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Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci A Waƙoƙin Baka: Keɓantaccen Nazari Cikin Wasu Waƙoƙin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u Gidan Buwai

Akan sami bambance-bambancen lafazi, ko ma’ana ko kuma ƙirar kalma a harshe guda; wanda masana suke bayyana hakan da bambance-bambancen karin harshe. Irin wannan bambanci akwai shi a cikin manyan harsuna ciki kuwa hard a harshen Hausa. Ƙasar Hausa babbar nahiya ce wadda ke ɗauke da ɓangarori daban-daban masu bambancin karin harshe kamar ayarin Sakkwatanci, da Kananci. Da zarar mai magana a ɗayan waɗannan yankuna ya yi, tan an za a fahimci daga inda ya fito. Mawaƙan baka na daga cikin rukunan jama’a da suke magana da Hausa, wanda da zarar sun yi magana kuwa, za a fahimci daga inda suka fito; saboda tasirin karin harshen nahiyar da suka fito. Wannan nazari, ya yi ƙoƙarin fito da irin waɗannan bambance-bambance na karin harshe ta hanyar bibiyar wasu waƙoƙin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u Gidan Buwai, wanda da jin lafuzansa an san Basakkwace ne. Bincicen ya yi ƙoƙarin zaƙulo wasu kalmomin da suka bambanta da Daidaitacciyar Hausa a bakinsa, sakamakon tasirin karin harshensa. Wannan aiki ya gudana bisa maɗosar bincike ta Ra’in Zallar Bayani (Description), wanda Jump up^ McArrthur (1992),  Andrews, Jump up^ Janicki, Karol (2006) da Larry (2006) suka yi amfani da wannan ra’i.

Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci A Waƙoƙin Baka: Keɓantaccen Nazari Cikin Wasu Waƙoƙin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u Gidan Buwai

 

Ibrahim Baba (Nayaya)

Department of Nigerian Languages, Bauchi State Uniɓersity, Gaɗau.
ibrahimba182@gmail.com

Da

Abubakar Umar Akuyam
Government Comprehensive Day Secondary School, Misau
auakmisau@gmail.com

Da

Hafsat Muhammad
School of Educational Services, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare
hafsatmuhammad189@gmail.com 

Kalangu

1.0 Gabatarwa

Al’amarin bambance-bambance a karin harshe abu ne mai girma da kuma muhimmanci, wannan ta sanya aka yi rubuce-rubuce masu bayyana waɗannan bambance-bambance. Wannan takarda ta yi ƙoƙarin bin sahun wasu ayyuka domin fito da waɗannan bambance-bambance amma ta cikin ayyukan adabi, wato waƙar baka. Waƙar baka na daga cikin hanya mafi sauƙi da take bayyana nahiyar da mawaƙi ya fito, domin a irin tsarin kalmominsa da maganganunsa ake fahimtar wannan harshe nasa. Idan muka waiwayi maanar waƙar baka, za mu ga masana sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu wajen bayyana ma'anar waƙar baka. Misali, Sa’id (1981:235) ya bayyana ma’anar waƙa da cewa, “Waƙar baka ita ce wadda ake rerawa don jin daɗi, a ajiye ta a ka, a kuma yaɗa ta a baka”. Gusau (2003:ƊIII) kuwa, yana ganin “Waƙar baka wani zance ne shiryayye cikin hikima da azanci da yake zuwa gaɓa-gaɓa bisa ƙa’idojin tsari da daidaitawa, a rere cikin sautin murya da amsa-amo na kari da kiɗa, sau da yawa kuma a tare da amshi”. Ɗangambo (2011:6) ya bayyana waƙa da cewa, “Waƙa wani saƙo ne da aka gina shi kan tsararriyar ƙa’ida ta baiti, ɗango, rerawa, kari (bahari), amsa-amo (ƙafiya), da sauran ƙa’idojin da suka shafi daidaita kalmomi, zaɓensu da amfani da su cikin sigogin da ba lalle ne haka suke a maganar baka ba”.

 

1.1 Ra’i da Hanyoyin Gudanar da Bincike

            A wannan nazari, an bibiyi tsarin ginin wasu kalmomi na Hausa waɗanda suke ba bambanci ta fuskar tsarin furuci da ginin kalma tsakanin Karin Sakkwatanci da Daidaitaccen Kari na Hausa. Domin samun gamsuwa da amintuwar masana, wannan aiki an ɗora shi a Ra’in Zallar Bayani (Description). Wannan Ra’i, kamar yadda Jump Up^ McArthur (1992), da Jump Up^ Janicki (2006) suka yi bayaninsa, Ra’i ne da yake fito da haƙiƙanin da yake faruwa a ƙirar kalma, wato ke nan an yi amfani da tsabar bayani ne domin fito da hoton abin da ake samu na tasirin karin harshen Sakkwatanci a wannan waƙa.

Wannan nazari ya sami tagomachin kulawa ta hanyar bibiyar rubuce-rubucen masana, sauraron waƙoƙin makaɗi Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u, da kuma ƙoƙarin nazartar kalmomin nahiyoyin Sakkwatanci da yadda aka sami bambanci da na Daidaitaciyar Hausa.

 

1.2 Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u Gidan Buwai

            An haifi Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u a shekarar 1958; wato wata shekara da aka yi wata yunwa a ƙasar Hausa wadda ake kira muɗa, a garin Gidan Buwai da ke cikin Ƙaramar Hukumar Mulkin Rabah ta Jihar Sakkwato. Duk da kasancewar manazarta sun yi saɓani wajen rubuta shekarar da aka haife shi, domin Bala da wasu (1993) sun bayyana cewa, an haife shi a shekarar 1955. Shi kuma Shagari, (2011) ya bayyana an haifi Ɗanba’u a shekarar 1962. Sai dai magana mafi rinjaye ita ce wadda ta tabbatar da cewa an haife a shekarar 1958 (Gusau, 2016:11). Mahaifinsa shi ne Abdullahi Maiɗanjaki, wasu kuma na kiran sa Audu jikan Liman. Asalin kakan Ɗanba’u daga wani gari ne mai suna Kurgaba a ƙaramar hukumar Mulki ta Wurno ya taso ya komo Gidan Buwai.      Sunan mahaifiyarsa Aminatu (Amo ko Umma). Ita ma haifaffiyar Gidan Buwai ce, ita ma mahaifinta malam Musa malami ne. Ɗanba’u ya yi karatu wurinsa a nan ya hardace ishiriniya kamar yadda wazirinsa Shehu da makaɗinsa Adamu Tozai suka sheda mini.

Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u ya yi karatunsa na addini tun yana ƙaramin yaro a wajen kakansa, inda ya sauke Alƙur’ani mai girma kuma ya karanci littafai da dama kamar Ahalari da Ishmawi da Iziyya da Risala da Hadisai haka kuma kamar yadda Waziri Shehu da Adamu Tozai suka faɗa mini cewa ya hardace ishiriniya gaba ɗaya. A ilimin zamani kuwa, bai yi zurfi ba domin mahaifinsa ya sa shi firamare yana aji uku kakansa ya fitar da shi domin ya yi zurfi ga iliminsa na addini domin kakansa liman ne da ma ba su cika son boko ba.

Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u yana da mata uku kafin rasuwarsa waɗanda suka haɗa da: Hajiya Asabe da Hajiya Sadiya da kuma Hajiya Aminatu. Bayan waɗannan matan uku, ya auri wasu uku amma sun rabu kafin rasuwarsa. Daga cikinsu akwai: Jumma[1] da Ta’Allah da kuma Asabe ƙarama. Sannan ta fuskar ‘ya’ya kuwa, Allah ya albarkace shi da samun ‘ya’ya 19 da jikoki 7.

            Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u ya fara waƙa shekara bakwai kafin kafuwar jam’iyoyin NPN da GNPP da UPN da kuma NPP. An kafa waɗannan jam’iyyun ne a shekarar 1978 (Birniwa, 1987) da Funtua (2003: 37). Kenan ya fara waƙa ne a shekarar 1972. Kuma ya fara ne da waƙoƙin kokawa. Daga ciki akwai waƙar Isiya Zakinsu Ɗanba’u ga yadda waƙar take:

Amshi: Isiya zakinsu Ɗanba’u

Kowaj ja da kai bai ji daɗi ba,

 

Jagora: Wahabu Allah ka kiyaye bayinka,

Yara: Wahabu Allah gyara gyararre

            Isya zakinsu Ɗanba’u

Kowaj ja da kai bai ji daɗi ba.

(Shagari, 2011; Gusau, 2014).

            Haka kuma akwai wata waƙar kokawa da waƙar noma waɗanda su suka biyo bayan wancan waƙa. A shekara ta 1978 lokacin zuwan siyasar jamhuriya ta biyu, inda aka samu jam’iyyun NPN da GNPP da UPN da kuma NPP inda wasu ‘yan jam’iyyar NPN suka buƙaci ya yi musu waƙar jam’iyyarsu ta NPN sai ya fara tunanin,kuma ya yi.

            Baya ga waƙoƙin siyasa, Alhaji Ɗanba’u ya yi waƙoƙi daban-daban a ɓangarori da dama. Cikin nau’in waƙoƙinsa akwai: Waƙoƙin kokawa da Waƙoƙin noma da waƙoƙin siyasa da waƙoƙin sarauta da waƙoƙin masu mulki da waƙoƙin sauran jama’a da kuma waƙoƙin yekuwa/faɗakarwa/gargaɗi

            Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u yana da yara goma sha ɗaya da kuma maroƙa guda huɗu, wanda jimillarsu ya kama guda goma sha biyar.

            Game da yawace-yawace kuwa, Alhaji Musa ya yawata a ciki da wajen wannan Ƙasa, musamman a yayin yawon ci-rani, yakan je kasashen Kudu misali: Anaca da Benin da Okene da Wari da Legas da sauransu. A Nijar sun zagayi ciki da wajenta sunje Difa da Agadas da Zandar da Maraɗi da Tawa da Doso da Birni Bayero da Niamey da Tiliberi da sauransu. A Arewacin Nijeriya kuwa, Ƙasar Borno ce kawai bai sami damar zuwa ba. Sannan kuma ya je aikin Hajji da Umara.

            Duk mai rai; dole ya ɗanɗani mutuwa! Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u ya rasu a ranar talata 7-4-2015, jim kaɗan bayan bayyana sakamakon zaɓen 2015.

 

2.0 Ma’anar Harshe da Karin Harshe

Britanica (1968:642) ta ruwaito cewa, Bernard da Trader (1942) sun bayyana harshe da cewa, “Harshe wani tsari ne na sadarwa ta hanyar amfani da ƙwayoyin sautin da al’umma suke amfani da shi”. Shi kuwa Wallwork (1974:01) ya bayyana ma’anar harshe da cewa, “Hanyar da aka fi amfani da ita wajen siffanta ko bayyana amfanin harshe ita ce, cewar ana amfani da shi don sadarwa ne kawai”. Gimson (1980:30) kuwa, ya ambata cewa, “Harshe wasu karɓaɓɓun al’amomi ne da ake amfani da su don sadarwa a tsakanin dukkan al’umma”. A nasa ta’arifin, Mukhtar (2017:1-2), cewa ya yi, “Harshe wata tsoka ce a bakin ɗan’Adam da dabbobi da tsuntsaye ke amfani da ita wajen lasa ko jin ɗanɗano da kuma cin abinci wadda idan babu ita, ba a iya magana. Ma’ana ta biyu kuma keɓantacciyar hanyar sadarwa wadda ake amfani da ita wajen isar da saƙo a tsakanin al’umma ta hanyar da za a fahimta. A wannan ma’ana ta biyu, akwai karɓaɓɓun alamomi da ake amfani da su don sadarwa da ta zama ruwan dare (ko aka fi amfani da ita)”.

            Masana da dama sun tofa albarkacin bakinsu wajen bayyana ma’anar Karin Harshe. Misali: Shu’aibu (2008) ya bayyana Karin harshe da cewa “irin bambance-bambancen da ake samu na lafazin kalmomi ko jimloli tsakanin al’umma masu amfani da harshe guda. Akan samu irin waɗannan bambance-bambance a Hausa, misali tsakanin Sakkwatanci, Kananci, Zazzaganci, Katsinanci, Kurfuyanci, Damagaranci da sauransu. Haka a sauran harsuna ma kamar Badanci, akan samu bambancin lafazin kalmomi tsakanin Magwal (Magwalak, mutanen Dagona, Sugum, Tagali, Daciya). Dila (mutanen Jawur, Katuzu, Usur, Gasma, Tarbutu). Ɗiwai (Tafirfiri, mutanen Gadane, Tabawa, Masaba da Gangawa). A Kanuri kuma, akwai karin Yerwa, Manga, Mowar da Suwurti da sauransu”. 

            Sani (2009:2) ya bayyana cewa: “Karin harshe nau’i ne daga nau’o’in harshe guda wanda ake amfani da shi musamman a wani sashe na al’umma. Alal misali, akwai karorin harshe da dama kamar Kananci, Sakkwatanci, Katsinanci, Dauranci, Zazzaganci, Bausanci, Haɗejanci da sauransu a Tarayyar Nijeriya, kuma kowannensu ya danganci sashe ne na al’ummar Hausawa inda ake amfani da shi. Yadda za a tabbatar da haka kuwa, abu ne mai sauƙin gaske a shaida Bahaushen kowane ɓangare na ƙasar Hausa ta hanyar kula da irin lafazinsa na harshe”.

Mukhtar (2017:8) kuwa, a na shi ta’arifin cewa ya yi, “Karin harshe wani yanayi ne da ake samun al’umma ɗaya, masu al’adu kusan iri ɗaya, amma a sami ‘yan bambance-bambance wajen lafazin cikinsu. Waɗannan ‘yan bambance-bambance ana samunsu a kowane harshe na duniya, ba Hausa kawai ya shafa ba. Alal misali, akwai bambanci tsakanin Ingilishin England da na Ireland da kuma na Scotland, kuma kowane ɗaya a cikinsu yana da karori a cikinsa”.

           Zarruƙ (2006:9) cewa ya yi, “Karin harshe yana nufin ‘yan bambance-bambancen lafazi da na kalmomi da jumloli tsakanin rukunan al’umma ko shiyoyin ƙasa mai harshe ɗaya. A ƙasar Hausa an lura da cewa, kusan kowace tsohowar daula ko masarauta tana da irin waɗannan ‘yan bambance-bambance. A taƙaice, kowace masarauta tana da karin harshe daban da na ‘yan’uwanta. Hasali ma, sunan masarautar shi ke zama laƙabin karin harshen. Misali: Dauranci daga Daura, Kananci daga Kano, Katsinanci daga Katsina, Zazzaganci daga Zazzau.

A wurin Wurma (2011:36) kuwa, “Karin harshe, shi ne harshe wanda ake amfani da shi takamaimai a wani ɓangare ko sashe na ƙasa. Ana gane shi ta wajen lafazin kalmomi da jumloli tsakanin mutane”.

 

2.1 Shiyyoyin Ƙasar Hausa da Karin Harshensu

            Masana a wannan fanni sun rarraba ƙasar Hausa zuwa shiyyoyi dangane da bambanci ta fuskar ƙwayoyin sauti ko kalmomi ko kuma jumloli. Misali:

            Bargery (1993), ya raba ƙasar Hausa dangane da karin harshe zuwa shiyyoyi biyu da suka haɗa da gabas da yamma, inda ya nuna cewa, manyan karori su ne Sakkwatanci da Kananci. Karorin Katsina da Zariya da Gobir suna da alaƙa da Sakkwatanci. Hausar Gabas ta haɗa da Haɗejanci da Guddiranci waɗanda suka fi kusanci da Kananci.

            Daga ƙarshe, waɗannan rabe-raben shiyyoyi a yamma, da aka fi dangantawa da addini sun ƙunshi Sakkwato da Katsina da Zazzau da Gobir da Argungun da kuma Maraɗi. Ita kuwa shiyyar Gabas, wadda aka fi dangantawa da kasuwanci, ta ƙunshi Kano da Haɗejia da Katagum da Gumel da Dauda da kuma Damagaram.

            Nahawu da kuma kalmomi kamar yadda ya ruwaito (Ahmed and Daura, 1970, Belo, 1992). Kusan za a iya yanke cewa shiyyar yamma ta ƙunshi Sakkwato da Tahoua, sai shiyyar gabas da ta haɗa da Kano da Zindar da kuma karorin Katsina da Maraɗi masu kai-kawo tsakaninsu. Har ila yau, dangane da Hausar Gabas, za a iya bambance ta Kano (Kananci) a matsayin daidaitacciya idan aka kwatanta da Dauranci da take Arewaci ko Zariya da take a Kudanci ko Bauchi da take kudancin gabashin Ƙasar-Hausa. Idan aka ratsa shiyyar gabas da yamma, a nan za a gane sashin arewa-kudanci, wanda shi ya raba Hausar Nijar da ke ƙunshe da ararrun kalmomi daga Faransanci da kuma Hausar Nijeriya da ke ƙunshe da ararrun kalmomin Ingilishi.

            Sani (2001), ya raba ƙasar Hausa zuwa shiyyoyi biyu, Gabas da Yamma, kusan yadda Bargery (1993) ya yi nasa. A Gabas akwai Kananci da Bausanci da Dauranci da Guddiranci da Zazzaganci. A Yamma kuwa, akwai Arewanci (Dogon-dutsi) da Katsinanci da Sakkwatanci da Kurhwayanci (Filinge).

           Wurma (2011:36) ya bayyana cewa, Hausa tana da kare-kare masu yawa saboda yawan masu magana da ita, da kuma bambancin wurin zama na masu magana sakamakon ƙaura. A kan haka, ya sa za a raba kare-karen zuwa gida biyu. Akwai kare-karen Hausa na Nijeriya, da kuma waɗanda ke akwai a Jamhuriyar Nijar. Misali: A Nijeriya Kananci (Hausar Kano), Katsinanci (Hausar Katsina) da Sakkwatanci (Hausar Sakkwato). A Jamhuriyar Nijar kuwa, akwai: Damagaranci (Hausar Damagaram), Gobiranci (Hausar Gobir/Tsibiri) da Adaranci (Hausar Adar/Tawa)

           A ra’ayin Zarruƙ (2006:10) ya bayyana cewa, ainahin ƙasar Hausa ta raba ƙafa ne, ɗaya a Nijeriya ɗaya a Nijar. Wasu kare-karen ma, kamar Dauranci da Katsinanci da Gobiranci, suna giciye ne a kan iyakar ƙasashen biyu. Saboda haka, kafin a ce ga kare-karen Nijeriya ga na Nijar, wajibi ne a dubi inda cibiyoyinsu suke. Cibiya dai tana nufin masarauta ko fadar masu wannan karin harshe. Ga misalin waɗanda cibiyoyinsu suke Nijeriya:

Cibiya                                                                 Karin Harshe

Bauchi                                                                Bausanci

Daura                                                                  Dauranci

Kano                                                                   Kananci

Katsina                                                                Katsinanci

Sakkwato                                                            Sakkwatanci

Zazzau (Zariya) Zazzaganci.

           A taƙaice, za mu dubi rabuwar shiyyoyin Ƙasar Hausa zuwa waɗannan rukunai:

1. Hausar Gabas, waɗanda suka shafi dangin Kananci, cikinsu kuwa akwai: Bausanci, Guddiranci, Haɗejanci, Kananci da Zazzaganci.

2. Hausar Yamma, waɗanda su ne dangin Sakkwatanci, cikinsu akwai: Adoranci, Aranci (Arewanci), Gobiranci (Gobarci), Kabanci, Kurfiyanci, Sakkwatanci, da kuma Zamfaranci.

3.  Hausar Arewa, su ne kare-karen da suka shafi Damagaranci, Dauranci, Gumalanci da Katsinanci.

 

 2.3 Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci

Sakkwatanci shi ne karin harshen da ake amfani da shi a shiyyar Sakkwato da kuma dangoginsa. A nan, Sakkwanci na nufin karin harshen yamma. Ke nan, kamar irin abin da Zarruƙ (2006:12) ya ambata ne cewa, Kare-karen harshen Hausa masu dangantaka da Sakkwatanci sun haɗa da: Kabanci da Zamfaranci da Katsinanci da Gobiranci da Adaranci da Arewanci da Kurfayanci da sauransu (Zarruƙ 2006:12).

            Wannan nau’i na Karin Sakkwatanci, karin harshe ne da yake da yalwar kalmomi sama da sauran karekaren harsunan Hausa da ake da su. Wannan ta sanya za a iske abu guda amma yana da sunaye mabambanta. Misali: “Gujiya” za a iske tana da sunaye har guda huɗu ta la’akari da yadda aka sarrafa ta a Sakkwatanci. Misali: ƙwaruru, shaɓulta, lubbatu da ƙwaras-ƙwaras (Abubakar 2019).

            Har wa yau, idan aka lura da al’amarin adabi, za a ga cewa waƙa ita ce babbar taska ko mu ce ma’adanar kalmomi. Saboda haka, a kowane harshe ana ganin cewa, duk karin da ke iya ba mawaƙi dama ya wataya ya yi budumbuduma a cikin kogin harshe, to shi ne karin da ake ganin ya fi yalwar kalmomi. A nan kuwa, babu mai jayayya da ni idan na ce, babu wani mawaƙin Hausa ko a da, ko a yanzu, da zai iya rera waƙarsa, ba tare da ya sa Sakkwatanci ba, muddin dai ta karɓa sunanta na waƙa! (Abubakar 2019).

 

3.0 Bambancin Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci da Daidaitaccen Kari A Waƙoƙin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u

            Kamar yadda alƙiblar wannan nazari ta karkata ga zaƙulo kalmomin da aka sami ‘yan bambance-bambance tsakanin Karin Sakkwatanci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa, wannan bambanci kuwa shin ya shafi tsarin furuci/lafazin kalma ne, ko ma’anarta ko ƙirar kalmar ce. A nan, an yi ƙoƙarin fayyace waɗannan ‘yan bambance-bambance a cikin wasu waƙoƙinsa da aka sami bambanci ta fuskar lafazin wasu kalmomi, ko ta fuskar ƙirar kalmar; wato aka sami sauyi da yadda suke a Daidaitaccen Kari ko kuma ta fuskar ma’anar kalmar.

 

3.1 Bambanci ta Fuskar Ƙirar Kalma

Akwai bambance-bambance da ake samu ta fuskar ƙirar kalma, cikin ire-iren waɗannan bambance-bambance akwai waɗanda suka bayyana a nan. Ga misali nan daga waƙar Alhaji Bala Musa Yabo.

Jagora:  In na yi hanƙurin cizo,

 

Jagora:   Wani ciyaman na duba,

    Ƙazami ne ku mun san shi,

                Taro munka je da shi Legas,

                Kwana uku bai yi wanka ba,

 

Jagora:   Haji Sabo Madawaki na gode,

                Ban rena da ƙoƙarinai ba,

                Haji Sabo Madawaki can Yabo,

                Ban rena da ƙoƙarinai ba.           

Yaro:     Amadu mai ɗamaray yaƙi,

                Ware hannunka tunda ka yi kisa,

                Wancan ne wanda ka koɗa,

                Kwana nai biyat yana zawo,

                Kuma ‘ya’yan Yabo sun ka faɗi.

 

            Haka an sami wanin misalin a waƙar Alhaji Aliyu Magatakarda.

Jagora: Ran Juma’a na kwan mamaki,

               An yi sarautu Sakkwato binni,

               Mai kurin shi ad da mutane,

               An yi naɗi kowa ya watce,

               Mai jama’a ya kwashi abinai,

               Sai nib biya garkar wani sarki,

               Ni ishe ‘yan banga sun taru.

            Idan aka nazarci kalmomin da aka keɓe su cikin rubutun tafiyar tsutsa, za a ga kalmomi ne da suke da saɓani da kalmomin Daidaitaccen Kari, wannan kuma ya faru ne sakamakon tasirin karin harshen Sakkwatanci a bakin makaɗin. Kalmar ‘hanƙuri’ wadda a DH ake ambatar ta da ‘haƙuri’, da kalmar ‘munka’ wadda ita kuma take ‘muka’ da kuma kalmar ‘ƙoƙarinai’ wadda ita ma an haɗe ‘ƙoƙari+nsa’ ne.

            Haka ana sami naso a kalmomin ‘ɗamarar yaƙi’ sai ta koma ‘ɗamaray yaƙi, wato ‘y’ ta nashe ‘r’, da ‘birni’ wadda ‘n’ ta nashe ‘r’, sai aka sami ‘binni’. Waɗannan duka naso ne na kusa.  

 

3.2 Bambanci ta Fuskar Lafazi

            Akan sami bambanci ta fuskar lafazi, wato yadda ake furta kalma ya bambanta tsakanin karin Sakkwatanci da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga misalin hakan daga waƙar   Alhaji Bala Musa Yabo

Jagora:  Wani ya sha karo da ɗa Musa,

               Ado na ji Bala ya kasai,

               Can nig gane shi Dagawa ×2

               Wawa ya ɗau buhuhunan lalle,

 

Jagora:  Yale mai mota,

                Ka kai ɗa,

                Na san ka fi zuciya sauri,

                Ƙarhe bakwai da sassahe,

                Daga Sakkwato birni ka tashi,

                Ka je cikin garin Legas,

                Ka dawo Kaduna ka sha mai,

                Sai ka wuce Kanon Dabo,

    Yale ka gangaro garin Yabo,

 

 

Yara:      Tahi da nan kana yi man wari,

 

Yara:      Ƙara shirin duniya ga shi ya hi.

 

 

Yaro:     Amadu mai ɗamaray yaƙi,

                Ware hannunka tunda ka yi kisa,

                Wancan ne wanda ka koɗa,

                Kwana nai biyat yana zawo,

                Kuma ‘ya’yan Yabo sun ka faɗi.

 

            Haka  zalika, an sami wani misali daga waƙar Sardaunan Hamma’ali Malami Maigandi:

Jagora: Kada ka ce ni ina gama ni,

              Kada ka ce ni ina gama ni,

              Kowa na gaya maka da zahi,

 

Jagora: Don zaki in ya kai ƙarhi,

 

Jagora: A Hamma’ali na tafi yawo,

              Ga wani nai muna kurin banza,

              Ya ce shi aka wa Sardauna,

              Sai nac ce kauce da nesa,

Jagora: Na sauka Kware don in ga ciyaman,

              Na tahi ofis sai nig gaisai,

              Sai ya ce ba ni kuɗɗin mai,

              Da ya ce a ba ni kuɗin mai,

              Ni yi jira ba a miƙa min ba,

              Ni mamaki ya kama ni,

              Ga rijiya ta ba da ruwanta. Waƙar Sardaunan Hamma’ali Malami Maigandi

            Domin yalwata misalai, an sake samun irin wannan a waƙar Matawallen Sakkwato. Ga abin da ya ce:

Jagora: Kai bari dai in ta da gwanina,

              Bari dai in wasa gwanina,

              Aminu ɗan waziri Umar,

              Sai kai ɗan Alhaji malam,

              Mai hanƙuri ɗan Shehi Moyi,

              Ga ɗan Shehi Ibrahim,

              Ga ɗan Shehi Haruna,

              Ga ɗan Shehi Haji Isa,

              Ɗan Haji Alu ka kyauta,

              Mai hwarin jini daga Allah,

              Mutan gabas duk kai suka hanga,

              Arewacin duk kai suka hange,

              Mutan Gusun duk kai suka hange,

              Balle yamma da ta zama taka.

           

A waƙar Alhaji Aliyu Magatakarda ma, an sami irin waɗannan kalmomi. Ga misali:

Jagora:   Na yi mahwalki jiya mai daɗi,

               Amma hwa ban magana sai yaz zamo×2.

 

Jagora: Ƙara hanƙuri kar ka ji komai,

              Hanƙurinka shi nak kai ka haka,

              Hak ka yi ciyaman ƙasar Gada,

              Kak kada biri sarkin ƙwalama,

              Ci ƙurgunguma a ci buzuzu,

                         Nac ce biri a yi a hankali.

            A waƙar Alhaji Musa Lumu ma, an sami irin wannan a matsayin misali.

Jagora: Ƙasar Gwadabawa,

              Mu mun yi babban arziki,

              Don mun ije kunkuru mai idanu kakkahe,

 

Jagora: Wane an kashe shi sai ya tcira min tcegumi,

                Mai babban gaba mig gami na ni da kai.

            Idan aka bibiyi waɗannan kalmomin da suke cikin tafiyar tsutsa, za a ga an sami sauyin lafazi ne wajen furucinsa tsakanin karin Sakkwatanci da DH. Wannan ya sanya a wani wuri aka sami naso duk da a DH babu wannan naso ɗin. Misali, ‘nak kai’, wanda a DH za a ambace shi da ‘na ka’, to amma saboda tasirin furucin karin Sakkwatanci, sai aka sami wannan naso ɗin.

            Haka zalika, a wani wurin, an sami nannage wanda a DH wurin babu wannan nannage ɗin. Misali, ‘kuɗɗi’ wanda a DH ake ambatonsa da ‘kuɗi’, kenan an sami nannage ne sakamakon tasirin harshen Sakkwatanci. Sannan a wani wuri kuma, sai aka sami musayar baƙi, misali ‘kakkafe’, ‘mahwalki’, ‘hwa’, ‘zahi’, ‘tahiya’ da sauransu. A nan wurin, za aga baƙin ‘h’ ne ya rimƙa zuwa a madadin ‘f’ duk da cewa a wani wuri an sami baƙin ya zo da ‘hw’. 

            A wasu misalan kuwa, an sami bambanci lafazin wasu kalmomi, misali ‘watce’, ‘tcegumi’ da tcira’ waɗanda dukkaninsu an sami bambancin lafazi ne a DH, domin a DH ana ambatonsu da ‘watse’, tsegumi’ da kuma tsira’.

 

3.3 Bambanci ta Fuskar Kalma

            A nan kuma, an yi ƙoƙarin zaƙulo kalmomi ne waɗanda suke da bambanci gaba ɗaya tsakanin karin Sakkwatanci da kuma Daidaitaccen Kari. Irin wannan bambanci, shi ne bambancin da ake samu ta ɓangaren kalma gaba ɗaya, wato yadda Sakkwatanci ke kiran wani abu ya bambanta da na Daidaitaccen Kari. Misali:

 

Jagora: Hamma’ali mukai mu kwan biyu,

Yara:    Malami Maigandi na biɗata.

 

Amshi: Sardaunan Hamma’ali zaki,

               Malami Maigandi bi da arna. Waƙar Sardaunan Hamma’ali Malami Maigandi

 

Jagora: Ka ga sarautar sarkin Yamma,

               Ba fa sarautar yaro ce ba,

               Ba ko sarauta wargi ce ba,

               Sai an zaɓi mutum mai kirki. Waƙar Alhaji Aliyu Magatakarda

            Idan aka duba waɗannan baituka kuwa, za a iske an sami musayar kalmomin ne gaba ɗaya, wato akwai bambanci yadda ake ambaton su a DH. Misali,  ‘biɗata’ wadda ke nufin ‘binciken wani abu ko nema’ (CNHN, 2006:45). Amma a DH ana amfani da kalmar ‘nema’ ɗin. Sai kalmar ‘wargi’ wadda ita ma karin Sakkwatanci ce.

 

4.0 Kammalawa

            Wannan nazari, ya yi ƙoƙarin taɓo ɓangarori muhimmai da aka fi samun ‘yan bambance-bambance na karin harshe, inda aka yi ƙoƙarin kwatanta kalmomin ta aka samu daga cikin waƙoƙin da aka ɗauko a matsayin misali, sannan aka kwatanta su da Daidaitaccen Kari, wato aka yi ƙoƙarin fayyace su. Aiki, wanda ya keɓanci wasu waƙoƙi daga cikin waƙoƙin Alhaji Musa Ɗanba’u, ya yi ƙoƙarin bayyana bambance-bambance ta fuskar ƙirar kalma, da lafazi da kuma kalmar kanta tsakanin Karin Sakkwatancin da kuma Daidaitaccen Kari. Nazarin ya yi ƙoƙarin bayyana ma’anar waƙar baka, da taƙaitaccen tarihin makaɗin, da kuma bayyana ma’anar harshe da karin harshe, sannan aka bayyana rabe-raben karin harshe da suke Ƙasar Hausa gaba ɗaya bisa fahimtar masana. A nazarin, an yi ƙoƙarin ƙarƙare shi da hakaito baitukan da aka sami waɗannan bambance-bambance da ake buƙata, sannan aka yi ƙoƙarin yin bayani daidai gwargwado.

 

 

Manazarta

 

Tuntuɓi masu takarda.



[1] Ita ce matarsa ta farko.

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