Traditional facial marks of Zamfarawa: Features and significance as a symbol of their identity is a research paper conducted base on different facial marks of the community known as Zamfarawa. The work focuses on the concept of marks and facial marks, its origin, reasons and justification, styles, relevancy and impact of the marks. Furthermore, the paper discusses different nation, community and group of different people living in Zamfara, who are bearing the name “Zamfarawa” in addition to this, the paper also compare and contract among the facial marks of Zamfarawa as well as the reason why the practice is dying fast nowadays.


Tsagar Zamfarawa Sigoginta da Tasirinta ga Ma’abotanta

SHAFA’ATU SALIHU LABBO
GMS NO. 07069252226, 07085686332
e-mail shafasalihulabbo@gmail.com

GABATARWA
Tsaga tsohuwar al’ada ce da ta share lokaci mai tsawo iskanta na kaɗawa, kasuwarta na ci, kafin guguwar sauye-sauyen zamani ta fara kakkaɓarta tare da rage mata armashi. A zamanin da har zuwa shekarun baya (farkon ƙarni na ashirin) tsaga ta zama ruwan dare, game gari, domin kuwa al’ummomi masu ɗinbin yawa suna ɗauke da wannan alama. A wasu sassan Afrika ana tsage fuska ko wasu sassan jiki, abin da ke nuna al’ada, ko ƙabila ko kuma sana’ar mutum. Mafi yawan ‘yan Nijeriya, a lokutan baya, musamman yammaci da arewacin ƙasar, suna ɗauke da tsagar gado a fuskarsu[1]. A al’adance, kowace al’umma ko ƙabila akwai yadda suke gudanar da nau’o’in tsaga da kuma sigogi da adadin zane-zane. Tsagar fuska na daga cikin al’adun da suka shahara ga al’ummar Zamfarawa. Kamar dai sauran al’ummomi da ƙabilu, Zamfawa na da nasu salo da sigogin tsaga, da kuma al’adun aiwatar da ita.

Kasancewar manufar wannan takarda shi ne bayani akan tsagar Zamfarawa, an kasa takardar zuwa sassa biyu. Sashe na farko; Tsaga da al’adunta. Sashe na biyu kuma: Tsagar Zamfarawa da sigoginta, domin takardar ta nuna alaƙa da dangantaka ko bambance-bambance tsakanin al’adun tsagar Zamfarawa da sauran al’umma.

TSAGA DA AL’ADUNTA
1.1 Ma’anar Tsaga:
Tsaga wata alama ce da ƙabilu daban-daban kan yi ciki har da Hausawa, da aska, a fuska ko a jiki, saboda bambanta ƙabila da wata, ko dangi da dangi ko don riƙon al’ada ko don kwalliya ko don kawar da wata cuta.
1.2 Asalin Tsaga 
A ɗan binciken da na gudanar, masana basu ƙayyade lokacin da al’adar tsaga ta tsiru ba, sai dai masana daban-daban sun bayyana cewa tsagar gado ta samo asalinta ne sanadiyyar yaƙe-yaƙen da suka yi ta faruwa tsakanin dauloli da al’ummomi da ƙabilu daban- daban a zamanin da.

1.3 Rabe-Raben Tsaga
Wasu masana sun kasa tsaga zuwa kashi uku:
-          Tsagar Magani
-          Tsagar Gado
-          Tsagar ado da kwalliya

1.3.1 Tsagar Magani
Wannan tsage ce da ake yi domin neman lafiya daga rauni ko cuta. Kamar tsagar targaɗe (tarmashe), ƙaho, ɓalli-ɓalli da sauransu.

1.3.2 Tsagar Gado
Wata alama ce da ake yi a fuska ko a jiki, da aska, saboda bambanta wata ƙabila da wata, ko dangi da dangi, ko dan gudun ɓacewa, ko saboda riƙon al’ada kurm.[2] Har ila yau, tsaga ce da ake dangantawa da asalin gari ko jinsi na ma’abota wata sana’a[3]. Don haka wasu masana na ganin cewa ana iya kasa tsagar gado zuwa kashi biyu: ta asalin gari da ta sana’ar mutum.

1.3.2.1 Tsagar Asalin Gari
Wannan tsaga ce da take nuna mazauna wuri daban-daban da kuma asalin gari ko yankin da mutum ya fito.
Ita kanta tsagar asalin gari, iri biyu ce. Akwai ta gidan Sarauta akwai kuma ta gama garin mutane. Misali, Gobirawa jinin sarauta, suna ɗauke da layi bakwai na tsaga a kunchin dama, da kuma shida a hagu. Su kuma sauran talakawa gamagari suna ɗauke da layi shida a dama da kuma biyar a hagu kawai. Wani dalili kuma na bambancin tsagar asalin gari shi ne nuna bambancin abun bauta na gargajiya. Misali: Zamfarawa masu wutar bauta, suna da ‘yar baki a kowane sashe wato, dama da hagu, wannan alamar ce ke bambanta su da sauran Zamfarawa[4].

1.3.2.2. Tsagar Sana’ar Mutum
Wannan tsaga ce da ake yi domin nuna sana’ar mutum ko zuri’arsu. Misali Mahauta, masu sana’ar fawa da wasu ke kira rundawa, suna yin bille a matsayin tsagar dake nuna zuri’arsu da sana’ar su.

1.3.3 Tsagar Ado da Kwalliya
Tsagar Ado da kwalliya, ko kuma shasshawa, akan yi ta ne domin ƙawa ko ƙarin kwalliya ga fuska ko wani sashen jiki, saboda sha’awa ko ra’ayi. Maza da mata kan yi tsagar ado da kwalliya a lokutan baya, sai dai mata sun fi maza yawan yi. Matasa sukan yi wata tsaga don ganin dama da sha’awa da yarinta, kamar kalangu, da shashshawa, da ƙadangaruwa, da rubuta sunayen masoya a jiki, da kwale da shatine, da alamar wutar makarnata da sauransu[5].
Daga cikin Ire-iren wannan tsaga akwai:
-          Kada
-          Ƙadangaruwa
-          Kalangu
-          Ƙayar Kifi
-          Kwale
-          Matakin Soro
-          Tsagar Fuska
-          Tsugunna-ka-ci- doya
-          ‘Yar  baka
-          ‘Yar Wuya da sauransu

1.4 DalilinYin Tsagar Gado
Babban dalilin yin tsagar gado, shi ne riƙo da al’ada, da tsare gadon gida, da kuma nuna alamar garinsa na asali, ko ƙabilarsa ko sana’arsa.
1.5 Amfani da Muhimmancin Tsagar Gado
Abu mafi muhimmanci daga amfaninta shi ne, a zamanin da, da ake yawan yin yaƙe- yaƙe da kuma kama mutane ana mayar da su bayi. Mutane suna gane ‘yan uwansu da ‘yan garinsu ko ƙabilarsu ta hanyar wannan alama ta tsaga, ta yadda ba za su cutar da juna ba, da bauta ko wani abu daban.

1.6 Masu Sana’ar Tsaga
A al’ada, wanzamai su ne ke yin tsaga. Wanzamai, jam’i ne na wanzamai, wato mutanen da suke sana’ar wanzanci. An kuma bayyana wanzanci da cewa “Sana’a ce ta amfani da aska don aske gashi, da yanke loɓa, da yin tsaga ko ƙaho, saboda kawar da ƙazanta, da neman lafiya da tsare al’ada[6].
1.7 Kirarin Wanzamai
A ƙasar Hausa, ana yiwa wanzamai (masu sana’ar tsaga) kirari daban- daban. Daga cikinsu akwai:
-          Wanzam ba ka so ga jikinka
-          Wanzami ba ya son jarfa

1.8  Kayan Aikin Tsaga
Kayan aikin da ake amfani da su wajen yin tsaga su ne:
i.                    Zabira: Ita ce jakar wanzamai, a cikinta suke zuba dukkan kayayyakin aikinsu in ban da ƙoƙo da jallon ruwa.
ii.                  Ƙaho: Ƙaho ne na saniya, ake feƙe shi a yi masa ƙofa a tsakiya. Ana amfani da shi wajen yin tsagar ƙaho.
iii.                ‘Yar- Tsaga: Aska ce ‘yar ƙarama da ake amfani da ita wajen yin tsaga. Kamar tsagar ƙaho, ɓalli-ɓalli, tsagar fuska, tsagar kurji d.s.
iv.                Danƙo: Wannan danƙo daga jikin bishiyar gamji ake samo shi. Ana amfani da shi ne idan an jawo iska na ƙaho, sai a sa shi a toshe ƙahon, dan kar iskan ya fita.
v.                  Mawashi: Iri biyu ne, akwaii na dutse, akwai na fata. Shi na dutse, irin duwatsu nan ne masu kyau da ake kira ƙanƙara, yawai ci ana samunsu ne a kogi ko ƙarƙashin duwatsu. Shi kuma na fata, fatar gadon bayan akuya ce ake yanke ta a jeme. Ana amfani da mawashi ne wajen wasa aska[7].

1.9 Lokacin da ake yin Tsagar Gado
Ga al’ada, ana yin wannan tsagar ne tun ranar suna (rana ta bakwai da haihuwa) ko bayansa ko a ranar kaciya[8]. Hausawa a wannan zamani, ba su damu da tsaga irinta gargajiya ba. Saboda haka muhimmancin wanzanmi a ranar suna ya ragu[9].

1.10 Wanzaman da Suke Yin Tagar Gado
Kowane gida ko dangi, suna da wanzaminsu na gado wanda yake aiwatar masu da al’amurran wanzanci. Ga al’ada, wannan wanzami shi ne kawai zai yi wannan tsaga, ko kuma wanda ya ba izini. Idan ko har wani ya yi ba da izininsa ba, to zai yi sihiri da siddabarun da tsagar ba za ta yi saurin warkewa ba, har sai an nemi yafiyarsa, ko kuma wanzamin da ya yi tsagar ya tarwatse sihirin, idan ya fi shi ƙarfin sihiri. Kuma al’umma ta yarda da wannan camfi, ko in ce sun yi imani da shi[10]

1.11 Sigogin Tsagar Gado
Tsagar gado tana da sigogi da tsari iri-iri kuma daban- daban, dangane da yadda ake tsaga ta da kuma tsara layukanta. Misali: Gobirawa suna da tsaga wadda ake jerawa a kumatunsu bakwai da shidda, ko shida da biyar gwargwadon matsayinsa na jinin sarauta ko kuma gama garin mutane. Su kuma kambarin bare-bari, suna jera layukan tsagar su ne gwargwadon faɗin fuskar mutum ko rashin faɗinta[11]. Ga al’ada aka yi tsaga zuwa layi biyar, shida, ko ma tara,  kai har goma, misali: Arawa da Gubawa, har zuwa goma sha……

1.12 Yadda Ake yin Tsagar Gado
Wanzami na yin tsagar fuska ne da wuƙa ta musamman mai suna “askan tsaga” ko ‘yar tsaga”, ‘yan uwansu ne wanzamai ke taimaka masa tare da dangi mata na wanda za a yi wa tsagar[12], suna yi ne tare da makaɗansu na musamman, wato ‘yan kurya, suna rera waƙa ana yin kari, saboda kada yaro ya razana, kuma don a nuna muhimmancin ta ga jama’a[13]. Bayan haka, wanzami zai cigaba da zuwa duba yaron da aka yiwa tsagar har sai tsagar ta warke.
1.13 Maganin Warkar da Tsaga
Da zarar an ƙare tsaga, sai a samu ruwan zafi a wanke raunin tsagar, sa’annan wanzamin ya shafa baƙin tukunya da kunkunniya. Ana amfani da su ne, maganin jinin da ke zuba (fitowa) da kuma saurin warkewa[14]
1.14 Ladan Biyan Tsaga
Ga al’ada wanzami da ma’aikatansa ana biyan su ne ladan tsagar da suka yi da kuɗi ko wani abun amfani a rayuwa[15]

1.15 Tasirin Tsagar Gado
A zamanin da, lokacin da al’adar tsagar gado na tashe, ta yi tasiri ƙwarai, domin mutunne sun ɗauke ta a matsayin wata babbar shaida da alama ta nuna yankin ƙasar da mutum ya fito, yarensa (harshensa) al’adarsa ko sana’arsa. Bugu da ƙari, mutanen wancan lokaci suna alfahari da tsagar gadon gida, shi yasa suke yiwa bayinsu ita.
TSAGAR ZAMFARAWA DA SIGOGINTA
2.0 Wannan sashe, takardar za ta tattauna ne akan tsagar Zamfarawa a keɓance, kuma a taƙai ce, domin duk bayanan da aka yi a baya, kusan iri ɗaya ne da al’adar Zamfarawa, sai dai ɗan abun da ba a rasa ba.
2.1 Zamfara da Zamfarawa
A zamanin da, idan aka ce Zamfara a taƙaice ana nufin daular Zamfara wadda tana ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffin daulolin ƙasar Hausa, waɗanda suka yi fice tun wajajen ƙarni na sha biyar. Ba ta gushe ba tana daula mai cikakken tsari har zuwa lokacin jihadin Shehu Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, sannan ne daular ta rushe ta koma ƙarƙashin daular Usmaniyya[16].

A wannan zamani kuwa, idan aka ce Zamfara, to ana nufin jihar Zamfara mai ƙananan hukumomi goma sha huɗu, wadda ke arewa maso yammacin Nijeriya[17]

2.1.1 Su Wane ne Zamfarawa?
Zamfarawa su ne ‘yan asalin tsohuwar rusasshiyar daular Zamfara, wadda ta kafu tun kafin jihadin Shehu Usman Ɗanfodiyo. Waɗannan mutane su ne Zamfarawa da zuri’arsu ko da kuwa a halin yanzu garinsu ya faɗa wajen jihar Zamfara sanadiyar sauye-sauyen iyakoki na zamani.

Wannan takarda za ta taƙaita bincikenta a kan shahararrun Zamfara kamar haka:
-          Zamfarawan Anka
-          Zamfarawan Kwatarkwashi
-          Zamfarawan Tubali
-          Zamfarawan Gummi
-          Zamfarawan Dutsi
-          Zamfarawan Mafara
-          Zamfarawan Bafarawa
-          Zamfarawan Kanoma da sauransu

Sai kuma al’ummomi mazauna garuruwan Zamfara kamar haka
-          Gobirawa
-          Kabawa
-          Dukkarawa
-          Fulani
-          Ɓurmawa
-          Bare- bari da sauransu

2.2 Matsayi da Dalilin Tsagar Zamfarawa
Kamar dai kowace al’umma, tsagar fuska al’ada ce da Zamfarawa suka ba babban matsayi. “Dalili shi ne, a lokacin da ana ɗabi’ar kama bayi, to ta hanyar tsagan kana iya gane ɗan uwanka, don kar ka je ka kama shi a matsayin bawa[18]” Kuma tsagar ta samo asali ne zamanin yaƙe-yaƙe.

2.3 Yadda Zamfarawa suke Tsagarsu
Al’adar yadda Zamfarawa suke gudanar da tsaga, kusan ba ta da wani banbanci da sauran al’adun al’umma. Wanzamin gida, shi ne yake yin tsaga a ranar suna, wato kwana bakwai da haihuwa. Dangi mata na wajen uba ne ke miƙa yaro ga wanzami a yi masa tsagar gadon gida.


2.4.0 Sigogin Tsagar Zamfarawa
Sigar tsagar fuskar Zamfarawa, iri biyu ce; zube da bille, sai dai adadin zuben  wau yafi na wasu yawa. Wasu kuma suna bille ɗaya wasu kuma biyu, kamar yadda bayani zai zo. Duk da yake wasu na ganin cewa asalin sigar tsagar Zamfarawa ɗaya ce. Asalin tsagar Zamfarawan Anka, zane ce gado biyu, dama goma, sama da ƙasa. Hagu tara sama da ƙasa. Daga baya aka koma yin bille a gefen dama, sannan aka koma yin fashin goshi. Daga nan aka koma yiwa ‘ya’ya mata kwale biyu, kafin yanzu lokacin da aka bari[19].

2.4.1 Sigar Tsagar Mafi Yawan Zamfarawan Asali
Sigar tsagar Zamfarawan Anka, Dutsi, Tubali, Mafara, Kanoma Gummi har zuwa Bafarawa d.s.s kusan duk sigarsu iri ɗaya ce. Haka kuma da wani ɓangare na Zamfarawan Kwatarkwashi. Sigar da ta fi shahara ita ce zube. Wato, ana jawo layukan tsaga ne daga gefen fuska dama da hagu zuwa kunci daidai adabin da fuskar mutum ke iya ɗauka, kuma wasu sukan haɗa da bille biyu biyu a gefen dama da hagu. Wasu kuma bille ɗaya a gefen dama. Daga baya ne wasu zamfarawa suka bar yin zube, suka cigaba da yin bille ɗaya kawai har zuwa wannan zamani da aka fara barin yin ko da bille ga yara masu tasowa[20]

2.4.2 Sigar Tsagar Kwatarkwasawan Zamfarawa
Tsagar Zamfarawan Kwatarkwashi na wani ɓangare, zubensu ya fi na sauran Zamfarawa. Saboda yawan layukan tsagarsu, ana yin ganwo a aza kan yaro sama a yi ta zuba tsaga, har sai an zane faɗin kumatu duka[21]

2.4.3 Sigar Tsagar Arnan Zamfarawa
Arnan Zamfarawa tsagarsu zube ce, sai dai kuma, maguzawan Anka sukan yi bille a gefen hagu. Waɗannan su ne sigogin tsagar Zamfarawan asali a taƙaice.

2.5.1 Sigogin Tsagar Wasu Al’ummomi da Ƙabilu Mazauna Zamfara
A ƙarƙashin wannan gaɓa, za a yi nazarin sigogin tsagar wasu al’ummomi da ƙabilu mazauna Zamfara, waɗanda asalinsu ba zamfarawa ba ne, kamar haka:
i.                    Gobirawa: Tsagar gobirawa ita ake kira gobiranci. A kan ja layukanta ne daga wajen kunne a haɗe da gefen baki, wato kamar zube ke nan. Akan yi bakwai a dama shida a hagu ga ‘yan sarauta ko kuma shida a dama, biyar a hagu ga gamagarin mutane[22]
ii.                  Bare-Bari: Asalinsu, bare-bari ne waɗanda suka fito daga ƙasar Barno, amma saboda yankewar hulɗar su da gida, ba su da wani yare da ya wuce Hausa. Sigar tsagarsu ita ce “fashin goshi.[23]
iii.                Ɓurmawa: Sigar tsagarsu ita ce, bille biyu biyu a kowane gefe dama da hagu.
iv.                Kabawa: Tsagarsu gado biyu ce a gefen fuska, dama da hagu, sama layi sha uku, ƙasa layin tsagar sha biyu ne.
v.                  Dakkarawa (Dakarkari): Sigar tsagarsu ita ce, kwale mai ɗan faɗi, ɗaya ɗaya a gefen dama da hagu.
vi.                Fulani: Sigar tsagarsu ita ce ‘yar baki wasu kuma suna haɗawa da tsaga a gefen fuska mai suna “kalangu”


Kamance – Kamance da bambance- bambance tsakanin sigogin Tsagar Fuska
Akwai kamance- kamance nan da can waɗanda kan rikita mutum wajen fayyace tsagar wannan ƙabila da waccan ko kuma waɗannan dangi da waɗancan. Misali tsakanin tsagar kabawa da Zamfarawa. Haka kuma game da siga da rashin adadi na yawan layukan tsagar kumci tsagar kambarin Bare-bari ta yi kama da tsagar wani ɓangare na Kwatarkwasawan Zamfarawa.

Game da adadin tsaga, akan samu bambanci daga waje zuwa waje ko ƙabila da ƙabila ko dangi da dangi, sakamakon bambancin mazauni ko al’ada. Mashahuriyar al’adace, ka ga wani rukunin al’umma da layin tsaga biyar, shida har zuwa tara. Wasu ƙabilu kuma kamar, Arawa da Gubawa suna da layukan tsaga biyu kawai a ɗayan ɓangaren kumci, saɓanin kambarin Bare-bari waɗanda layukan tsagarsu ba ya da adadi, mai faɗin fuska shi ke kwasar rabo mai yawa, fiye da mai matattsar fuska. Wani lokacin kuma bambancin ya danganta ne da matsayin mutum a cikin al’umma. Misali Gobirawa ‘yan masarauta, ana yi masu layukan tsaga bakwai a kuncin dama, da kuma shida a kumcin hagu. Su kuma talakawa gamagari, shida a dama, biyar a hagu. Bugu da ƙari wani lokaci, bambancin ya rataya akan aƙidar bauta irinta gargajiya. Misali, a cikin zamfarawa rukunin al’ummar da ake kira “Masu Wutar Bauta”. Waɗannan suna da ƙarin wasu layukan tsaga biyu a gefen bakinsu, a matsayin alamar da take bambanta su da sauran Zamfarawa[24].

Haka kuma Zamfarawan Anka musulmi, suna yin bille a dama, maguzawan Anka kuwa suna yi a hagu. Duk da bambance- bambancen sigogin tsaga da ake samu a tsakanin al’umma da al’umma, ƙabila da ƙabila, dangi da dangi ko mazauni da mazauni, to akwai kamance- kamance masu rikitarwa wajen bambanta su.
SAKAMAKON BINCIKE
Tsagar fuska a zamanin da, tana dai dai da matsayin “National ID Card” da ke nuna ƙasar da mutum yake. Kuma “Indigine Certificate” ce da ke nuna garin da yake. Kuma “Membership Card” ce da ke nuna addini ko ƙungiya ko kuma sana’ar mutum da sauransu.

Wannan takarda ta gano cewa, tsagar fuska al’adace da ta shahara zamani mai tsawo, kuma ta yi matuƙar tasirin da aka daɗe ana aiwatar da ita, a yankin Zamfara da wasu sassan Nijeriya har da ma wasu ƙasashen Afrika. Har yanzu akwai ɗimbin al’ummar Zamfarawa da sauran ƙabilu da al’umma masu tsagar fuska. Sai dai a wannan ƙarni, idan har ba a ce al’adar tsaga fuska ta mutu ba, to ana iya cewa ta kai gargara.

Binciken ya tabbatar da cewa a halin yanzu mafi yawan waɗanda suke da tsagar fuska daga cikin rassan dangi – dangi na al’ummar Zamfarawa dattijai ne, wato tsofaffi ‘yan kimanin shekaru 60 zuwa sama. Manya, matasa da samari ‘yan kimanin shekaru 40 zuwa 55, fiye da rabinsu ba su da tsagar fuska. Su kuwa ƙananan yara, yana da wuyar gaske a samu masu tsagar fuska, wadda ke alamta gadon gida, sai dai jefi – jefi. Hakan kuwa ya faru ne sanadiyar gushewar yaƙe- yaƙen gargajiya da al’adar bauta da yaɗuwar addini, da kuma wayewar sauye- sauyen zamani. Hausawa na cewa “Zamani riga ne kowa da irin tasa” Kuma suna cewa “Sarki goma Zamani Goma”.

KAMMALAWA
Tsagar fuska na daga cikin al’adun da suka yi tasiri ga Zamfarawa da al’ummomi mazauna Zamfara. A nazarin wannan takarda, an fara ne da ma’anar tsaga da asalinta da rabe-rabenta da dalilin yin ta da sigoginta da kuma yadda ake yinta a al’adance. Daga baya takardar ta tattauna game da tsagar Zamfarawa da ire-irenta. Takardar ta kuma auna kamance-kamance da bambance- bambancen da ke tsakanin tsagar Zamfarawa da wasunsu. Bugu da ƙari an bayyana sakamakon bincike tare da shawarwari.

SHAWARWARI
Kasancewar al’ada ƙashin bayan gina nagartattar rayuwar al’umma; Malamanmu su ƙara zage damtse a fagen zaƙulo al’adunmu na gargajiya kyakkyawa da suke kan hanyar ɓacewa, tare da ilimantar da al’umma ta hanyoyi daban daban da kuma taskace su a rubuce.

Ma’aikatu da hukumomin al’adu, su riƙa shirya ayyukan raya al’ada da bunƙasa su tare da shirye-shiryen wayar da kan jama’a.

Makarantunmu, tun daga firamare har zuwa jami’a su ba koyar da al’adunmu muhimmanci.

Shugabanni da Malaman addini su ƙara ƙoƙari da himma akan bayyanawa al’umma kyakkyawan al’adu da kuma kira game da a yi riƙo da su.

Al’umma gaba ɗaya, mutaru muyi riƙo da al’adunmu a kowane lokaci a kuma duk inda muka samu kanmu.

Al’adunmu na gargajiya, ba za mu manta su ba"


[1] Ogunniyi & Oboci (1998: 62) spectrum social studies: Ibadan Spectrum Book limited
[2] Alhassan, Habib da wasu (1982:33) Zaman Hausawa, Bugu na biyu
[3] Maigidan sama, M.Y (2017 – December, 22) Tarihi da Al’ada
[4] Augi, A.R (1983: 37) Nature and significance of facial marks among the people of Sokoto State.
[5] Alhassan, H. da wasu (1982: 33) Zaman Hausawa
[6] Alhassan, H. da wasu (1982: 65) Zaman Hausawa
[7] Maigidan Sama, M.Y (2017 Dec. 22) Tarihi da Al’adu)
[8] Alhassan, H. da wasu (1982) P: 65 Zaman Hausawa
[9] Muhammad, L (2004: 34) Mu Fara Karatu, littafi na Hudu
[10] Augi, A.R ((1983: 38) Nature and significance of facial marks, among the people of Sokoto State
[11] Augi, A.R ((1983: 37) Nature and significance of facial marks, among the people of Sokoto State
[12] Augi, A.R ((1983: 38) Nature and significance of facial marks, among the people of Sokoto State
[13] Alhassan, H. da Wasu (1982: 33) zaman Hausawa
[14] Augi, A.R (1983: 38)
[15] Augi A.R (1983:38)
[16] Bungudu, A.B da wasu (2003:11-12) Aure da al’adunsa a jihar Zamfara, kundin bincike ZACAS, Gusau
[17] Bungudu, A.B da wasu (2003:11-12) Aure da al’adunsa a jihar Zamfara, kundin bincike ZACAS, Gusau
[18] Hirar da na yi da Malam Abdullahi Hussaini, mataimakin shugaban makarantar Sakandare
[19] Hirar da na yi da adiyan Anka, a masarautar Anka
[20] Hirar da na yi da Malama Binta Adamu, staff Editer Bazamfara Magazine
[21] Hira da Dayyaba Iliyasu, Tsohuwa a garin Kwatarkwashi
[22] Augi A.R (1983: 37) Nature and significance of facial marks among the people of Sokoto State
[23] Hira da Abdullahi Bello ma’aikaci a karamar hukumar mulkin Bungudu
[24] Augi A.R (1983:37)