Sunday, 13 January 2019

Da Abinmu Aka Gan Mu...: Darussan Haɗin Kai Daga Al’adun Hausawa


  Historians as well as anthropologist affirm that the Hausas were living a life of mutual co-existence and assisting of one another. They help one another on matters concerning ceremonies, i.e. marriage and birth ceremonies, as well as condolence i.e. for death and/or any situation of depression. However, the cooperative practices amongst the Hausas include; eating together, teamwork and settling scores between individuals among host of others. An interesting phenomenon lies on the way younger ones are brought up with the orientation of mutuality. The younger ones eat, play as well as listen to folklores together. More so, any adult corrects whichever wrong they might do during these affairs. This had made the orientation of younger ones an easy task for the Hausas belief that, ‘the child….
Yakubu Aliyu Gobir

Abstract
Historians as well as anthropologist affirm that the Hausas were living a life of mutual co-existence and assisting of one another. They help one another on matters concerning ceremonies, i.e. marriage and birth ceremonies, as well as condolence i.e. for death and/or any situation of depression. However, the cooperative practices amongst the Hausas include; eating together, teamwork and settling scores between individuals among host of others. An interesting phenomenon lies on the way younger ones are brought up with the orientation of mutuality. The younger ones eat, play as well as listen to folklores together. More so, any adult corrects whichever wrong they might do during these affairs. This had made the orientation of younger ones an easy task for the Hausas belief that, ‘the child belongs to everybody. These cooperative activities have brought great development and understanding among Hausas and their neighbors as well. This paper strives to showcase such cultural practices, which promote mutual understanding among the Hausas. This is a challenge to the individualistic life of the 21th century. Finally, the paper presents some suggestions as panacea to the Hausas social life of today, which is highly individualistic and self-centered. One of such is reviving such cultural practices, which promotes mutual co-existence, though with modifications so that they fit the modern world notwithstanding. 
  
1.0          Gabatarwa
A goshin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya, al’adun Hausawa sun shaidi sauye-sauye da dama, a ɓangarorin rayuwa daban-daban, da suka haɗa da zamantakewa da harkokin mulki da tattalin arziki da sauransu. Bisa ga haka, ya zama dole idan za a kalli al’adun Hausawa a yau, a kalle su ta fuskar zanguna uku, kamar haka: zangon na farko shi ne lokacin da suke Hausawa tsuransu, wato cuɗanya da wasu ƙabilu da al’adu ba. Zango na biyu shi ne lokacin suka rungumi Musulunci. Sannnan zango na uku shi ne lokacin da aka samu ƙarin tasirin zamananci a cikin al’adun. Wannan shi ya jawo hankalin wannan muƙala na hango waɗansu al’adun Hausawa a zangon na na farko da kuma na biyu, waɗanda suka ƙarfafa haɗin kai da samar da zaman lafiya tsakanin Hausawa a wancan lokacin, domin ya zama darasi ga na baya, wato waɗanda suka samu kansu a zango na uku.

Kasancewar adabi, wani madubin da za a iya dubawa a hango yadda kowace al’umma ke tafiyar da rayuwarta, ya sa wannan muƙalar duba wani sashe na adabin Hausawa, wato karin magana, domin auna nauyin yadda Hausawa suke ƙoƙarin ƙarfafa haɗin kai a tsakaninsu. Dubi waɗannan karin maganganu da idon rahma:
Ø  Kowane Tsuntsu kukan gidansu yake yi.
Ø  Hannu Ɗaya ba ya ɗaukar jinka.
Ø  Abotta a ƙafa take.
Ø  Hannunka ko ya ruɓe ba ka yanke shi.
Ø  Kar a mai da ƙurji gyambo.
Ø  Zaman lafiya ya fi zama ɗan sarki
Ø  Mai haƙuri yakan dafa dutse ya sha romo.
Ø  Bin na gaba bin Allah.
Ø  Ɗan’uwa rabin jiki.

2.0     Tsarin Zamantakewar Hausawa
Tsarin zaman al’ummar Hausawa na yau da kullum tsari ne da aka fara shi daga kan iyali. Daga iyali ne al’umma ko jama’a suke faruwa har su zama babban gida, daga nan sai ’yar unguwa. Ire-iren waɗannan unguwanni ne suke haɗuwa su kafa ƙayyuka, ta haka ne kuma aka sami garuruwa da birane waɗanda sarakuna suke mulki.

A tsarin zaman Bahaushe, a gida guda ana iya samun magidanci ɗaya ko biyu ko ma fiye da haka waɗanda duka daga yannai sai ƙannai, ko dattijo da ɗiyansa. Dattijo yana da gona da ake kira gonar gandu, inda kowane ɗa namiji zai ba da tasa gudunmuwa wajen noman ta a kowace shekara. Idan kuma aka kawo amfanin gonar da aka noma gida, a taru a yi amfani da shi ga dukkan iyali. A wasu iyalan, idan yaro ya yi aure akan fitar da shi gandu, a ba shi tashi gona domin ya ɗauki ɗawainiyar kansa shi kaɗai. Irin wannan tsari, yana nuni da cewa ana zama ne a bisa tafarkin cuɗan-ni-in-cuɗe-ka da taimakon juna.

3.0     Al’adun Hausawa na Haɗin Kai da Taimakon Juna
Al’adun Hausawa masu samar da haɗin kai da taimakon juna suna da yawa, ta kowane ɓangare na rayuwa. Wasu daga cikinsu su ne:

3.1     Wasanni
Al’adun Hausawa sun samar da wasanni daban-daban a matakin rayuwa daban-daban da ake gudanarwa. Akwai wasanni a matakin yarinta da samartaka da kuma na manyanci. Akwai kuma na maza da na mata.

3.1.1 Wasannin Yarinta
Yarinta zangon shekaru ne da kan fara daga shekarar haihuwa har zuwa kimanin shekara sha ɗaya ko sha biyu. A matakin yarinta, sukan yi irin waɗannan wasanni ne a wuraren da yara suka taru don su yi hira a dandali ko gidajen amare. Sun fi yin irin waɗannan wasanni da daddare, don lokacin yara ba su da wani muhimmin aiki, amma kamar wasan gaɗa a wurin ’yanmata, ba lallai sai waɗannan wurare da aka ambata kawai sukan yi su ba, har ma sukan yi a wajen bukukuwan aure da na suna da na salla, da dai sauransu.

Wasannin yara sukan tainmaka wajen inganta lafiyar yara ta wajen motsa jiki da kawar da gajiya, suna kuma koyar da juriya da jarunta. Haka kuma, kasancewar wasannin, a  ƙungiyance ake yin su, suna ƙulla zumunta a tsakanin yara, yadda yara za su zama abokai har zuwa lokacin girmansu. Sau da yawa za ka ga dattijo yana raha idan ya haɗu da abokin wasansa, ko kuma mace in ta gamu da wadda suka yi wasa tare. Shi ya sa sukan bi gida-gida suna kiran abokan wasansu. Daga cikin ire-iren waɗannan wasannin yarinta akwai: 
      Wasannin Motsa Jiki. Misali: Darjin Dajina;
      Wasannin Tashe: misali: ‘Ka yi rawa Ɗanmalam’, ‘Tsoho da gemu’, ‘Zan buga, kar ka buga’ da sauransu.
      Wasannin dandali:
            Maza – wasan sha iska, wasan ɓuya da sauransu.
            ’Yanmata – wasan talle, wasan ɗankwali da sauransu.
      Sauraren tatsuniya tare
3.1.2 Wasannin Matasa:
Matashi na farawa daga shekara ta goma sha uku har zuwa shekara talatin da tara. Samari da ‘yanmata a wannan zango kan bayar da gudunmuwa a cikin al’umma ta hanyoyi da dama, da suka shafi ayyukan gida da gona da koyon sana’o’i musamman na gado. A bisa al’ada, akwai wasu ayyuka da wasannin gargajiya da suke gudanarwa a ƙungiyance. Misalai, akwai wasan takkai da langa da kalakuwa da kokowa da dambe da sauransu. Waɗannan wasannin sun taimaka musu wajen wartsake jiki da saka musu karsashi da danƙon zumunci a tsakaninsu.

3.1.3 Wasan Barkwanci
Tukur (1994) yana da ra’ayin cewa, ‘wasan barkwanci wasa ne da Hausawa ke gudanarwa ta hanyar zantuttuka a tsakanin su, da suka haɗa da bayar da ’yan gajerun labarai da suka taɓa faruwa ko aka ƙirƙiro su da nufin daɗaɗawa ko tsokana don a yi dariya. Shi kuwa Sulaiman (2010) cewa ya yi, ‘wasan barkwanci wata dangantaka ce da al’ada ta yarda da wanzuwar ta a tsakanin al’ummu a duk inda suka haɗu sai sun zolayi juna ko tunzura juna ba tare da samun wani saɓani ba’. Waɗannan bayanai sun nuna cewa barkwanci na iya zama zantuttukan raha da ban dariya tsakanin al’ummomi ko kuma yin ba’a tsakaninsu.

A ƙasar Hausawa, an lura cewa wasan barkwanci na taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen ɗinke ɓaraka ko wata husuma a tsakanin jama’a, musamman idan aka lura da irin abubuwan da ke faruwa tsakanin al’ummomin da ke wasa tsakaninsu. Misali, Gobirawa da Katsinawa, ko Katsinawa da Haɗejawa ko Kanawa da Zazzagawa da sauransu. Haka kuma, ko tsakanin masu sana’a ana samun wasan barkwanci, misali, tsakanin ’yan gishiri da ’yan hamsin (masu sayar da goro) ko tsakanin masunta da mahauta da sauransu. Bisa ga haka, ana cewa, ko bayan nishaɗi, wasan barkwanci yakan ƙarfafa danƙon zumunci tsakanin masu yin sa. Alal misali, da wuya a ga Bagobiri ya yi fushi da Bafulatani ko Bakatsine. Haka kuma, sanannen abu ne cewa wasan barkwanci yakan sauƙaƙe husumi tsakanin mace da ’yan uwan mijinta domin akan fashe fushin juna a cikin wasa.


3.2     Aikin  Gayya
Hausawa suna tafiyar da ayyukan gayya don taimakon juna. Ana yin ayyukan gayya a gidaje inda ake yin sababbin ɗakuna da gyara tsofaffi da yin darnin gida ko na garka da ɗora ɗan bisan ɗaki da na rumbu da sauransu. Su kuma mata suna yin ayyukan gayya don yin daɓen ɗaki da shafen jangargari da na farar ƙasa da sauransu. Ana kuma yin aikin gayya a gonaki inda ake yin sassabe da huɗa da shuka da noma da girbi da ɗaurin amfanin gona da kawo shi gida. Haka kuma, cikin ƙayyuka da garuruwa ana yin ayyukan gayya wajen gyara masallatai da maƙabartu da magudanan ruwa da mashayar ruwa da gyaran hanyoyin da ake bi don kawo amfanin gona gida.

3.3     Al’adun Karimci
Karimci, wata al’ada ce ta girmamawa da taimakon juna a cikin al’umma. Hausawa suna al’adun karimci masu ɗimbin yawa a tsakaninsu. Daga cikin ire-iren al’adun karimci akwai:

        i.             
Adashe
Ajiyar kuɗi ta karo-karo a bisa ƙayyadajjen lokacin da kowane mai yi zai ɗauka.
      ii.             
Ajo
taron bayar da gudunmuwa ga ango da nuna farin ciki lokacin bikin aure.
    iii.             
Bashi
karbar wani abu musamman kuɗi da niyyar biya ko mayarwa bayan wani lokaci.
    iv.             
Buki
Kyauta ta gudunmuwa yawanci mata kan yi tsakaninsu yayin da wata hidima ta same su.
      v.             
Ɗauke
wata al’ada ce ta bai wa wani rancen hatsi, sai ya shiga da kansa da tsawonsa (igiya) daidai faɗin gabansa, ya ɗebo hatsin, sai ya dawo da tsawon ga mai hatsin, sai kaka ta yi, sai ya zo ya amshi tsawon ya je ya ɗauro dame kamar yadda ya ɗauro wancan lokaci, ya kawo wa mai hatsin, kuma ya yi godiya.
    vi.             
Ɗaure
a bai wa mutum kiyon ramammiyar dabba, idan ta haihu, na farkon na mai kiyo na biyu na mai ita.
  vii.             
Ɗegiya
bayeyeniyar abinci tsakanin maƙwabta.
viii.             
Kaiwa
kyauta musamman ta alfarma zuwa ga sarakuna ko manyan mutane.
    ix.             
Kari
mutum ya nuna bajinta a ba shi kuɗi, musamman wurin biki ko ga makaɗi.
      x.             
Kyauta
bai wa mutum wani abu don ra’ayi ba tare da ya yi wani aiki ba.
    xi.             
Rance
amsar bashin kuɗi daga wani zuwa wani cikin gajeren lokaci.
  xii.             
Tugu
nau'in taimakon kasuwancin Bahaushe ne da yake yi wa wani sanannen ɗan kasuwar da ya karye, sai ya je kasuwa ba ya da ko kwabo, a ba shi kaya (haja) sai ya sayar ya cire tasa ribar.
xiii.             


lada da akan ba wanda ya kai wata kyauta don nuna yabawa da kyautar da aka yi.

Wasu ke nan daga cikin ayyukan taimakekeniya da nuna karimci tsakanin Hausawa, kuma waɗanda suka taimaka wajen ɗinke al’ummar Hausawa da samar da haɗin kai tsakaninsu.

3.4     Matakin Manyanci
Akan saka rigar  manyanci ne daga shekara arba’in zuwa abin da ya haura shekara sittin. Idan an cim ma wannan matsayi an kai zangon shiriya ke nan, domin an yi aure, watakila har ‘ya’ya da jikoki. Haka kuma, a wannan zango akan fahimci abubuwa da rarrabewa tsakanin fari da baƙi ko tsakanin gaskiya da ƙarya. Masu wannan rukuni su ke jagoranci ga al’ammuran rayuwa. Kuma su ne jagaba wajen sha’anin wasanni da bukukuwa da ayyukan gayya na sa kai ko taimakon kai da kai.

A bisa al’ada, Hausawan da ke cikin wannan rukuni sukan yi wasu ayyuka tare da juna waɗanda ke ƙarfafa zumunci tsakaninsu. Misali: sukan ci abinci tare, lokacin cin abincin dare, sai kowane magidanci ya zo da nashi abincin, a harhaɗa shi wuri ɗaya a kewaye ana ci tare, ana yi ana hira. Muhimmancin wannan al’ada shi ne taimaka ma mai ɗan ƙarfi, ko wanda bai samu yin abincin a gidansa ba.

Haka kuma, daga ayyukan waɗanda suka sanya rigar manyanci shi ne sulhunta rigingimun da ke tasowa tsakanin matasa, ko ma tsakanin su manyan, ko iyalansu, musamman da yake shugabannin al’umma mafi yawa daga rukuni suke. Saboda haka, ƙoƙarin fito da hanyoyin zama lafiya da ƙarfafa haɗin kai shi ne aikin manya da shugabanni. Haka abin yake a wajen wasu ayyukan, kamar kashin gobara da zaman maokoki idan an yi rasuwa, da sauransu

3.5     Naɗewa
Zaman lafiya da samun haɗin kan jama’a a kowace al’umma shi ne ginshiƙin ci gabanta. Sai dai cuɗanyar Hausawa da wasu ƙabilu da al’ummomi musamman daga ƙetare (Turawa), ya haifar da rauni ko salwantar wasu daga cikin waɗannan al’adun. Hausawa sun ce ‘Allah wadan naka ya lalace’, wai in ji ɓauna da ta ga shanun noma’. A wannan zamani, ire-iren waɗannan al’adu masu ƙarfafa haɗin kai sun yi rauni saboda tasirin zamananci a cikin al’ummar Hausawa. A yanzu mafi yawancin Hausawa suna zaune ne a bisa tafarkin ‘kowa tasa ta fisshe shi’.

Shawarwari
Bisa ga abin da ya gabata na salwantar al’adun karimci da na taimakon kai da kai, akwai bukatar manya da shugabanni da hukumomi su waiwayi waɗannan al’adun, a shigo da su a cikin tsarin manhajar karatu, domin cusa tarbiyya da ladabi da biyayya a zukatan matasa, domin su ne manyan gobe, ko da kuwa ta kama ne a yi wa al’adun kwaskwarimar da za su dace da zamani.

Manazarta

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