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Sir Hanns Vischer Ɗan Hausa (1875-1945): Gudummawarsa Ga Ƙa’idojin Rubutun Hausa

Takardar Da Aka Gabatar A Taron Ƙara Wa Juna Sani Na Ƙasa-Da-Ƙasa Karo Na 5 a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya Da Kimiyar Harshe Na Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna.   Ranar 14 Zuwa 17 Ga  Nuwamba,  2019.

Sir Hanns Vischer Ɗan Hausa (1875-1945): Gudummawarsa Ga Ƙa’idojin Rubutun Hausa

Na

Hadiza Usman
Ɗaliba a: Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya Da Kimiyar Harshe,
Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna
Lambar Waya: +2348165933830
Imel: hadizanananitr@gmail.com

Dan Hausa

Tsakure

Batun daidaita ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa batu ne da ya sha rubdugu tun lokaci mai tsawo. Ɗaiɗaikun mutane da hukumomi sun yi ƙoƙari tare da bayar da gagarumar gudummawa wajen samar da ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa a mabambantan zamunna. Gudummawar sun haɗa da fitar da adadin baƙaƙe da wasulan da ake amafani da su, da kuma fasalta sautukan da suka dace da harrufan da babu su a harshen Ingilishin  da aka ɗora lafazin Hausa a kan harrufansa. Alƙiblar wannan maƙala ita ce tattauna gudummawar da Baturen Switzerland jam’in mulkin mallaka kuma tsohon ɗan mishan wato Hanns Vischer wanda aka yi wa laƙabi da Ɗan Hausa ya bayar ga samuwar ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa. Maƙalar ta jaddada cewa Ɗan Hausa shi ne tsittsige ko tushe ko asalin samuwar ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa, musamman abin da ya shafi baƙaƙe masu lanƙwasa(ɓ, ɗ, ƙ).

 

1.0 Gabatarwa

Ƙa’idojin rubutu dokoki ne da ake so mai karatu ya kiyaye domin daidaita rubutu ya dace, da kuma fito da ma’ana da samun sauƙin fahimta. Bahaushe kan ce; “Gaba da gabanta, aljani ya taka wuta”. Saboda haka, idan aka ce Sir Hanns Vischer (Ɗan Hausa)[1] shi ne limamin samuwa da kuma daidaita ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa, ba a sharara ta ba. Ta la’akari da cewa Ɗan Hausa ɗaya ne daga Turawan mishan wanda daga bisani ya rikiɗe aikin mulkin mallaka a ƙasar Hausa.  Shi ne ya buɗe makarantar boko ta farko a Arewa, wato Makarantar Ɗan Hausa a Nassarawa Kano. Nazarce-nazarce da dama (Yahaya, 1988; Malumfashi, 2009; Bunza, 2015; Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018; da sauransu) bisa mabambantan manufofi sun taɓo ayyukan Ɗan Hausa, ta fuskar aikin mishan da aikin mulkin mallaka da kuma gudummawarsa ga karatun boko da rubuce-rubucen Hausa. Saboda haka, a  wannan maƙala an yi ƙoƙarin fito da gudummawar Hanns Vischer ne musamman ta fuskar daidaita ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa.

2.0 Rubutun Hausa a Taƙaice

Rubutun boko tsarin rubutun abacada ne wato baƙaƙe da wasula a jere wanda ya samo asali daga Latin, wato harshen Romawa kimanin shekaru 3,100 da suka wuce. Asalin rubutun boko na Romawa ne kuma yanzu da shi Turawan Italiya da Faransa da Fotugal da Ingila da sauransu suke amfani, (Yahaya, 1988).

A ƙasar Denmark ta Turai ce aka fara rubuta kalmomin Hausa cikin rubutun boko, inda wani Baturen Denmark mai suna B.G Neighbuhr ya riƙa rubuta kalmomin Hausa yayin da yake koyon Hausa. Misali yakan rubuta kalmomi kamar haka:

-         dudsji  maimakon dutse

-         ghurassa maimakon gurasa

-         berni maimakon birni, da sauransu. (Yahaya, 1988).

Turawan bincike da na Mishan sun rubuta harsunan Afirka da dama ta yin amfani da baƙaƙen Latin ciki har da Hausa. Waɗannan Turawa sun fara ziyartar Afirka ta yamma a cikin Ƙ18 ƙarƙashin wata ƙungiya mai suna Ƙungiyar Gano Afirka.

Har ila yau, wasu ƙungiyoyin addinin Kirista na ƙasashen Turai sun cigaba da aiko Turawa daban-daban tun daga Ƙ18 zuwa Ƙ19 irin su Henrich Barth da James Frederick Schon  da sauransu, domin binciken al’adu da harsuna da kuma yaɗa addinin Kirista a Afirka ta yamma, (Yahaya, 1988).

Akwai wasu Turawan da suka yi rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausar boko kafin Ƙ20 waɗanda suka haɗa da William Baikie wanda ya rubuta Letafi Zabura (1881) da J. Lippert ya rubuta Hausa (1886) da kuma J. Numa Rat ya rubuta The Elements of the Hausa Language (1889), (Yahaya, 1988; Bakura, 2018; Bunza, 2018).

Kenan, tun kafin Turawan mulkin mallaka, Turawa masu bincike da masu yaɗa addinin Kirista daga ƙasashen Ingila da Faransa da Jamus da Denmark sun yi amfani da baƙaƙen Latin sun yi rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausa. A lokacin da suke waɗannan rubuce-rubuce, Hausawa ba su fara rubuta Hausa cikin boko ba kuma Hausawa ba su san ma akwai wani irin rubutu na boko ba, sai da Turawan mulkin mallaka suka kafa makarantun boko a ƙasar Hausa, wanda Ɗan Hausa yana shi ne ja-gaba a wannan fagen.

3.0 Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Hanns Vischer (Ɗan Hausa)

Sir Hanns Vischer wato Ɗan Hausa Bature ne wanda ya ba da gagarumar gudummuwa sosai a sha’anin aikin mishan da kuma mulkin mallaka. Kazalika, a ɓangaren samuwar ilimin boko da rubutaccen zube; Ɗan Hausa shi ne ya buɗe makarantar boko ta farko (ta gwamnati) a Kano, kuma yana daga cikin malaman da suka fara koyarwa a ƙasar Hausa. Haka kuma da shi aka aza harsahin samar da ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa da samar da littattafai ta hanyar fassara da ƙagawa da gasa, (Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018).

An haifi Hanns Vischer ranar 14 ga watan Satumba, shekarar 1876 a yankin Basle na ƙasar Switzerland. Ya yi karatu a  makarantar St. Lawrence’s College da ke Cambride a shekarar 1896 bayan ya yi taƙaitaccen karatu a ƙasar Jamus.  Bayan ya kammala karatunsa a kan Harsunan Zamani a shekarar 1899, ya yi karatu na shekara ɗaya a Ridley Hall kuma ya nazarci Hausa a Tripoli. Sannan ya yi kwas a kan lafiya a wani asibiti da ke Berne a ƙasar Switzerland a shekarar 1900. Ɗan Hausa ya yi digiri na biyu a jami’ar Cambridge a 1903. Ya yi aure a shekarar 1911, sunan matarsa Isabelle de Tscharner, (Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018).

Har ila yau, Hanns Vischer ya yi ayyuka da suka haɗa da aikin Mishan na sa-kai lokacin da yake karatu a Ridley da kuma ƙungiyar yaɗa addinin Kirista ta C.M.S ɓangaren Hausa a Cocin Ingila. Daga shekarar 1900 zuwa 1902 ya yi aiki da tawagar mishan a Arewacin Nijeriya. Daga bisani kuma Hanns Vischer ya koma ƙasar Birtaniya ya zama ɗan ƙasa ya dawo Nijeriya a shekarar 1903 ya koma aikin mulkin mallaka, (Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018).

Ɗan Hausa ya riƙe muƙamin Razdan, kuma ya taimaka wajen aza harsashin buɗe makarantar gwamnati ta farko a Kano, ya zama jami’in ilimi daga bisani kuma ya zama Daraktan Ilimi na Arewacin Nijeriya. Ya yi ritaya a aikin mulkin mallaka ne a shekarar 1919 a ƙashin kansa, kuma ya cigaba da yin wasu aikace-aikacen da suka shafi nahiyar Afirka bayan ya koma Birtaniya har zuwa shekarar 1941. Sir Hanns Vischer (Ɗan Hausa) ya mutu ne ranar 19 ga watan Fabrairu na shekarar 1945, (Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018).

4.0 Gudummawar Ɗan Hausa Ga Ƙa’idojin Rubutun Hausa

A shekarar 1903 lokacin da Ɗan Hausa ya dawo Afirka a matsayin Mataimakin Razdan a Arewacin Nijeriya, ya zauna a yankin Borno kuma yana da ƙwarewa a harshen Larabci da Hausa, (Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018).

A shekarar 1912, Hanns Vischer ya rubuta wani littafi mai suna Rules for Hausa Spelling inda ya zayyana ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa a cikinsa, ya kuma bayyana irin kalmomin da suka kamata a raba da waɗanda suka kamata a haɗa. Sa’annan ya sauya ƙa’idojin rubuta waɗannan sautuka kamar haka:

-         Maimakon b, a rubuta ‘b, wato ɓ

-         Maimakon d, a rubuta ‘d, wato ɗ

-         Maimakon k, a rubuta ‘k, wato ƙ

Waɗannan ƙa’idojin, su Mr. G.P Bargery ya bi wajen rubuta ƙamusunsa mai suna ‘Hausa-English Dictionary and English-Hausa Ɓocabulary.’ Har ila yau kwamitin daidaita Ƙa’idojin Rubutun Hausa na shekarar 1932 ya shafe kusan shekara 5 kafin cim ma yarjejeniyar yi wa b da d da k ƙugiya suka koma ɓ da ɗ da ƙ, maimakon ɗige-ɗigen da Hanns Vischer ɗin ya kawo a cikin littafin nasa, (Yahaya, 1988; Malumfashi da Mujaheed, 2018). Kenan, idan ana batun ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa, wannan littafi na Rules for Hausa Spelling na Hanns Vischer shi ne tsittsige ko tushe ko kuma asali. Saboda haka, wannan ya jaddada cewa Ɗan Hausa shi ne limamin samuwar ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa. Kuma idan an bi zaren tarihi tun daga shigowar boko ƙasar Hausa zuwa yau akwai ɓurɓushin gudummawar Ɗan Hausa a musamman a fagen ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa na boko.

5.0 Kammalawa

Bahaushe kan ce; “kowa da gwaninsa”. Shi ya sa ma a fagen samuwa da adaidaita ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa na zaɓi Sir Hanns Vischer, wato Ɗan Hausa a matsayin gwanina wanda gudummawarsa ta fi ɗaɗa ni. An yi tsokaci kan rayuwar Ɗan Hausa a taƙaice, an kuma waiwayi taƙaitaccen tarihin rubutun Hausa cikin boko, sai kuma aka jaddada gudummuwar wannan jami’i (Sir Hanns Vischer, wato Ɗan Hausa) a fagen samuwar ƙa’idojin rubutun Hausa.

Manzarta

Tuntuɓi mai muƙalar (bayananta na sama).

 



[1] Tsananin soyayyar da yake nuna wa harshen Hausa da sha’awarsa kan nazarin Hausa da kuma yadda ya ji Hausa kamar jakin Kano, su ne dalilan da suka sa aka yi wa Hanns Ɓischer laƙabi da Ɗan Hausa.

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