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Halin Ɗan’adam A Adabin Hausa: Tsokaci Daga Taskar Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna Da Dakta Adamu Ɗanmaraya Jos


In
Zauren Waƙa: Journal of Hausa Poetry Studies, Vol. 1 No.3, 2016, Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo University, Sokoto.  Pp 74-87/ISSN: 2384-5139, 978-978-956-169

Alhaji Danmaraya Jos

Halin Ɗan’adam A Adabin Hausa: Tsokaci Daga Taskar Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna Da Dakta Adamu Ɗanmaraya Jos

Rabi Mohammed
Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna,Nijeriya
E-mail: rabimohammeddatti@gmail.com
Phone No: 08060771666

Tsakure

     Bisa yadda rayuwa take, mutum dai shi ke shirya waƙa ya kuma rera ta. Ita waƙa kuma a ko da yaushe tana ɗauke da wani muhimmin saƙo wanda shi mutum ɗin ake so ya lura ya gane har ya ci moriyarta. Hausawa sun daɗe suna shirya waƙoƙi waɗanda suka jiɓinci halayen mutane, masu kyau ko marasa kyau a zamuna mabambanta. Har ya zuwa wannann zamani kuwa ana kan shirya waƙoƙi masu ƙunshe da saƙonni daidai da rayuwar da ake ciki. Kuma ba a tsammanin za a fasa matuƙar mutum na rayuwa a doron ƙasa, saboda ita ma waƙa tamkar halitta take. Wata waƙar idan aka halicce ta, tana iya ɗaukar tsawon lokaci ana ɗaukar ta tamkar yau aka same ta. Don haka wannan takarda za ta yi tsokaci ne game da ɗabi’ar da aka ambata “Halin Mutum” ta fuskar adabin Hausa. Wato za a yi nazari ne cikin taskar wasu makaɗan Hausa, a ga yadda suka auna mutum bisa ɗabia’a irin ta halitta wanda bisa gaskiyar lamari, wanda ya halicce shi ne kaɗai zai iya mashi. An zaɓo waƙar ‘Ɗan’adam Mai Wuyar Gane Hali’ ta Adamu Ɗanmaraya da kuma waƙar ‘Duniya Da wuyar Zama’ ta Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna. An lura cewa waɗannan mawaƙa sun yi zamaninsu a ƙarni guda, suka yi waƙa mai turke iri ɗaya, amma salon sun bambanta. Ko da yake an samo bayani daga bakin Aminu Abubakar cewa, shi Ɗanmaraya ya riga Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna yin tashi. Domin kuwa ya yi waƙar ‘Ɗan’adam Mai Wuyar Gane Hali ne tun farkon lokacin da aka buɗe gidan rediyon Tarayya na Kaduna a 1962. An nuna cewa a lokacin an ɗauki waƙar a faifen garmaho ne. Yayin da shi kuwa Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna farko ya fara bin yayanshi Maikuɗi Ɗanduna ne suna waƙa. Daga baya shi ma ya fara shirya tashi waƙar, a tsakanin shekarar 1970. Kuma waɗannan waƙoƙi ko a yau aka saurare su, za su amfanar da al’umma saboda wannan hali na mutum da aka ambata yana da wuya ya rabu da shi ɗungurungun. Nazarin na da muhimmanci domin ci gaba ne da faɗaɗa fannin Adabi ta fuskar taskace waƙoƙin Hausa da rayuwar mawaƙan ta yadda za a daɗe ana amfana da su.

1.0 Gabatarwa

     Kamar yadda aka faɗa, za a yi tsokaci game da halin mutum ne daga bakin Ɗanmaraya da kuma Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ta fusar Adabi. Wannan ya sa maƙalar za ta fara da kawo tarihin waɗannan mawaƙa a taƙaice. Sannan ta fara bin sawun kowace waƙa, ta tantance irin awon da kowannensu yi wa mutum game da halinsa mai wuyar sha’ani. Daga bisani sai a kwatanta waƙoƙin a faifan nazarin Adabi, a gane yadda suka zama Ɗanjuma da Ɗanjummai.

1.0 Mawaƙi Ɗanmaraya a Taƙaice.

            Marigayi Adamu Ɗanmaraya Jos dai fitaccen mawaƙi ne wanda manazarta Adabin Hausa kamar Daba H.A (1978) da Gusau (1996) da Furniss, G (1996)  da wasu masu sha’awa kamar Emilda, I.I.N (2003), da sauransu, suka yi lugude a kan  rayuwarsa da kuma waƙoƙinsa. Don haka a nan za a bi sawun bayanan magabata ne, a yi waiwaye wanda Hausawa ke cewa ‘adon tafiya’, domin a assasa wannan maƙala. 

          Shi dai wannanan fasihi ya rayu daga shekara ta 1946 zuwa 20/06/2015, wato shekara sittin da shida. Sunansa na yanka Adamu. Laƙabin ‘Ɗanmaraya’, ya samo asali ne daga maraicin da ya sami kansa a ciki. Domin babansa ya rasu tun yana jinjiri. Sannan ita ma mahaifiyarsa ta rasu tun ana goyonsa. Mahaifin Ɗanmaraya Basakkwace ne wanda aka san shi da suna Malam Wayya. A bisa asali Ɗanmaraya a fagen waƙa ba haye ya yi ba, domin kuwa  mahaifin nasa makaɗin fada ne wanda yake yi wa Sarkin Ɓukur Alhaji Muhammadu waƙa. Ɗanmaraya ya taso ne a hannun wannan sarki wanda ya riƙe shi tamkar ɗan cikinsa. Ya sa shi a makarantar Arabi da boko inda ya yi karatu daidai gwargwado. Ya so ya yi sana’a da kasuwanci to amma waƙa ta ɗauke hankalinsa tun yana yaro.Umar, M. (2015).

          Da yake Ɗanmaraya ya yi aikin Karen-mato, to tun a lokacin ne waƙoƙinsa suka kankama. Waƙarsa ta farko ma ita ce ta “Karen Mato” wadda ya yi tun yana ɗan shekara goma sha biyar. Sannan ya yi waƙar “`Yan’amalanke”.  Gusau (1996:201-202) ya nuna cewa ya yi waƙoƙi masu yawan gaske a fannonin rayuwa. Daga cikin waƙoƙin da Ɗanmaraya ya yi kuma jama’a ke bukatarsu sosai akwai waƙar da ya yi ta “Ɗan’adam”. Saboda shahararsa a fagen kiɗa da waƙa ne Jami’ar Jos ta yi la’akari ta ba shi matsayin Daktan mawaƙan Hausa a shekarar 1990/91, Gusau (1996:203).

3.0 Mawaƙi Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna a Taƙaice                                 

          Shi kuwa Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna, ɗan asalin garin Yaryasa ne ta ƙaramar Hukumar Tudun Wadan Ɗankadai a Jihar Kano. Kuma ya fito ne daga gidan malamai wanda ya kasance ya hardace Ƙu’ani mai gima. Ya zauna a Unguwar Sheka da ke cikin Kano har zuwa ƙarshen rayuwarsa. Mawaƙin ya rasu ne a ranar talata tara ga watan Yuli, shekara ta dubu biyu da goma sha uku (09/07/2013). A lokacin da ya rasu yana da shekara tamanin da shida. Inuwa, I.M (2013). Ke nan an haife shi a shekara ta dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da ashirin da bakwai (1927). Kuma wannan ya nuna mana cewa ya ba Ɗanmaraya tazarar shekara goma sha tara. Sannan cikin hukuncin Allah, ya riga Ɗanmaraya rasuwa da shekara biyu. Marigayi  Audu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya bar mata biyu, ‘Hasiya da A’isha da kuma `ya`ya takwas, maza huɗu, mata huɗu. A lokacin rayuwarsa, ya yi waƙoƙi da dama, amma fitattun sun haɗa da waƙar “Sarkin Ƙaraye Abubakar” da “Duniya Da Wuyar Zama” da “Tsakanin Ɗan’adam Da Kuɗi” da kuma Bakandamiyarsa waƙar marigayi sarkin Kano Sunusi. Inuwa I.M (2013).

5.0 Halin Mutum a Bakin Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna Cikin Waƙarsa Ta “Duniya Da Wuyar Zama”

          Audu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya yi wannan waƙa ta “Duniya Da Wuyar Zama” ne don ya nuna wa al’umma hoton halin mutum bisa ɗabi’arsa ta halitta, da kuma juyin zamani. Da farko ya fara buga misali da aikinsu na kiɗa inda a bisa halin mutum an san wasu ba su ɗauke shi abin kirki ba, shi kuwa sai ya ce:

 

                                                   In kun yi kiɗan ba ku tsira ba,

In ma kun ƙi kiɗan ba ku tsira ba.

                                                                  Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                   Saboda harkokinmu na duniya,

                                                   Duk yadda akai ba a tsira ba.

                                                              Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

          A wurin mawaƙin, tunda in babu kiɗan ma, sai wasu sun nemi a yi shi wato suna muradin nishaɗi. Don haka ne ya sami ƙarfin gwiwa har yake ƙarfafa wa yaransa da cewa:

 

Yara ku yi amshinku gaba ɗaya,

                                                                   Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                     In kun amshin ba ku tsira ba,

In kun ƙi amshin ba ku tsira ba.

                                                                   Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

Ni ma da nai waƙar ban tsira ba,

                                                                   Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

          Mawaƙin ya fito sarari ya nuna, ya tabbatar da cewa duk kirkinka sai an kushe ka. Kuma in ka ƙi halin kirkin ma fa sai an tanka kuma an guje ka. A adabance mawaƙin na nuna wanne ne ba wanne ba? Ga ta bakin nasa:

 

                                                    In kai kirki ba ka tsira,

In kai rashin kirkin ba ka tsira ba,

                                                                   Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                   Idan ka rufe ido ba ka tsira ba,

In ma ka gwale idon ba ka tsira ba,

                                                                 Duniya da wuyar zama.

                                                  In ka yi shiru ba ka tsira ba,

                                                  In ka yi surutun ba ka tsira ba.

                                                             Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                 In kai haƙuri ba ka tsira ba,

                                                 In kai rashin haƙurin ba ka tsira ba,

       Duniya da wuyar zama.

                                                 In ka yi faɗa ba ka tsira ba,

                                                 In ma ka ƙi faɗan ba ka tsira ba,

                                                              Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

           Idan an lura mutum yakan siffantu da wasu halaye na kirki kamar yadda mawaƙin ya kawo misali da halin kau da ido (kawaici) da rashin yawan magana da haƙuri da tsawatarwa (faɗa). Bisa hali na halitta akasin waɗannan halaye da ma munana ne, don haka dole ne ma mutum ya sami abin cewa a kai don ya nuna ƙyamarsa ga mai aikatawa.

          Sannan ta fuskar yadda Allah ya ya yi halittarsa, za ka ga an san mutum da tankawa a kai. Wani lokaci ma, waɗanda suke da tauhidi a zukatansu, suna ɗaukar masu tanka halittar Allah cikin ba’a a matsayin masu saɓo, domin kuwa babu wanda Allah ya yi shawara da shi sanda za a halicce shi. In ka ga kyakkyawa ko mummuna, bisa dacewa, kada ka kyari mummunan nan. Kuma kada ka ce lallai kai sai kyakkyawan nan ka fi so, domin kyau  yakan gushe wata rana.

          To! Shi dai Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya tabbatar da halin mutum na tanka halittar Ubangiji inda yake cewa:

 

                                                     Mai gani anai masa dariya,

                                                     Makahon ma bai tsira ba.

                                                             Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

Mai ƙafa biyu anai masa dariya,

                                                    Yara gurgun bai tsira ba.

                                                             Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

          Halin mutum na gaba wanda ya jiɓinci halittar mutum da rayuwa, shi ne inda Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya kawo batun aure da gwaurantaka.

         

Da matarka anai maka dariya,

                                                      Yara gwauron bai tsira ba,

                                                               Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

          Wato mai mata ba ya rabauta da sa ido ta tankawa har ma a yi masa dariya saboda wasu dalilai. To ballantana kuma gwauro wanda shi ya fi shan kwaramniyar maganar mutane musamman Hausawa musulmi saboda yadda addini da al’ada suka tanadar masa da muhimmancin aure. Shi ya sa duk wanda ya isa a shekaru kuma ya ɗauki tsawon lokaci bai yi auren ba yake shan tsangwama a zance na yau da kullum. Har ma akwai waƙoƙi musamman lokacin azumi da ake kaɗawa domin gwauro ya yi zuciya ya nemi aure.

         A can gaba kuma, Wazirin Ɗanduna ya fito da halin mutum bisa sauyin zamani. A cewar wannan mawaƙi,  ya gane wasu na son `yan’uwansu, yayin da  wasu na gudun `yan’uwa.  Sai dai ya fi ƙarfafa lalacewar zamani game da ƙin taimakon juna bisa yadda aka gada a al’ummar Hausawa. Misali yana cewa:

                                                  Kuma inda na zaga duniya,

     Na ga waɗansu suna son `yan’uwansu,

                                                 Waɗansu suna ƙin `yan’uwa,

                                                                Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

Mutum ya yi da gaske da abin kansa,

                                                 Kar mu damu da samun `yan’uwa,

                                                                Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                Saboda yanzu ga wannan zamani,

                                                Ɗan’uwanka yana da gida huɗu,

                                                Sai ya kasa ba ka guda ɗaya,

                                                                 Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                Ɗan’uwanka da manyan riguna,

                                                Sai ya bar ka cikin rigar aro,

                                                                 Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

          Idan an lura mawaƙin ya fito da hoton halin da al’ummar Hausawa ta tsinci kanta a ciki na canjin zamani. Wato a da, an san Bahaushe da son ɗan’uwansa, kai maƙwabci ma kawai Bahaushe zai ba shi muhallin zama kyauta ballantana na jikinsa. To yanzu abin da kamar wuya, wai gurguwa da auren nesa. Bahaushe in ya yi kuɗi, sai ya ja baya da `yan’uwansa saboda ba ya bukatar su aza masa ɗawainiya, ya fi so daga shi sai `ya`yan cikinsa da matarsa/matansa kawai.

 

6.0 Halin Mutum a Bakin Adamu Ɗanmaraya Cikin Waƙarsa Ta “ Ɗan’adam Mai Wuyar  Gane

       Hali”

          Shi kuwa Ɗanmaraya ya yi waƙoƙi da dama waɗanda duk halin mutum suke nunawa. To amma ita wannan waƙa ta “Ɗan’adam Mai Wuyar Gane Hali” ita ma ta keɓanta ne ga fito da halin mutum bisa halittarsa wanda komi kirkinsa ba ya iya gani ya ƙyale, sai ya tanka a cikin al’umma. Mawaƙin ya fara ne da tabbatar wa al’umma cewa shi mutum halinshi fa sai Allah domin Allah da ya halicce shi sai ya lulluɓe shi da rahama don ya more rayuwa. Amma duk da haka sai ya tanka. Sai mawaƙin ya ɗora da nuna cewa halin mutum yana ba shi tsoro da firgici tunda tsakanin abin da Allah ya hukunta ma bai  iya kame bakinsa yadda ya dace ba.

        Ga ta bakin Ɗanmarayan:

                                               Allah Karimun Ganiyyun Rahimun,

                                               Shi yai dare shi yay yi rana,

                                               Yai ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali,

                                                         O’o! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

            

                                               Sha’anin mutum ni yakan firgita ni,

                                               Lamarin mutum ni yakan jijjiga ni’

                                               Lamarin mutum ni yakan maguza ni,

Sha’anin mutum to yakan ba ni haushi,

               Wata ran mutum ko yakan daɗaɗa min.

 

                                              Haka bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali,

                                              In an yi ruwa ka ce an yi ruwa,

                                              In an yi sanyi ka ce an yi sanyi,

                                              In an yi rana ka ce an yi rana,

                                              In an yi zafi ka ce an yi zafi,

                                                         Oh! Ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

          Mawaƙin ya maimata faɗin cewa duk yanayin da Allah ke saukar wa duniya, shi mutum sai ya nuna abin ya ishe shi. Kuma idan ba a saukar ba, nan ma za ka ji mutum yana ƙorafi cewa an ƙi ruwa ko sanyi ko zafi. Saboda kowanne yanayi akwai moriyar da Ɗan’adam ke samu na rayuwa da shi. Ma’ana ni’ima ne ga Ɗan’adam, amma dole sai ya tanka. Kuma in an lura shi ma mutum dole ne ya ce abu ya dame shi saboda yadda Allah ya halicce shi ne. Jikinshi ba zai iya jure tsananin zafi ko sanyi ko ruwan sama ba, domin a tsanantar kowane yanayi mutum na zama cikin ciwo har ma ya rasa rayuwa. Sai dai duk da haka ana son mutum ya iya bakinsa.

          A tsakanin mutum da ɗan;uwansa kuma, ai abin ba dama ne. Domin kuwa komai ya ga an yi sai ya furta kalamansa a kai. Mawaƙin ya kawo misalai a Adabance kamar haka:

 

                                                Oh! Ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali,

                                                In ka yi keke ya ce ka yi keke,

                                                In ka yi babur ya ce ka yi babur,

                                                In ka yi mota ya ce ka yi mato,

                                                In ka yi gida ya ce ka yi gida,

                                                In ka ƙi gida ya ce ka ƙi gida,

Mutum bai da gadonka wallahi Allah,

                                               Amma yana dai da gadon batunka,

                                                           Oh! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

          Haka Ɗanmaraya ya yi ta kawo misalai na kayayyakin da mutum kan mallaka don amfani da su a rayuwa waɗanda ya nuna mutum bai iya gani ya ƙyale. Kai! Har ma mawaƙin ya lura da yadda tunanin mutum ke karkata a lokacin da ya ga wani ya yi shiga mai kyau kuma yana tuƙa mota, to mutum yakan ce “Wane mai arziki ne.” Ko kuma daga ganin mutum ba shi da ko ahu (ko kwabo) kuma kayan jikinsa ma ba masu kyau ba, sai dai ka ji an ce “Wane matalauci ne.” To a irin wannan muhalli ne shi Ɗanmaraya yake tuhumar mutum mai tankawa cewa, kawai daga haɗuwa ɗaya, ya aka yi ya tabbatar wanen nan mai arziki ne ko matalauci? 

 

          Ga dai yadda fasihin ke faɗa:

 

                                             Wani ya yi riga da wando ko mai kyau,

                                              Ya yi hula da gare ko mai kyau,

Sannan ka gane shi ya hau wanga mato,

                                              Tuƙi yake inda duk kai ka gan shi,

                                              To sai ka ce wane mai arziki ne,

                                              Yaya ka san can cikin zuciyarsa?

                                                          Tuna! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

                                              Ka tarar wanga ai bai da ahu,

                                              Babu riga ta kirki jikinsa,

                                              Ka ce wane ai yana da talauci,

                                             Yaya ka yi har ka san zuciyarsa?

                                             Sha’anin mutum mai wuyar gane hali,

                                                          Oh! Ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

         Duk da haka, mawaƙin kamar yadda ya faɗa a farko-farkon waƙar, a ƙarshe ma ya naɗe inda ya nuna shi mutum halinsa na da fuska biyu ne, wato mai kyau da mara kyau. A irin fahimtar mawaƙin da mutum shi ne, yakan kasance ya siffantu da duka halin kirki da na rashin kirkin. Shi ya sa yake faɗin:

                                             Wata ran mutum ai yakan kyautata ma,

                                             Wata ran mutum kai kake kyautata mai,

                                             Wata ran mutum kai kake munana mai,

                                             Wata ran mutum shi yake munana ma,

Ga shi can! Mutum mai wuyar gane hali,

                                                         Oh! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

          Wato akwai falsafa game da abin da Ɗanmaraya ya faɗi. Bisa ga yadda Allah ya halicci mutum, shi mai kuskure ne, bai zama cikakke ba wanda ba zai taɓa saɓawa ba, wanda ya haɗa har da shi kanshi mawaƙin.

7.0 Dangantakar Waƙoƙin a Faifan Nazari

     Bisa fahimta idan muka dubi waɗannan waƙoƙi guda biyu, ta fuskar nazarin Adabi, sun hau tafarkin da ya kamata. Ma’ana, waƙoƙin suna da manufa da kuma salo irin na Adabi kamar yadda bayani zai biyo:

7.0.1 Turke

     Kamar yadda Gusau (2008:370 ), ya yi bayani, “Turke a ƙa’idar masu nazarin waƙar baka na nufin saƙon da waƙa take ɗauke da shi. Idan an ce saƙo kuma ana magana ne a kan manufar da ta ratsa waƙa tun daga farkonta har zuwa ƙarshenta, ba tare da karkacewa daga ainihin abin da ake zance a kansa ba.” Har wa yau, ya nuna cewa, akwai ƙananan matakai da za su iya taimaka wa mai nazarin waƙar baka fitar da turken waƙar da yake yi wa sharhi cikin sauƙi. Waɗannan kuwa su ne, muhallin Turke da taƙaita Turke da Warwara da Tsettsefewar Turke da kuma Tubalan Ginin Turke. Dangane da nau’o’in Turke kuwa a waƙar baka, Gusau (2008:376-390), ya nuna akwai na Yabo zalla da na Zuga zalla da na Yabo surke da Zuga da na Ta’aziyya da na Zambo da na Tarihi da na Siyasa da na Soyayya da na Faɗakarwa da na Jaruntaka da na Koɗa kai da na Ban-dariya da na Addini da kuma na Ɗarsashi ko Rinjayen Zuciya.

     Yanzu za iya cewa waƙar da Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya yi, da wadda Adamu Ɗanmaraya ya yi, waɗanda aka ce wani abu a sama kaɗan, dukkansu suna ɗauke da turke ne na faɗakarwa ga mutane maza da mata a game da halayensu na zaman duniya. Suna nuni da akwai bukatar Hausawa su yi taka-tsantsan da lamarin duniya domin ita ba abar dogaro ba ce. 

Dubi dai abin da Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya ce:

                                                     Duniya rumfar kara!

Ni Abdu na shiga na miƙe ƙafa,

                                                    Sanda za ta zube ban farga ba,

                                                                Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

     An dai san rumfar kara ana haɗa ta da dirkoki (shikashikai) guda huɗu, wadda mutum kan sakankance ya shiga ya huta. To ita wannan rumfa da yake ta kara ce ba abar dogaro ba ce saboda duk lokacin da za ta zube, mutum ba zai sani ba. Don haka ne ya kwatanta zaman duniya da irin wannan rumfa wanda mawaƙin ke nusar da mutane game da halayensu na yawan maganar wani ko kyarar halittar Allah da kuma rashin taimakon ɗan’uwa kamar yadda aka yi tsokaci a sama. Yawan Maganar wani takan jawo zunubi saboda shi ne giba wanda Allah ya haramta. To bisa fahimta, cikin azanci waɗannan mawaƙa suna nufin tankawar da mutum kan yi game da rayuwar wani, in dai ba  ta yabo ba ce, to ba ta wuce zunɗe da neman yi da shi saboda ƙyashi ko hassada. Sai dai a nan, babu wani ɗa daga waƙar da Ɗanmarayan ya yi wanda za a iya gwama shi da wanda aka kawo daga bakin Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna. Amma matanin waƙar ta Ɗanmaraya na ɗauke da saƙon da aka warware. 

     Dukkan mawaƙan sun tabbatar wa al’umma cewa ire-iren waɗannan halaye na mutane mutum ba ya iya gane masu balle ya raba su da su. To amma tunda Allah ya  hori mutane da su bar abin da ba ya so, wanda shi ya sa har Manzon Allah (SAW) ya ce: “Wanda ya yi imani da Allah da ranar Lahira, to ya faɗi alheri ko kuwa ya yi shiru.” Wanda kuwa ya kasa taka-tsantsan da wannan umurni, to lallai kuwa Allah yana jiran kowa a madakata. Shi ya sa Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya tunatar da cewa:

Abin ga sai mu dangana sai ran lahira,

                                               Allah zaɓa mana gaskiya,

                                                            Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

Shi kuma Ɗanmaraya sai ya ce:

                                                   Allah da yai ɗan’adam dai ka gane,

                                                  Shi ne kawai Jalla ai zai iyar mai,

                                                  Oh! Ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali,

                                                              Haba bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

     Haka kuma, mawaƙan biyu sun tabbatar da cewa mutum yana da halin kirki kuma yana da na tsiya. Sannan kowanne ya aikata musamman ma halin kirki, sai an sami wani mutum ya gaza yaba masa. To amma duk da haka, manufar mawaƙan ita ce, mutum ya yi bakin ƙoƙarinsa ya fahimci gaskiyar al’amura ta yadda zai zaɓa wa kansa abin da ya dace ya yi, ba ya tsaya yana biye ta mutane ba. An dai ga yadda Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya zaɓi ya yi kiɗansa da waƙa wanda da ya biye ta wasu, da ba zai yi ba. A fahimtarsa, in dai kiɗa da waƙa zai taimaki al’umma wajen gyaran halayensu, to yana ganin babu laifi. Don haka su yi ta cewa yana waƙar, suna ɗaukarsa a mashirmanci, duk bai damu ba.

7.0.2 Salo

     A nazarin Adabi an san salo muhimmin fage ne, tun ma ba ga waƙa ba. Shi ya sa ɗaya daga cikin manyan malamai masu nazarin waƙar Hausa ya ce, “Salo Asirin Waƙa.” Gaskiya kam, ba don salo ba, da waƙa ma ba ta samu ba. To, kamar yadda aka sani salo a nan shi ne dabarun da mawaƙa suka yi amfani da su don su isar da saƙonsu cikin nishaɗi ga jama’a. Nau’oin salo a waƙa suna da yawa kuma ba ƙararru ba ne, domin ko da yaushe ana ci gaba da samun sababbin salailai a cikin waƙoƙin Hausa. An bayyana cewa, “Salo a waƙa wani irin kandami ne, saboda kusan kowane furuci a cikin waƙa yana cikin wani nau’i na salo.” (Yahya 2001:58).

    A nan ba duka sawun nau’o’in salon da aka sani za a bi a zaƙulo a waɗannan waƙoƙi ba. Sai dai tsokaci a kan yadda salon waƙoƙin na gaba ɗaya suka jiɓinci juna bisa falsafar mawaƙan ta fuskar zaɓo kalmomi da gina jimloli. 

     A waƙar da Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya yi, yana cewa, /Duniya da wuyar zama/ a matsayin amshin waƙar. Shi kuwa Adamu Ɗanmaraya ba shi da `yan amshi, amma yana yawan maimaita, /Ɗan’adam mai wuyar gane hali/. Idan an duba dukkansu sun yi fasaha wajen kwaɗaitar da mutum son ya san me suke son su faɗa. Ko da yake, shi Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna faɗin halin ɗan’adam da ya gane mai wuyar sha’ani, shi ya sa ya zaɓi ya ce ‘duniya da wuyar zama’ tunda shi mutum ɗin a duniya yake rayuwa. Yayin da shi kuma Ɗanmaraya kai tsaye ya kawo batun halin mutum a matsayin mai wuyar ganewa.

     A ƙoƙarin isar da saƙonsu, in an lura shi Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna yana dunƙule zance ne mai neman ciko ko bayani. Cikon kuma shi ne ya wanzu irin salon da Ɗanmaraya ya ɗauka. Misali:

             

Wazirin Ɗanduna                                                            Adamu Ɗanmaraya

 

Da matarka anai maka dariya,                                                        In ka yi aure ya ce ka yi aure,                

     Yara gwauron bai tsira ba,                                                             In ka ƙi aure ya ce ka ƙi aure,

 

In ka zauna ba ka tsira ba,                                                             In ka yi gida ya ce ka yi gida,

     In ka miƙe ba ka tsira ba,                                                              In ka ƙi gida ya ce ka ƙi gida,

 

In kai kirkin ba ka tsira ba                                                 Wata ran mutum kai kake kyautata mai

    In kai rashin kirkin ba ka tsira ba                                     Wata ran mutum kai kake munana mai

 

 

     Wato dariyar da ake nufi a waƙar Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna shi ne abin da Ɗanmaraya ya faɗa wanda mutum ke zancen wani da cewa ya yi aure da wata manufa ta daban. Rashin tsirar gwauro kuma shi ne maganar da mutum zai ta yi a kan ƙin auren wanda ya isa auren.

     Sannan mutum ya zauna ba ya taɓuka komai a rayuwarsa, ko kuma ya miƙe ya nemi na kansa, duk bai tsira ba a cewar Wazirin Ɗanduna, domin sai ka ji ta bakin mutum wanda shi ne Ɗanmaraya ya yi fashin baƙi ya nuna mutum zai yi fafutuka ya gina gida, amma da wata manufa ta daban sai an yi zancen. Idan kuma ya zama bai sami damar gina gidan ba, sai an ce ya ƙi yi ne, ba tare da lura ko sanin halin da mutum ke da shi ba. Wato ana mantawa da hukunci Ubangiji wanda shi ke ƙaddara wa bawansa samu da rashi.

     Haka maganar kirki da rashin kirkin mutum kamar yadda Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya furta, shi kuma Ɗanmaraya a nashi salon, sai ya yi amfani da kalmar kyautatawa da munanawa a matsayin kirki da rashin kirki irin na mutum ga ɗan’uwansa mutum.

     Kamar yadda aka faɗa, kalmomin da Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya mallaka a waƙarsa dunƙulallu ne, waɗanda aka warware su a waƙar da Ɗanmaraya ya yi. Idan an lura, suna da dangantaka ta yadda kai ka ce wata `yar ƙwarya-ƙwaryar ƙamusu aka samo a Adabi. Misali:

                              Da matarka               Ka yi aure

                              Gwauro                     Ka ƙi aure

                              Ka zauna                   Ka ƙi gida 

                              Ka miƙe                    Ka yi gida  

                              Ka yi kirki                 Kyautata ma              

                              Rashin kirki              Munana ma

 

     Za a yarda da haka domin lallai sun bayyana ƙarara a ƙamusun Hausa na (CNHN 2006), kamar haka:

               Mata:        Abokiyar zaman namiji a auratayya. (shafi na 338).

               Gwauro:   Mutum da ba shi da aure bayan ya taɓa yi. (Shafi na 184).

               Miƙe:       Dagewa kan abu. (Shafi na 345).

              Kirki:        Kyakkyawan hali ko taimakawa ko kyautatawa. (Shafi na 246).

              Tsira:         Kuɓuta daga wani mugun abu. (Shafi na 457).

Sai dai kalmar ‘zauna’ da ba a fito a Ƙamusun da ma’anarta ta fuskar manufar mawaƙin ba. Amma idan an lura samun ma’anar ‘miƙe’ da aka yi a matsayin dagewa kan abu, ya nuna ‘zauna’ na ɗaukar  akasin hakan. Sannan Kalmar tsira mai nufin kuɓuta daga mugun abu, ya nuna mana Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna na nufin duk abin da mutum ya yi ba ya kuɓuta daga bakin mutane, kamar yadda aka yi bayani.

          Bayan haka, mawaƙan nan sun yi amfani da salo mai jawo hankalin mutum ta yadda zai yi tunani har hoton da  suke nufi ya riski ganinsa. Misali, Abdu wazirin Ɗanduna yana cewa:

 

                                                  Kai yara duniya rumfar kara,

                                                  Ni Abdu na shiga na sagale ƙafa,

                                                  Sad da za ta zube ban farga ba,

                                                              Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

                                                 Ga wani abu a kan matar sarki,

                                                Ai da tana da ido da ta gani,

                                                              Duniya da wuyar zama.

 

         Wannan salon gajeruwar siffantawa ko salon kinaya ne mawaƙin ya yi amfani da shi. Wato a kai tsaye aka kira duniya da rumfar kara. Ya kira ta haka domin a gane cewa yadda irin wannan rumfa take da rashin aminci da nagarta, haka duniya take. Ba a zaunawa a cikinta a sakankance cewa tana dawwama. Mawaƙin ya kuma yi amfani da salon kacici-kacici domin ya ankarar da mutum mai shagala gane halayen da ba su da kyau, ya ambaci wasan nan da aka fi sanin yara da matasan Hausawa na yi wa junansu don nishaɗi. Wato /wani abu a kan wani/, /bai da ido da ya gani/. Manufarsa ita ce, mummunan halin da mai aikata shi bai hankalta ba, kuma mawaƙin yake son ya ankarar da shi.

Shi kuma Ɗanmaraya yana cewa:

 

Mutum bai da gadonka wallahi Allah,

                                               Amma yana dai da gadon batunka,

             Oh! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali.

 

Ga shi can! Bil’adam mai wuyar gane hali

 

          A bisa abin da mutum ya sani, dukiya ake gado ba magana ba kamar yadda Ɗanmaraya ya faɗa. Kuma masu gado makusanta ne na mutum kamar uba ko ɗa ko uwa ko `yan’uwa na jini. Sai ga shi mawaƙin ya yi dabarar kwatanta halin mutum wanda shi ba ku haɗa `yan’uwantaka na jini ba, amma ya damu da lamarinka inda zai yi ta nuna ka da zunɗenka yana magana a kanka, tamkar dai kayan gado wanda ya zama dole. Sannan faɗin /ga shi can/, ya jefa wa mai sauraren waƙar ganin hoton mutumin da ke da halin da ake nufi.

8.0 Kammalawa

         Da farko an yi tsokaci game da abin da ‘Hali’ ke nufi da yadda ya jiɓinci mutum har Bahaushe ya kirfa tunanunsa a kai. Ya kuma tabbatar halin mutum ɗin akwai mai kyau da mara kyau. Daga abin da wannan takarda ta tattauna, za a iya tabbatar da cewa lallai Adabi yana hasko rayuwar al’umma ne, tunda mun ga yadda cikin fasahar waƙa aka fito da halin mutum wanda yake da wuyar sha’ani. Wato mutum ba ya rabuwa da shi, sai dai  ya lura ta yadda ba zai zama illa a gare shi ba, kamar yadda Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna da kuma Adamu Ɗanmaraya suka tunatar. An fahimci waƙoƙin sun hau turbar Adabin Hausa, domin saƙonsu ya ƙullu a matsayin turken faɗakarwa game da halin mutum. Kuma kowannensu yana da baiwar sarrafa harshensa ta yadda muka gane Harshen Hausa yana da yalwar kalmomi. Domin da za a tattara waƙoƙi da yawa masu turke iri ɗaya, a yi nazarinsu, to sai an ga salo iri-iri dangane zaɓar kalmomi da gina jimloli masu ma’ana. Wani abin sha’awa da wannan nazari ya gano shi ne, waɗannan mawaƙa sun rayu ne a ƙarni guda. Ɗanmaraya shi ya riga Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna shirya waƙa a kan halin mutum, amma kuma Abdu Wazirin Ɗanduna ya girmi Adamu Ɗanmaraya da shekara goma sha tara, kuma shi ya riga shi rasuwa. Sai dai ba garinsu ɗaya ba kamar yadda aka faɗa a taƙaitaccen tarihinsu. Kuma shi Ɗanmaraya yana kaɗa kuntigi ne shi kaɗai babu `yan amshi, yayin da Wazirin Ɗanduna yake da `yan amshi kuma kalangu ne kayan kiɗansa.

MANAZARTA

Tuntuɓi mai takarda.

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