The Effect of Linguistic Models of a Child's Language on his Environment


 This study used a Critical Discourse Analysis approach to examine the kid dialect differences, focusing on how a child distinguishes, reacts to, and develops their model of speech about their surroundings. This paper aims to explore the concept of academic rewriting and its application in transforming user-generated text. The primary focus of this research is to examine the mechanisms by which a kid perceives and responds to variations in dialect, as well as to explore the process by which the child constructs their linguistic framework to represent their surroundings. The initial phase of language acquisition pertains to the linguistic models that children adopt. In the developmental trajectory of several children, a recurring pattern emerges wherein the sequential influence of individuals is observed as follows: first, parents exert the most influence, followed by peers, and subsequently, adults. The concept of "Peers" as role models may be categorized into four distinct life phases: infancy, childhood, adolescence, and maturity. According to Chambers (1995:151ff),

Keywords: Language, Dialect, Phonology, Morphology, Semantics, and Syntax

The Effect of Linguistic Models of a Child's Language on his Environment

Sadiya Yusuf
Hausa Department, College of Education, ANKPA


The present discourse aims to elucidate the concepts of language, dialect, phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax within an academic framework. These fundamental components of linguistic analysis will be expounded upon without the introduction of any additional information.

Trudgill and Peter (1995) conducted a study. Sociolinguistics is a field of study that examines the relationship between languages and society. Sociolinguistics has gained recognition as an integral component of university-level courses focused on "Linguistics or Languages," and has emerged as a prominent area of growth in language studies, encompassing both pedagogical and research aspects. The field of Sociolinguistics has experienced significant expansion mostly from the late 1960s forward. The assertion made does not intend to suggest that the examination of languages in connection to society emerged just in the 1960s. On the contrary, there exists a longstanding tradition in the investigation of dialects and the broader exploration of the interplay between word semantics and culture, both of which fall within the purview of sociolinguistics as defined in this context.

Similar to other academic disciplines, Sociolinguistics encompasses both empirical and theoretical aspects. It involves a combination of conducting fieldwork and gathering factual data, as well as engaging in reflective analysis and contemplation. The armchair methodology in sociolinguistics can provide significant results, whether it is grounded on systematically gathered empirical evidence as part of scholarly inquiry or derived solely from personal experiential knowledge. Specifically, this enables the development of an analytical framework to be initiated, encompassing elements such as LANGUAGE (a system of knowledge or norms), SPEECH (realised utterances), SPEAKER, ADDRESSEE, TOPIC, and other related components. Moreover, personal experiences serve as a valuable reservoir of knowledge about the language used in society. The fast growth of interest in sociolinguistics over the past two decades may be attributed to the actual discoveries gained through organised research efforts, rather than only relying on armchair theorising. Certain studies have been conducted in communities that are considered 'exotic', yielding findings that may captivate readers of this book due to their striking divergence from familiar societal norms. For instance, individuals from the United Kingdom often express astonishment and curiosity upon learning about civilizations in which it is customary for one parent to possess a different native language. Another research project, however, pertains to the intricate dynamics of urban industrial societies, which are familiar to most readers. This research has also yielded unexpected findings, including the revelation that social class distinctions are evident in American speech patterns, similar to those observed in British society, despite the perception that the United States is less preoccupied with social class. It is vital to acknowledge that a significant portion of the enthusiasm surrounding sociolinguistics stems from individuals, such as educationalists, who possess a pragmatic interest in language, rather than a mere inclination to enhance comprehension of the workings of this specific domain within the broader universe. During the 1960s and 1970s, the United States witnessed the emergence of substantial research Endeavour focused on the speech patterns of marginalised communities. These studies aimed to generate insights that may inform the development of more effective educational policies. Coulmas (2013)


The term “dialect” refers to a linguistic variant of a language that is primarily spoken within a certain geographic region or by individuals belonging to a particular social or occupational group. According to this definition, the dialects or variations of a certain language have tight linguistic connections and, despite their distinctions, are generally capable of being understood by speakers of other dialects, particularly when they are geographically proximate on the dialect continuum. The term "dialect" is mostly used to describe regional speech patterns, however, it can also encompass other defining criteria such as socioeconomic status or ethnicity. The term "sociolect" can be used to refer to a dialect that is linked to a certain socioeconomic class. Similarly, the term "ethnolect" can be employed to describe a dialect that is related to a particular ethnic group. Additionally, the term "regiolect" can be used to denote a geographical or regional dialect. Based on the provided definition, it is possible to classify every form of a certain language, including standardised variations, as a 'Dialect'. In this particular scenario, the differentiation between the 'standard language' and the non-standard language (Vernacular) dialect of the same language is frequently subjective and influenced by social, political, cultural, or historical factors, as well as predominance and significance. According to Chambers and Trudgill (1998),

Characteristics of Dialect Classification

The distinguishing characteristics of dialects may be observed in lexicon, grammar, pronunciation (phonology), and prosody. In cases when the disparities between linguistic variations are mostly or predominantly evident in the realm of pronunciation, the term "accent" may be employed as a more precise alternative to "dialect." Linguists see linguistic distance as a determining factor in the classification of a certain subset of language as dialects. Here are some illustrations:

The Arabic language is spoken in three distinct geographical regions, as noted by Jastrow (2002). Zone I refers to the geographical region where the Arabic language was spoken before the emergence of Islam. The region under consideration is the Arabian Peninsula, except the Southern Arabian area.

In the region of North Africa, specifically in Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, the Darijas, which are the spoken languages of North Africa, are occasionally perceived as being more distinct from other Arabic dialects. In North African nations, there is a prevailing inclination to prioritise Literary Arabic as the primary language for many societal domains, including political and religious affairs. This preference stems from the fact that Literary Arabic serves as the liturgical language of Islam and is also the language utilised in the Qur'an, the sacred text of the Islamic faith.

Lebanon: Within the Lebanese context, a segment of the Christian community perceives the term "Lebanese" as denoting a unique language apart from Arabic, rather than just a dialect of it. In the context of the civil war, it was common for Christians to employ Lebanese Arabic as their official language, occasionally resorting to the Latin script for the transcription of Lebanese. The laws of Lebanon are predominantly composed in the standard literary variant of Arabic, however, discussions and deliberations inside the parliament may be done using the Lebanese Arabic dialect.

In the context of the German language, the designation "German dialects" is often reserved for the conventional religious variations that enable their differentiation from the geographical variations of contemporary standard German. In the field of German dialectology, it has been customary to designate the principal dialect groups by the names of Germanic tribes, from whom it is believed they originated.

How can a child discern variations in dialect?

Research has indicated that children raised in multilingual households have an early awareness of the presence of two distinct language systems, as early as eighteen months of age. Regarding dialect differences, there is limited empirical evidence about their significance for young children. However, it is reasonable to assume that children become cognizant of dialect variations as they begin to emulate their peers. Their awareness of dialect differences is likely contingent upon disparities between the speech patterns of their parents and those of their peers. Given a child's understanding that several languages or dialects are distinct systems used by various groups of people, the question arises as to how long it takes for them to develop an awareness of the positive and negative biases that adults hold towards certain linguistic types. What is the typical timeframe for youngsters to internalize these prejudices? Once again, the available evidence is inconclusive and, to a certain degree, presents conflicting findings. However, there exists compelling evidence indicating the presence of societies where a considerable number of youngsters, as young as three years old, not only possess an awareness of these biases but have also internalised and embraced them. In the publication by Robbins Burling (1959).

How does the child construct their speech model about their environment?

The process of language development refers to the acquisition and refinement of linguistic skills in individuals. The process of language development in humans starts at an early stage of life. Infants initially lack linguistic knowledge, however, by the age of 10 months, they can discriminate between different speech sounds and participate in vocalisations known as babbling. Several studies have indicated that the initial stages of learning commence when the foetus begins to perceive and distinguish the auditory stimuli, such as sounds and speech patterns, associated with its mother's voice. This recognition and differentiation process continues after birth, as the foetus becomes capable of discerning its mother's voice from other auditory stimuli. In general, it is observed that children tend to acquire receptive language skills before the development of their verbal or expressive language abilities. Receptive language refers to the cognitive processes involved in the comprehension and interpretation of linguistic information. As the capacity for receptive language expands, the gradual emergence of expressive language becomes evident. According to Bochner (2003),


Typically, the commencement of productive/expressive language is associated with a preliminary phase of pre-verbal communication, during which babies employ gestures and vocalisations as a means to convey their intentions to others. Based on a fundamental concept of developmental psychology, it can be seen that as children grow, they acquire new linguistic forms to fulfil previously established communication roles, hence replacing the use of proverbial expressions.

The process of language development is believed to occur through typical learning mechanisms, wherein children acquire the structures, meanings, and functions of words and utterances from the linguistic information they receive. It is well observed that children frequently start imitating and duplicating words that they are consistently exposed to. The acquisition of language skills is a universally seen phenomenon. Nevertheless, a significant scholarly discourse revolves around the specific mechanisms via which syntactic rules are learnt. There are two distinct primary ideas about the formation of syntax: an empiricist perspective positing that children acquire all syntactic rules through exposure to linguistic input, and a nativist viewpoint suggesting that some principles of syntax are inherent and transmitted through the human genome. The individual in question is Jane Jones.

The Nativist hypothesis, as postulated by Noam Chomsky, posits that language is a distinctive human achievement, which may be ascribed to either extensive evolutionary processes spanning millions of years or fundamental principles of brain organisation that may be rooted even more profoundly in physical laws. According to Chomsky, it is posited that every kid possesses an inherent language acquisition device (LAD). The LAD, in theory, is a cerebral region that encompasses a collection of universally applicable syntactic principles across several languages. This technology enables youngsters to comprehend information and generate original phrases with limited external assistance and limited prior experience. Chomsky posits that the insufficiency of linguistic input in explaining language acquisition forms the basis of his assertion. The author posits that the language input derived from the surrounding world is constrained and prone to inaccuracies. Hence, proponents of nativism claim that children are unable to acquire language knowledge exclusively via their surroundings. Nevertheless, due to the presence of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in children, they are capable of acquiring language even in the absence of comprehensive information provided by their surroundings. The ability of individuals to acquire a language is also ascribed to the notion of universal grammar (UG), which proposes that a certain collection of structural principles is inherent to people, irrespective of sensory input. The aforementioned perspective has been the prevailing paradigm in linguistic theory for more than half a century and continues to have significant influence, as seen by the extensive publication of articles in scholarly journals and books.

The empiricist hypothesis posits, in opposition to Chomsky's viewpoint, that the linguistic input children are exposed to contains sufficient information, therefore negating the necessity of postulating the existence of an intrinsic language learning apparatus (as mentioned before). Contrary to the notion of a language-specific innate language acquisition device (LAD), proponents of empiricism argue that generic cognitive processes inside the brain are capable of facilitating language acquisition. In the course of this procedure, it is imperative for the youngster to actively interact with their surroundings. Child-directed speech (CDS) refers to the specific manner in which parents or carers engage in communication with a child to facilitate language acquisition. CDS, or Child-Directed Speech, is employed to provide children with the essential linguistic input required for language acquisition. Empiricism is a broad theoretical framework that is occasionally aligned with the interactionist approach. According to the empiricist theory of language acquisition, statistical language acquisition posits that children acquire language through the process of pattern perception. Several scholars adopt an interactionist viewpoint, which encompasses social-interactionist theories of language acquisition. In these particular methodologies, children acquire language skills within an interactive and communicative environment, where they learn language structures to engage in meaningful exchanges of conversation. The primary emphasis of these theories is on the caregiver's attitudes and level of attentiveness towards their children, to foster constructive language habits. The user provided a hyperlink to the English version of Wikipedia.

The behaviourist hypothesis, introduced by B., is an older empiricist perspective. Skinner (year) posited that the acquisition of language occurs through the process of operant conditioning, namely through the mechanisms of stimulus imitation and reward of accurate answers. This particular viewpoint has not garnered widespread acceptance throughout its existence, however according to certain sources, it is currently seeing a rebirth. Contemporary research uses this theoretical framework to provide therapeutic interventions for persons who have received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the theoretical framework of Relational Frame Theory is derived from behaviourism, making it a significant component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Contemporary empirical theories incorporate behaviourist frameworks. Additional theories about language development encompass Piaget's theory of cognitive development, which posits that language development is an extension of broader cognitive development, and Vygotsky's social theories, which attribute language development to an individual's social interactions and personal growth.

Biological preconditions refer to the inherent physiological factors that exist before a certain event or phenomenon. These preconditions are rooted in

The assertion that syntactic information is passed via the human DNA is met with scepticism by evolutionary biologists. Nevertheless, some scholars assert that the capacity to develop such a complex system is exclusive to the Homo sapiens species. Individuals who are not specialised in the field of biology commonly hold the belief that the acquisition of spoken language may have emerged as a result of evolutionary mechanisms and that the fundamental basis for language could potentially be inherited through genetic means. The acquisition of human language proficiency necessitates the development of speech production capabilities and the integration of multimodal processing capacities.

The topic of intense controversy revolves around the extent to which the biological aspect encompasses language acquisition skills, commonly known as universal grammar. Over five decades, Noam Chomsky, a prominent linguist, has advocated for the proposition that children possess inherent, language-specific capacities that both aid and restrict the process of acquiring language. The author posits the notion that individuals possess an inherent biological predisposition to acquire language during a certain period and by specific means. This argument is based on the claim that children are innately equipped with a cognitive mechanism known as the language acquisition device (LAD). Nevertheless, Chomsky's development of the minimalist programme, his most recent iteration of the theory of syntactic structure, has resulted in a reduction of the components of universal grammar. According to Chomsky, these components are inherently present in humans and now mostly consist of the principle of recursion. Consequently, this reduction has rendered the majority of the efforts made by native speakers ineffective.

The topic under consideration pertains to various stages.

The most significant advancement in linguistic abilities takes place during the newborn stage. As the kid progresses in age, there is a noticeable decline in the rate of language development. During the first year of life, from birth to one year of age, infants undergo significant developmental changes and milestones.

Infants predominantly rely on non-verbal communication, primarily via the use of gestures, to convey their messages. In the case of a neonate, crying serves as the sole method of communication. Infants within the age range of 1-5 months exhibit distinct variations in their crying patterns, which serve as indicators of their emotional states. At this developmental period, infants also begin exhibiting laughter. Infants often demonstrate several developmental milestones around the age of 6-7 months. During this period, they exhibit the ability to recognise and respond to their given names, vocalise loudly and excitedly, as well as discern various emotional states by interpreting the tonal qualities of their mother's and father's voices. During the period of approximately 7 to 10 months, infants begin to exhibit the ability to combine words, such as "mama" and "dada". However, it is important to note that these word combinations lack semantic meaning and importance. Verbal communication often emerges at the age of 10-12 months, during which infants begin to imitate auditory stimuli, such as animal sounds. Infants engage in non-verbal communication through several means, such as the use of gaze, head orientation, and body placement. Gestures are commonly employed as a means of communication. The progression of these stages may cause a delay if parental communication with their newborn is not conducted regularly.


The initiation of nonverbal communication is predicated upon the understanding of parents and their adept use of this mode of interaction during conversations. Infants possess the ability to decipher and comprehend the verbal input provided by adults and other individuals and then utilise this understanding to generate their communicative expressions.

During 1-2 years of age, children experience significant developmental milestones and growth.

Both verbal and nonverbal communication modalities are employed throughout this era of human development. At the age of 12 months, children begin to exhibit the behaviour of echoing the phrases they are exposed to. Adults, particularly parents, serve as a linguistic reference for children, aiding them in comprehending the phonetics and semantics of words within the context of a conversation. The acquisition of verbal communication skills in children is mostly facilitated by the processes of repetition and observational learning. If parents fail to engage in verbal communication with their children throughout their formative years, it may provide significant challenges for the youngsters in acquiring fundamental conversational skills. The lexicon of a child between the ages of one and two should ideally encompass a minimum of 50 words, with the potential to expand up to 500 words. During the early stages of development, gestures are first employed as a means of communication. However, as language acquisition progresses, these gestures gradually give way to verbal expressions and are afterwards utilised only when necessary. As growth proceeds, individuals tend to prioritise verbal communication over nonverbal forms of communication.

Between the ages of 2 and 3

Children between the ages of 2 and 3 exhibit optimal communication skills while engaging in a turn-taking approach. The utilisation of a conversational framework facilitates the development of verbal communication. Furthermore, this practice instils virtues like as patience, politeness, and respect, since individuals acquire knowledge via the guidance of their elders, who emphasise the need to allow just one person to speak at a given time. This phenomenon fosters interactional synchrony within the context of preverbal routines, hence influencing the early development of interpersonal communication abilities. During this developmental period, children also experience a phase characterised by recognition and continuity. During their language development, children begin to recognise the significance of shared awareness in communication, in addition to their acquisition of the symbolic aspects of language. This phenomenon has a significant impact on the dynamic between the kid and the carer, as it plays a pivotal role in the child's process of self-discovery, wherein they gradually assume responsibility for their actions.

Children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old.

During this developmental stage, children are in the process of acquiring the ability to generate abstract concepts and are primarily engaged in tangible forms of communication. In the developmental process, children gradually acquire the ability to effectively integrate sounds, syllables, and words that form coherent expressions. Individuals begin engaging in brief dialogues with their peers. The occurrence of stuttering can lead to a reduction in speech rate accompanied by occasional problems in the enunciation of certain letters, including f, v, s, and z. During the initial phase, young children commonly exhibit a deficiency in their usage of function words and demonstrate a lack of comprehension about the appropriate application of verb tenses. Throughout their development, individuals gradually include functional terms, such as pronouns and auxiliary verbs, into their linguistic repertoire. This developmental phase denotes the point at which the majority of youngsters acquire the ability to discern emotional cues about the tone of adults' discourse. When a youngster can discern negative input, it might result in the development of fear and avoidance towards the corresponding verbal and nonverbal signs. During the toddler stage, children acquire the ability to actively engage in the process of listening and comprehending verbal communication, enabling them to formulate suitable responses.

Children between the ages of 5 and 10 years old:

A significant portion of language development at this particular stage occurs within the context of formal education. During the initial stages of a child's school-age development, their lexical repertoire undergoes expansion as a result of exposure to reading materials. This exposure not only facilitates the acquisition of more intricate grammatical structures, such as plurals and pronouns but also contributes to the overall enhancement of their linguistic abilities. Additionally, children start to cultivate metalinguistic awareness, enabling them to engage in introspection and get a deeper comprehension of the language they employ. Consequently, individuals begin to comprehend humorous anecdotes and enigmatic puzzles. Reading serves as a pathway to acquiring new vocabulary and developing proficiency in using sophisticated language while engaging in conversations with adults. The current phase of development holds significant importance in terms of both social and physiological aspects for the child. The susceptibility of school-aged youngsters to the impact of speech and gestures is considerable. As infants progress in their acquisition of communication skills, they develop an awareness of the distinctions between various types of intentions and come to comprehend the existence of several alternative means to convey a certain desire, each with distinct connotations.

The age range of individuals is between 10 and 18 years.

By the age of 10, children often experience cognitive development that enables them to engage actively in discussions and comprehend the underlying objectives of their interactions. During this period, there is a notable enhancement in the refinement and efficacy of communication abilities, accompanied by a corresponding improvement in the comprehension of vocabulary and grammar, mostly attributable to the acquisition of schooling. During adolescence, individuals experience significant transformations in their social connections and cognitive growth, which subsequently impact their communication patterns. Frequently, informal speech (slang) is employed, hence potentially exacerbating uncertainty and fostering misconceptions. How an individual engages in interpersonal communication is contingent upon the specific others with whom they are engaging in conversation. The dynamics of interpersonal interactions undergo transformations that subsequently impact individuals' modes of communication with others. During this developmental stage, teenagers often exhibit a decrease in communication with their parents and an increase in communication with their peers. Attitude and predispositions play crucial roles in motivating individuals to engage in dialogues across various channels of communication. This finding also demonstrates that respect in communication is a characteristic of interpersonal communication that is cultivated during one's growth. The culmination of the teenage phase serves as the foundation for interpersonal interactions during the adult period.

The topic of discussion pertains to the many factors that exert an influence on the environment.

The linguistic development of a kid is influenced by the environment in which they are raised. The environment serves as a source of linguistic input for the youngster to digest. Speeches delivered by adults to youngsters serve as a valuable means of consistently reinforcing proper language usage. The examination of the impact of environmental factors on the development of language is a subject of investigation within the framework of social interactionist theory. Esteemed scholars, including Jerome Bruner, Alison Gopnik, Andrew Meltzoff, AnatNinio, Roy Pea, Catherine Snow, Ernest Moerk, and Michael Tomasello, have contributed to this area of research. Jerome Bruner, a prominent figure in the field, established the theoretical framework for this method throughout the 1970s. He emphasised the significance of adult "scaffolding" in facilitating the child's acquisition of language communication, highlighting its crucial role in the overall developmental process.

Child-directed speech, commonly referred to as baby talk, constitutes a significant element within the linguistic environment of young children. It encompasses the use of language that is spoken in a higher pitch than usual, accompanied by the employment of basic words and phrases. The significance of its function in language development has been a subject of controversy, with several linguists positing that it potentially facilitates the capture of an infant's attention and the maintenance of conversation. When children initiate communication with adults, the use of motherese speech provides them with the opportunity to see language patterns and engage in language experimentation.

Existing research has consistently demonstrated that children who are exposed to a rich vocabulary and intricate grammatical structures exhibit accelerated language development and have greater syntactic accuracy compared to children who are not exposed to sophisticated grammar in their settings. Motherese, also known as infant-directed speech, refers to how mothers communicate with their children by responding to their vocalisations, whether they be in the form of babbling or brief sentences. During this process, the adult actively encourages the kid to engage in ongoing conversation, perhaps leading to accelerated language development compared to children reared in circumstances without such communicative support.

Child-directed speech, also known as motherese or infant-directed speech, is characterised by several distinct features. Firstly, it tends to focus on a limited set of essential words, known as a small core vocabulary. Secondly, the topics discussed in child-directed speech are typically centred around immediate and present experiences, rather than abstract or distant concepts. Thirdly, carers often employ exaggerated facial expressions and gestures to enhance communication with the child. Additionally, frequent questioning is a common feature of child-directed speech, which serves to engage the child and encourage their participation in the conversation. Furthermore, para-linguistic changes, such as variations in tone, pitch, and rhythm, are often employed to capture the child's attention and facilitate comprehension. Lastly, child-directed speech often involves the use of verbal rituals, such as repetitive phrases or songs, which can aid in language acquisition and reinforce social bonding between the carer and When a newborn undergoes activities such as being changed, fed, or rocked, it is improbable for them to generate vocalisations. The likelihood of a newborn producing vocalisations is higher when prompted by nonverbal behaviours such as physical contact or smiling.

Kid-directed speech, also known as motherese or infant-directed speech, can capture the kid's attention. Particularly in instances where novel things are being introduced to the child, this type of speech can assist the youngster in identifying the speech signals and processing the new information being conveyed. The empirical evidence indicates that children who are brought up in households characterised by a high level of verbal interaction have superior language proficiency compared to their counterparts reared in households with less verbal engagement. Exposure to complex phrase structures during the process of language development enhances a child's capacity to comprehend and subsequently employ such intricate sentence constructions during their developmental progression. Research findings indicate that students who are enrolled in high-language schools exhibit a twofold increase in their utilisation of complex sentences compared to students in classrooms where teachers infrequently employ complex sentence structures.

Adults employ many tactics, in addition to child-directed speech, such as recasting, extending, and labelling.

Recasting refers to the act of paraphrasing a statement made by a kid, sometimes by transforming it into a question or restating the child's immature expression in a syntactically complete sentence. As an illustration, when a youngster expresses the phrase "cookie now," a parental figure may offer a response along the lines of "Would you be interested in having a cookie at this moment?"

Expanding refers to the act of rephrasing a child's utterance using a more linguistically advanced and refined manner. As an illustration, a youngster may express the notion "car moves the road," to which a parent might retort "A car traverses the road."

Labelling refers to the process of assigning names or designations to items to identify and differentiate them. When a youngster indicates an object, such as a sofa, the mother may provide a verbal response by using the word "couch." Labelling may also be defined as the act of making references.

Child-directed speech has been categorised into phases by professionals in the field of language development. The parents employ both repetition and variation as strategies to sustain the infant's attention. Additionally, parents employ speech simplification as a strategy to facilitate language acquisition. Furthermore, implementing speech adjustments ensures that the youngster remains receptive. These improvements facilitate a dialogue that offers a contextual framework for growth.

The topic of discussion pertains to the process of phonological development.

Infants possess the ability to discern their mother's vocalisations from as early as a few weeks after birth, indicating a specialised mechanism for speech sound recognition. Additionally, they exhibit the capacity to discriminate between specific speech sounds. The initial significant milestone in phonetic development is the babbling stage, typically occurring around six months of age. During this phase, infants engage in vocalisation exercises to refine their control over the vocal apparatus. Notably, babbling is not influenced by language, as both hearing and deaf children exhibit similar babbling patterns. As infants mature, the frequency of babbling increases and the vocalisations gradually resemble recognisable words, typically observed around twelve months of age. Although each child progresses at an individual pace in acquiring speech, there exists a general tendency towards a sequential mastery of speech sounds.

The cessation of sounds occurs before to the onset of additional consonant sounds, such as 'p', 't', and 'b'.

The development of the physical system in young infants follows a certain order, with the place of articulation progressing from labials, alveolar, velars, alveopalatals, and interdentals by the age of 4.

The process of semantic development refers to the gradual acquisition and refinement of meaning in language. It involves the expansion and modification of a person

On average, children typically acquire a vocabulary of approximately fifty words by the age of eighteen months. These initial words often consist of common nouns such as "milk," "water," "juice," and "apple." Subsequently, children tend to acquire an average of 12 to 16 new words per day. By the time they reach six years of age, their vocabulary expands to encompass approximately 13 to 14 thousand words. Notably, among the most frequently acquired words at this stage are adjective-like expressions denoting displeasure and rejection, such as the word "no." Additionally, words related to social interaction, such as "please" and "bye," are commonly acquired. It is important to note that contextual cues play a significant role in the development of a child's vocabulary.

The child employs contextual cues to make inferences regarding the category and semantic significance of unfamiliar words. This enables the child to differentiate between proper nouns and common nouns. For instance, when presented with an object accompanied by the indefinite article "a" (e.g., a cat, a dog, a bottle), the child interprets it as a common noun. Conversely, when the child encounters a noun without an accompanying determiner, it is perceived as a proper noun, as exemplified by the phrase "This is Mary". Generally, children demonstrate accurate associations between words and their intended meanings as communicated by adults. Nonetheless, occasional semantic errors may occur. Infants possess an inherent inclination to attend to their mother's vocalisations, and they exhibit the ability to recognise familiar words and employ preverbal gestures.

During the initial 12-18 months of language development, children begin to express semantic roles through one-word utterances. These roles include agent, object, location, possession, nonexistence, and denial. Although children can comprehend words beyond the framework of regular games, they still rely on contextual help to fully understand the meaning of these words.

Between the ages of 18 and 24 months, children commonly exhibit prevalent relations, including agent-action, agent-object, and action-location. Additionally, during this period, there is a notable increase in vocabulary acquisition, often referred to as a "vocabulary spurt." This phenomenon is characterised by the ability of infants to rapidly learn and assimilate a significant amount of new information, a process known as fast mapping. It is worth noting that the majority of the newly acquired vocabulary during this stage primarily comprises object words (nouns) and action words (verbs).

Between the ages of 30 and 36 months, children can effectively utilise and comprehend interrogative words such as "why," as well as grasp fundamental spatial phrases like "in," "on," or "under."

Between the ages of 36 and 42 months, children often have a grasp of fundamental colour vocabulary and kinship terminology. Additionally, they acquire a comprehension of the semantic connection between consecutive and combined phrases, encompassing both causal and contrastive relationships.

Children between the ages of 42 and 48 months can grasp inquiries about when and how events occur. Additionally, they exhibit an understanding of fundamental form terminology, including circle, square, and triangle.

During the developmental period of 48-60 months, children begin to acquire knowledge of letter names and sounds, as well as numerical concepts.

Typically, between the ages of 3 and 5, children encounter challenges in accurately utilising language. These challenges manifest in various ways, including underextensions, wherein a child employs a general term to refer specifically to a particular instance (e.g., using the term 'cartoons' exclusively for 'Mickey Mouse'). Conversely, overextensions occur when a child applies a specific term too broadly (e.g., using the term 'and' to refer to any insect). Nevertheless, children compensate for their limited vocabulary by creating novel words to substitute for unfamiliar terms (e.g., referring to someone as a 'cooker' instead of a 'chef' due to a lack of understanding regarding the latter). Furthermore, children demonstrate an ability to comprehend metaphors.

Between the ages of 6 and 10, children demonstrate the ability to comprehend word meanings through their definitions. Additionally, they exhibit an appreciation for the various interpretations of words and are capable of employing language with precision through the use of metaphors and puns. The cognitive process known as fast mapping persists during this developmental period. Moreover, children within this age range are capable of acquiring new knowledge from written texts and possess the ability to elucidate connections between words that possess multiple meanings. Furthermore, they demonstrate an understanding of commonly used idiomatic expressions.

The topic of discussion is the progression and maturation of syntactic abilities in individuals.

The progression of syntactic structures adheres to a distinct pattern and provides valuable insights into the process of language acquisition, which encompasses multiple stages. As posited by O'Grady and Cho (2011), the initial stage, which typically spans from 12 to 18 months, is referred to as the "one-word stage." During this phase, children cannot construct syntactic sentences and instead employ one-word utterances known as "holophrases" to convey complete thoughts. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that children's comprehension abilities surpass their production capabilities at this stage. For instance, a child desiring candy may simply utter the word "candy" rather than formulating a complete sentence.

The subsequent developmental stage is referred to as the "two-word stage," during which children commence generating "mini-sentences" consisting of two words, for instance, "doggy bark" and "Ken water" (O'Grady & Cho, 2011, p. 346). During this stage, it remains uncertain whether children possess a comprehension of the fundamental rules governing language, such as syntactic categories, as their "mini-sentences" frequently lack differentiation between these categories. Nevertheless, children do demonstrate an awareness of sentence structures and consistently employ appropriate word order.


The topic of interest is the process of morphological development.

The development of morphological structure takes place gradually over several years. Before the acquisition of language, children do not employ any morphological structures. The morphological structures that children acquire during their early years, extending into their initial schooling period, encompass determiners (such as "a" and "the"), the -ing inflexion, plural -s, auxiliary "be," possessive -s, third person singular -s, and past tense -ed. Upon beginning to use these structures, children often tend to overgeneralize the rules and apply them to all words in the language, including irregular forms. For instance, if a child has learned the -ed (past tense) rule, they may mistakenly say "I ate" (instead of "I eat") or "man-mans" and "cat-cats." These errors arise from the overgeneralization of rules.


Children frequently demonstrate a rapid acquisition of commonly used irregular verbs, such as "go" and "buy," compared to less frequently encountered ones, such as "win." This observation implies that children require exposure to a particular word several hundred times before they can accurately utilise it. This tendency to overgeneralize is particularly evident in children, occurring in less than 25 per cent of instances before a subsequent decline in such occurrences. Subsequently, children enhance their proficiency in using these verbs, which can be assessed through various means, including the "tug test" (Berko, 1958).


In conclusion, it can be inferred that the information presented supports the notion that the topic: The effect of linguistic models of child language about his environment has been justified.  

The advancement of language acquisition plays a significant role in a child's cognitive and neural development. Yarrow (2014) conducted research that demonstrates how an extensive vocabulary enhances creativity and facilitates the generation of novel ideas. Learning multiple languages offers numerous advantages. Consequently, language development should not be considered in isolation but rather as a crucial component of a child's holistic development in the early years of life. It fosters an environment conducive to learning, wherein a child engages in age-appropriate reading activities.



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