the Problem of National Integration in Nigeria, Jos, Midland Press Limited, 2000, PP.29-58

[9]S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case ….. pp. 119-122

[10]S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case ….. pp. 255-256 see also NAK Jos Prof, 2/9/394/1917


[11]NAK Jos Prof, 2/9/394/1917 S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case ….. P. 255 NAK Jos Prof, CHI/9/4/1917

[12]S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case ….. P. 255

[13]Abdulwahap Tijani, ‘The Hausa Community in Agege, Nigeria 1906- 1967, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2008, P. 175. Also see M.M. Gatawa, ‘The Role of Islam in the Yoruba- Hausa Harmonious Relations in Southwestern Nigeria’ IIUC Studies, Vol. 12, 2015, P.115

[14]M. S. Abdulkadir, ‘Islam in the Non- Muslim Areas of Northern Nigeria, C. 1600-1960’ llorin Journal of Religious Studies, (IJOURELS)Vol.1, No. 1, 2011, P.12

[15]S. G. Egwu, ‘Ethnicity and Citizenship in Urban Nigeria: The Jos Case ….. P. 260

[16]See Ukasha Mohammed 40 Years, Businessman, Jos, 12 January, 2022

[17]See J. Olaosebikan etal, ‘Hausa Migrant Settlers and their Involvement in the Trade and Service Sectors of Ado-Ekiti Southwest Nigeria’, London, Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.19. No.2, 2019, PP. 48-49

[18]Sani Muhammadu, 55 Years, Transporter, Jos, 12 January, 2022

[19]Abdulwahap Tijani, ‘The Hausa Community in Agege, Nigeria 1906- 1967 P. 176

[20]Sani Muhammadu, 55 Years, Transporter, Jos, 12 January, 2022

[21]Umar Abdullahi, 39 Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January, 2022

[22]Adams Mohammed, 40Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January, 2022

[23]Tijani Mohammed, 42 Years, Businessman, Jos, 20 January, 2022

[24]Adams Mohammed, 40Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January, 2022

[25]See J. Olaosebikan etal, ‘Hausa Migrant Settlers and their Involvement in the Trade and Service Sectors of Ado-Ekiti Southwest Nigeria .P. 52

[26]Adams Mohammed, 40Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January, 2022


[27]A. U. Alkammawa, ‘The Zabarma Entrepreneurs in Sokoto Metropolis, 1930-2000’ Sokoto Journal of History (SJH), Vol. 1, September 2012, P.142

[28]Umar Abdullahi, 39 Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January 2022

[29]Umar Abdullahi, 39 Years, Trader, Jos, 15 January 2022

[30] For further information on the concept of conflict consult the work of A. O Adeola ‘Jos Crises, Peace Making and its Challenges During 2001-2010’ Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, Vol. 5, October 2017, PP. 333-334.

[31]Ibid. PP. 333-334. Also See O. O. Okpeh, ‘Inter-Group Migrations, conflicts and Displacement in Central Nigeria’ in T. Falola and O. Okpeh (eds.), Population Movements, Conflicts and Displacements in Nigeria, Trenton, African World Press, 2008, PP. 19-69

[32]For Information on this see for example A. Usman and A.A. Badmus, ‘The Undercurrent of Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges’ in I. O. Albert and O. N. Olarinde (eds.), Trends and Tensions in Managing Conflicts, Ibadan, John Archers, 2010, P.139. Also A. F. Usman, Z. S. Sambo and A. U. Alkammawa, ‘Inter-Group Relations in Yauri Emirate’ in A. I. Yandaki, H. M. Maishanu and M. U. Bunza, Hausa Presence in the Waters of the Niger: A History of Yauri Kingdom From 1411 up to its Emirate Status, Zaria, Gaskiya Corporation, 2014, PP. 162

[33]A. F. Usman, Z. S. Sambo and A. U. Alkammawa, ‘Inter-Group Relations in Yauri Emirate’…PP. 162-163

[34]U. H. D. Danfulani, The Jos Peace Conference and Indigene/Settler Question in Nigeria Politics, P. 3

[35]U. H. D. Danfulani, The Jos Peace Conference and Indigene/Settler Question in Nigeria Politics, P. 3


[36]A. O Adeola ‘Jos Crises, Peace Making and its Challenges During 2001-2010’…….P. 336

[37]A. O Adeola ‘Jos Crises, Peace Making and its Challenges During 2001-2010’ ……P. 337

[38]A. O Adeola ‘Jos Crises, Peace Making and its Challenges During 2001-2010’…….PP…… 337-338

[39]Cited by S. O. Abdulrahman and A. Abdulhafeez, ‘Economic Impacts of Ethnic Rivalry on Jos, Plateau State 1994-2004’ The Nigerian Journal of Economic History, No. 13, 2015, PP. 154-155.

[40]S. O. Abdulrahman and A. Abdulhafeez, ‘Economic Impacts of Ethnic Rivalry on Jos, Plateau State……p. 155

[41]See Mr. E. Marren, 58 Years, Farmer, Jos, 20th February 2022

[42]S. O. Abdulrahman and A. Abdulhafeez, ‘Economic Impacts of Ethnic Rivalry on Jos, Plateau State….P. 157

[43]S. O. Abdulrahman and A. Abdulhafeez, ‘Economic Impacts of Ethnic Rivalry on Jos, Plateau State…..P. 147

[44]L. Bonkat, ‘Survival Strategies of Market Women and Violent Conflicts in Jos, Nigeria’ Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, November 2014, P. 291.

[45]For detail see W. C. Josiah, ‘Religious Crisis and Development in Nigeria’, The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, Vol. 18, No. 10, October 2020, P. 319

[46]W. C. Josiah, ‘Religious Crisis and Development in Nigeria’, The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies…….p. 319

[47]W. C. Josiah, ‘Religious Crisis and Development in Nigeria’, The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies …….p. 319

[48]W. C. Josiah, ‘Religious Crisis and Development in Nigeria’, The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies,…….p. 319

[49]O. Afolabi, Migration and Citizenship Question in Nigeria: A Study of the Berom and Hausa/Fulani Conflict in Jos’, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2016, P. 14

[50] O. Afolabi, Migration and Citizenship Question in Nigeria: A Study of the Berom and Hausa/Fulani Conflict in Jos’…..p. 14.

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