Hausa Language Academic Website

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Ingantacciyar Fassara: Fasaha Ko Kimiyya?

DAGA


Salisu Ahmed Yakasai
Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato
Syakasai2013@gmail.com
+ (234) 08035073537


MaƘalar da aka tanada a matsayin gudummawa ga Sashen Harsuna da Al’adun Afirka, Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello Zaria, domin kundin girmama FARFESA ƊALHATU MUHAMMAD.



1.0 Gabatarwa


Tarihi ya bayyana irin gwagwarmayar ďan-Adam wajen amfani da hanyoyin sadarwa daban-daban domin sarrafa da kuma adana ilmin da aka samu daga nahiya-nahiya, ta yadda wasu al’ummu za su ci gajiyarsa a nan gaba. A matsayin harshe na hanya mafi inganci ta sadarwa, da shi ne ake bayyana tunani cikin zubi da tsarin zamantakewa. Babban abin da ka iya zama cikas a hanyar sadarwa shi ne bambancin da ke akwai tsakanin harsunan duniya. A zamanin nan na yau, sadarwa tsakanin Ƙasashe daban-daban ta amfani da harsuna da yawa na tabbata ne ta aikin fassara.

Domin nazarin ingantacciyar fassara, mun karkasa wannan maƘala zuwa gida biyar. Da farko dai akwai gabatarwa a sashe na farko. Daga nan kuma sai ma’anar fassara a sashe na biyu. A sashe na uku kuwa mun tattauna yanayi da tsarin ingantacciyar fassara ne. Daga nan kuma sai sashe na huďu a inda muka yi ƘoƘarin bayyana matsayin aikin fassara ta fuskoki guda biyu, wato kasancewar fassara fasaha ce ko kuma kimiyya. Akwai kuma jawabin kammalawa.

2.0 Ma’anar Fassara


Ƙamus ďin Webster ya bayyana fassara a matsayin musaya saƘo daga wani harshe zuwa wani harshen daban. Shi kuwa Lewis (1958:265) asalin kalmar ya duba, inda yace kalmar fassara daga Latin aka samo ta, kuma tana nufin ‘‘isar da saƘo’’. Foster (1958:1) kuwa ya ďauki fassara ne a matsayin wani aiki na isar da saƘon matani daga harshen asali (HA) zuwa harshen karƂa (HK). Ba tare da la’akari da al’ada ba Catford (1965:20) cewa ya yi ‘‘Fassara ita ce musanya matani daga harshe guda da kwatankwacin wannan matanin zuwa wani harshe daban. A wannan ma’ana, an fi ba da muhimmanci ga kwatankwacin matanin da za a samar daga wani harshe na daban. Sai dai kuma daidaiton da ake nema ne bai fito a fili ba.

A ra’ayin Levy (1967:148) kuwa ‘‘Fassara yanayi ne na sadarwa wanda manufar ita ce ta sarrafa ilmi daga harshen asali (HA) domin amfanin baƘo mai karatu’’. Domin ba da goyon baya ga wannan ra’ayi kuwa, Savory (1968:37) ya amince cewa fassara na tabbata ne ta amfani da kwatankwacin hikimar da ke Ƙunshe cikin abubuwan da aka bayyana. Wannan ya nuna cewa aikin fassara, al’amari ne da za a iya bayyanawa da yanayin sadarwa ta majiya harsuna biyu domin samar da matani a harshen karƂa (HK) da zai dace da matanin harshen asali (HA) (Reiss: 1971:1). Haka kuma dangane da ma’anar fassara, Brislin (1976:1) ya yi tsokaci cewa:

A dunƘule fassara na nufin musayar hikima da tunani
Daga wani harshe (HA) zuwa wani (HK), la’alla harsunan
Nan a rubuce suke ko a magance, suna da Ƙa’idojin rubutu
Ko babu, kuma ko da kuwa ďaya ko dukkan harsunan na
Amfani da alamomi ne tamkar kurame da bebaye.

A wata mai kamar wannan kuma, Pinhauck (1977:38) ya bayyana fassara a matsayin ‘‘Yanayin samar da matanin harshen karƂa (HK) daga matanin harshen asali (HA)’’. Nida (1984:83) shi ma ya bayyana cewa ‘‘Fassara ta Ƙunshi maida kwatankwacin ma’ana da salon saƘon harshen asali (HA) domin zama saƘon harshen karƂa (HK)’’. Haka ma fassara a ta bakin Bell (1991:8) ta Ƙunshi musayar ma’ana ta matani daga wani harshe zuwa wani.

Ta kowace fuska aka kalli batun fassara dai, to ma’ana da matsayi ne ke Ƙara bayyana. Shi Spivak (1992:398) ya ďauki fassara ne a matsayin wani ‘‘Gagarumin aiki na karance-karance’’. Wato matuƘar mai aikin fassara ba shi da Ƙwazon karatu, to ba zai iya yin adalci ga matanin da aka fassara ba. Hasali ma, ai kamar yadda Bassett (1994) ya ce ‘‘Ita fassara ta Ƙunshi sabunta matanin asali (HA) zuwa matanin harshen karƂa (HK) cikin tabbatar da dacen ma’anonin biyu, ba tare da haifar da illa ga tsarin harshen matanin asali da kuma na harshen karƂa ba’’. A wani raa’ayi na kallon mai fassara a matsayin ďan koyo kuwa, Robinson (1997:49) cewa ya yi ‘‘Fassara aiki ne na fikira da ya Ƙunshi nazari ta hanyoyi daban-daban’’. Wato dai wannan aiki ne na sarrafa basira cikin kowane yanayi na zamantakewa. Su kuwa Hatim da Mason (1997:1) a gudummawarsu ta fahimtar ma’anar fassara cewa suka yi ‘‘Fassara aiki ne na sadarwa tsakanin al’ummu mabambanta harshe da kuma hanyar rayuwa’’ Sai dai kuma a ganin Houbert (1998:1) a mafi yawan lokuta ana ďaukar fassara a matsayin ‘‘Wani yanayi na bayyana saƘo da harshen asali ta yadda masu karatu za su fahimta cikin harshen karƂa’’.

Ta wani Ƃangaren kuma, Nogueira (1998:1) cewa ya yi ‘‘Fassara aiki ne na gina al’umma’’. Idan haka ne kuwa (wanda haka ďin ne), to aikin fassara yana da amfani wajen bayyana irin rawar da harshe ke takawa cikin zamantakewar al’umma. Wato dai fassara na iya zama yanayi na shimfiďa daidaito tsakanin matanin harshen asali zuwa ga na harshen karƂa. Ba shakka, hakan ya Ƙara zama wani yunƘuri na fahimtar da mutane tasirin harshensu cikin fa’idantuwa da ilmin da ke Ƙunshe a wani harshe daban. Don haka ne ma Kaur (2005:1) ya ce ‘‘aikin fassara aiki ne na magance matsaloli’’. Sai dai kuma Sugimoto (2005:1) ya yi amfani ne da falsafa wajen tsokaci cewa:

‘‘fassara wata hikima ce ta musayar lulluƂe ma’ana
Ko tunani cikin fahimtar zubi da tsarin rayuwa’’.

Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, aikin fassara dai al’amari ne na zahirin rayuwa, duk kuwa da matsalolin da ke tattare da ita fassarar cikin amfani da mabambantan harsuna, al’adu da kuma masu aikin fassarar. Saboda haka, a matsayin fassara na wata hanyar sadarwa tsakanin al’umma daban-daban, ta kawo yanayi na canje-canje da ƘirƘire-ƘirƘire domin samar da bayanai cikin inganta rayuwar al’umma.

3.0 Yanayi da Tsarin Ingantacciyar Fassara


Masana daban-daban sun yi ittifaƘi cewa akwai dalilai da yawa da kan tabbatar da inganci ko sahihancin fassara. Ga misali, masanin nan Bafaranshe mai suna Dolet a rawaitowar Miremadi (1993:74) cewa ya yi, domin a samar da fassara mai inganci wajibi ne mai aikin fassara ya kauce ma fassarar baƘi da baƘi, musamman ma da yake irin wannan fassara tana gurƂata ma’ana da kuma armashin saƘon da ake son isarwa. Don haka ne ma Tytler (1790) ya jaddada cewa a ingantacciyar fassara, wajibi ne salo, zubi da tsari su dace da mizanin awo na isar da saƘo.

Shi kuwa Showeman a ta bakin Miremadi (1991:34) ya ďauki fassara a matsayin aikata laifi. Sai dai kuma ga waďanda suka ďauki fassara a matsayin lalura da ake bukata a rayuwa, Philmore (1919:4) na ganin fassara tamkar abinci ne da zai gina kuma ya bunƘasa harsuna masu tasowa. Ta la’akari da hakan ne ma ya sa Souter (1920:7) yin iƘirarin cewa ya kamata ingantacciyar fassara ta haifar da sakamako mai amfani a zukatan masu karatu, kwatankwacin yadda harshen asali (HA) zai yi. Bugu da Ƙari, Belloc (1931:22) ya Ƙarfafa cewa a yanayi da tsarin ingantacciyar fassara, dole ne ta kasance yadda za a iya auna sahihancinta ta yadda abin da aka fassara zai kasance mai inganci.

Dangane da muhimmancin ingantacciyar fassara kuwa, Bates (1943:7) yana ganin cewa ‘‘babu wani al’amari da zai wanzu ba tare da fassara ba’’. Wato babu wata dama ta musayar tunani ko bunƘasa fasaha ba tare da taimakon fassara ba. Sai dai kuma ba kowace irin fassara ce za ta dace da wannan iƘirari ba. Saboda haka ne ma Edwards (1957:13) yake cewa ‘‘a koyaushe akwai bukatar yin adalci ga fassara, ta yadda za a samu ďanďanon matani tamkar a harshen asali (HA). Wannan ra’ayi na Edwards ya samu goyon baya daga Knox (1957:5) wanda ya Ƙara da cewa ‘‘kamata ya yi aikin da aka fassara ya yi armashi kuma ya ba da nishaďi tamkar dai a harshen asali (SL).
Ko shakka babu, su Edwards (1957) da Knox (1957) sun yi amanna da samuwar sakamako na Ƙwarai cikin isar da saƘo a matsayin sharaďin zama ingantacciyar fassara. A ra’ayin Foster (1958:6) kuwa, ingantacciyar fassara ita ce ‘‘wadda ta isar da saƘo a harshen karƂa (HK)’’. Nabokov (1964: viii-ix) ya Ƙara da cewa ita ingantacciyar fassara ita ce fassarar adabi ‘‘da ke bayyana kwatankwacin haƘiƘanin saƘo cikin fassara’’. Saboda haka, idan aka kwatanta za a fahimci cewa ita fassarar baƘi da baƘi ba fassara ce ingantacciya ba. Nida (1964) ma cewa ya yi ita irin wannan fassara ce ke haifar da shakku da ruďani. Dangane da sahihiyar fassara kuwa, ga abin da Nida (1971:185) ya bayyana:

Sahihiyar fassara na samuwa ne ba ta hanyar baƘi
Da baƘi ba, amma ta la’akari da kwatankwacin
Ma’ana cikin saƘo. Hakan wajibi ne matuƘar dai
Ana so a samu daidaito na abin da aka fassara daga
Harshen asali zuwa harshen karƂa.

Burton (1973:13) ma ya yi wa fassarar baƘi da baƘi tofin ala-tsine, kuma yace ‘‘Ƙarya ce da yaudara’’. Da yake yau a duniya an dogara ga fassara ta yadda a ganin Chute (1978) idan babu fassara to duniya za ta dawwama cikin ruďu ne kawai, to ya kamata fassara ta zama ingantacciya. Wannan batu ya kuma samu goyon bayan Nabokov (1964) da Newmark (1988), waďanda ke ganin cewa ita dai fassarar baƘi da baƘi matakin farko ce a koyon aikin fassara, don haka mai ingantacciyar fassara kan yi watsi da ita domin kaucewa shirme.

Da yake ta tabbata cewa mafi yawan nau’oin fassara da ake yi ba su da inganci, to babu abin yi illa kallo ya koma sama, wato a kowane lokaci mai fassara ya yi ƘoƘarin samar da kwatankwacin abin da ke harshen asali. A taƘaice dai ita irin wannan fassara tana da inganci da armashi cikin tsarin harshe da sahihiyar ma’ana. Don haka ne Abdulla (1994:70) yake ganin cewa ‘‘ingantacciyar fassara ita ce wadda ta kyautata salo da tsrin harshen karƂa’’.

A gaba ďaya dai, ingantacciyar fassara koyaushe tana la’akari da kalmomin rajista na harshe. Sai dai kuma aikin fassara ba shi da tagomashi a wuraren nazari saboda yanayi da tsarinsa. Hana rantsuwa dai, wasu malamai da ďalibai na da ra’ayi ga wannan fage na aikin fassara.

4.0 Shin fassara fasaha ce ko kimiyya?


An daďe ana tafka muhawara tsakanin masana dangane da inda ya fi dacewa a ajiye fassara, wato fasaha ce ko kuma kimiyya. Wasu masana sun ďauki fassara a matsayin wata kafa ta gina tunani, to sai dai kuma suna ganin cewa ba za a iya tanadar wa wannan tsari dokoki domin jagora ba.

Duk da cewa fassara na taka muhimmiyar rawa a ci gaba da bunƘasar duniya gaba ďaya, to amma kuma a koyaushe ana ďaukar fassara ba a bakin komai ba. Irin wannan kallon biyu-ahu ne da ake yi wa fassara ya sa Belloc (1931:6) ya yi amanna cewa fassara ba ta taƂa kaiwa matsayin da ta dace da shi ba, kuma uwa-uba ga gurguwar fahimta da ake yi ma aikin. A ra’ayin Savory (1957:49) har yanzu babu wani ra’in fassara gama-gari, domin rashin fahimta tsakanin masanan da ke da alhakin tsarawa. Wannan kuma shi ne ma dalilin da ya sa bai ďauki fassara a matsayin kimiyya ba.

Masana irin su Kelly (1979:51) da ma wasu da yawa sun fi karkata ga cewa aikin fassara wani Ƃangare ne na salo cikin amfani da fasaha da balaga. Shi kuwa Holmes (1979:23) raba aikin fassarar ya yi gida biyu, wato nazarin fassara da dangoginta da kuma muhimmancin ra’i cikin aikin domin koyo da koyar da fassara. Ya kuma amince cewa dukkan dangogin fassara suna da alaƘa kai tsaye da juna. Shi kuma Toury (1995:7) cewa ya yi dangantakar da ke tsakanin dangogin fassara ba kai tsaye ta ke ba, musamman ma da yake ra’i ne kan yi jagora cikin nazarce-nazarcen fassarar.

A wani lokaci na daban, Toury (1982:7) ya amince cewa a matsayin aikin fassara na wani nau’i na kimiyya, bai kamata nazarce-nazarce su ta’allaƘa ga harshe kawai ba. Saboda haka ya ďauki fassara a matsayin komai da ruwanki. A Ƙarshe dai, ya fi raja’a da ďaukar fassara a matsayin kimiyya. Sauran masana da yawa sun fi karkata ga kimiyya cikin tsarin fassara kai tsaye. Ga misali, Norton (1984:59) yana cewa wajibi ne a yi fassara sahihiya kai tsaye.

Duk da haka, wasu masana da yawa ba su ďauki fassara a matsayin kimiyya ba. Ga misali, Chukovskii (1984:93) cewa ya yi babu tababa fassara fasaha ce ta-gidi. A masu ďaukar fassara a matsayin fasaha, Newmark (1988) ma cewa ya yi ‘‘ita fassarar adabi ta Ƙunshi sarrafa dabaru cikin ma’ana ta sadarwa’’. Wato dai tana kasancewa sahihiya matuƘar an samu dacewa tsakanin harshen asali (HA) da kuma harshen karƂa (HK).

Babu ko tantama, wasu masana sun fi ďaukar fassara a matsayin kimiyya. Sai dai kuma shi ilmin kimiyya yana da wasu siffofi da suka haďa da dama ta yin hasashe, da kuma tabbatar inganci na sakamako cikin bincike-bincike da kuma nazarce-nazarce. Don haka ne ma Berkely (1991:83) ya yi Ƙorafi cewa wasu sassa na kimiyya (musamman ma waďanda ke da nasaba da fasaha) ba sa ba da damar yin zuzzurfan hasashe.

Shi kuwa Miremadi (1991:31) cewa ya yi ko ta yaya dai aka ďauki fassara (fasaha ko kimiyya) to gaskiyar maganar ita ce, aikin fassara ya sha gwagwarmaya cikin matsaloli da nasarori, cigaba da kuma ƘirƘire-ƘirƘire. Long (1996:10) kuwa gani yake son da ake wa fassara na zama kimiyya, wani fatan alheri ne kawai. Don haka ne ma Zaixi (1997;339) ya jaddada cewa ‘‘ba shakka fassara wata kafa ce ta yin musaya, kuma nau’i na ilmi da za a iya koyo’’. Wato a halin yanzu dai, a aikin fassara ana sarrafa harshe ne domin dacewa da fasaha, amma fa ba kimiyya ba.

Duk da haka, masanin ya yarda da a nazarci ilmin da ya gina fassara a kimiyance, musamman ma da yake ilmi ne mai tsari cikin manufa da bayanin dokokin hanyoyin fassara. A ganin Baker (1998:4) kuwa, kamata ya yi aikin fassara ya zama wani fage na ilmi mai cin gashin kansa da za a riƘa nazari. Wato dai kamar saura, akwai bukatar a yi amfani da ra’i da kuma sakamakon fagage daban-daban domin tsara da kuma inganta hanyoyin fassara.

A ƘoƘarin bambanta kimiyya da aikin fassara kuwa, Karra (2000:1) cewa ya yi abokansa sun kasa fahimtar dalilin da ya sa ya fi son aikin a matsayin fassara fiye da kimiyya. Sai dai kuma duk da haka, wasu tagamiďo suka yi, wato sun ďauki fassara a matsayin fasaha da kuma kimiyya. Ga misali, Gabr (2001:2) cewa ya yi a matsayin fassara na fasaha akwai bukatar horo na sanin makamar aikin, haka kuma a matsayi na kimiyya akwai bukatar aza fassara bisa tafarkin ra’i daban-daban na harshe.

Daga abin da ya gabata, aikin fassara ya yi gamo da katar wajen samun nasaba da Ƃangarori biyu na fasaha da kimiyya. A mafi yawan lokuta dai zaƂi kan dogara ne ga mai yin fassara. Tamkar mawaƘa da kuma sauran masu sana’oin hannu daban-daban, masu fassara ma kan danganta aikinsu da wani yanayi ko wasu mutane. Babban dalilin da ya hana a ďauki fassara a matsayin fasaha shi ne, ba kamar yadda mai fassara ke sarrafa matsaloli daban-daban ba, ma’anar aikin fasaha kai tsaye ba ya wuce na falsafa.

Don haka fassara a matsayin fasaha, kamar sauran fannoni tana da wahala fiye da yadda ake ďauka (Translation: 2005:2). Da yawa farin-shiga kan yi kuskuren ďaukar fassara a matsayin kimiyya, wato su yi amanna cewa akwai danganataka tsakanin kalmomi da sassan jumloli na harsuna daban-daban da suke maida fassara ba komai ba.

5.0 Kammalawa


Akwai muhawara dangane da kasancewar fassara fasaha ce ko kimiyya. Masana da yawa na ganin fasaha ce, kuma za a iya koyar da ita. Wasu ma da yawa, musamman Ƙwararru a fannonin sana’oin hannu da kasuwanci da shari’a duk sukan fuskanci lamarin ne a fasahance cikin koyo da kuma nazarin harshe. Saura da yawa kuma sun fi raja’a cewa aikin fassara abu ne na kimiyya musamman ma idan aka yi la’akari da zubi da tsarin fassara a matsayinta na wani muhimmin fage na ilmi.

Gaskiyar maganar ita ce, kasancewar fassara fasaha ko kimiyya ya dogara ne kacokan ga matani da kuma irin saƘon da yake tafe da shi. Sauran maganar ita ce, duk matsayin da aka ďauki fassara (wato fasaha ce ko kimiyya), to yana da matuƘar muhimmanci a san cewa ingantacciyar fassara dai tana tasiri kan harshen karƂa (HK) tamkar dai a harshen asali (HA).

Karanta wannan

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/10/aminu-ladan-alan-waka-uba/

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