The Impact of Insecurity on Tourism Development in Nigeria

Cite this article: Dare, O. O. (2022). “The Impact of Insecurity on Tourism Development in Nigeria”. Sokoto Journal of History Vol. 11. Pp. 178- 188.


This research study attempts the assessment of insecurity in tourism development in Nigeria. With the available secondary data on the level and magnitude of insecurity, scholars and researchers have observed that insecurity is a significant challenge to economic development, including sustainable tourism development in any country. Insecurity has increased over time, constituting a serious threat to tourists, obstructing investment activities, and discouraging international business actors, downgrading Nigeria‟s tourism sector. Using the secondary source of data, certain indicators derived from the main composites of the concepts of insecurity and sustainable tourism developments were examined. This rising wave of insecurity has not subsided but has assumed an unsafe facet that threatens the country's tourism development. Rising from militancy, kidnapping, banditry, terrorism, and other criminal activities impeding the country, creating an unsafe envi onment for tourism growth, there is a need for urgent attention and action. In conclusion, the government should rise and strategize in dealing with insecurity issues and threats. Also, the real solution lies in both government and stakeholders in the tourism sector to accelerate economic growth by creating an economy with a relevant social, economic, and physical infrastructure to support tourism development.

Keywords: Insecurity, Crime, National Development, Tourism, Nigeria

DOI: 10.36349/sokotojh.2022.v11i01.006


OGUNSAKIN Oluwasegun Dare
Department of Peace and Security
Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Email: segunogunsakin4r@gmail.com
Phone number: +2348133893764


This research study attempts the assessment of insecurity in tourism development in Nigeria. With the available secondary data on the level and magnitude of insecurity, scholars and researchers have observed that insecurity is a significant challenge to economic development, including sustainable tourism development in any country. Insecurity has increased over time, constituting a serious threat to tourists, obstructing investment activities, and discouraging international business actors, downgrading Nigeria‟s tourism sector. Using the secondary source of data, certain indicators derived from the main composites of the concepts of insecurity and sustainable tourism developments were examined. This rising wave of insecurity has not subsided but has assumed an unsafe facet that threatens the country's tourism development. Rising from militancy, kidnapping, banditry, terrorism, and other criminal activities impeding the country, creating an unsafe environment for tourism growth, there is a need for urgent attention and action. In conclusion, the government should rise and strategize in dealing with insecurity issues and threats. Also, the real solution lies in both government and stakeholders in the tourism sector to accelerate economic growth by creating an economy with a relevant social, economic, and physical infrastructure to support tourism development.

Keywords: Insecurity, Crime, National Development, Tourism, Nigeria



The affirmation of normality indicated that no business could survive in an uncertain and crime- infected environment. The tourism sector is no exception. It has become a significant source of economic expansion for several nations, highlighting the service area and forging successful forward and backward integration with the remaining economy, facilitating new job opportunities and income resources. The tourism sector globally attracts people; several developing countries are starting to reap the benefits of sustainable tourism's massive opportunities. Nigeria is wealthy enough to be a great tourist spot with natural and human resources. It wishes to become one of the world's established economies and a leading African country by 2020 (Arowolo & Fabarebo, 2005). For this dream to materialize, Nigeria needs to determine the effective exploration of its assets to attract local and global investors. Currently, most of its population are deprived and poor, and they do not have access to contemporary healthcare provisions, pipe water, and higher education and employment opportunities. They cannot bear daily three square meals. These unfavorable development signs have contributed to its being ranked as one of the world's poorest countries.

The poor growth rate of Nigeria's tourism sector, without any doubt, breeds an environment of aggravated expectations and nurtures widespread annoyance on the end of those that are bound in the vortex cycle of miserable insecurity ranging from militancy in the Niger Delta, Boko Haram insurgency in the Northeast, kidnapping in the southeast and ritual killings in Southwest of the country. Powerless elimination schemes and careless handling by the government of Nigeria provoke the situation of desperation. People and groups react diversely in such predicaments, relying on conditional aspects and potency.

These responses emerged and sought articulation in a few shades of defiant behaviors, including capturing, burglary, killing, and revolt (Wang & Pizam, 2011). Nigeria is confronted with scary security difficulties in every one of these issues, which fundamentally incorporate death, illegal intimidation, abducting, hostility, equipped thefts, and ethnic disasters. Nigeria's most disturbing instability is the dread released by a feared fierce Islamic gathering Jama'atul Alhul SunnahLidda' Wat, Wal Jihad, normally known as Boko Haram (Holcomb, 2004). The introduction by broad communications to the majority has been a multivariate view of striking activities of bombings with awful portrayal and exemption of individuals rankled and devastation of property by Boko Haram.

According to Agbelusi (2022), the country's insecurity issue has become a serious concern for the citizens, whereby the people continue to gaze on what can be preferred to bring back security. Moreover, even worse, instead of subsiding, the problem has escalated and is now completely out of control. This unsafe haven in Nigeria is a recurring phenomenon that threatens socio-economic development. Understanding also that a wave of cybercrime, armed robbery, kidnapping, domestic crimes, extrajudicial killings, herder-peasant conflict, ritual killings, and banditry has hit southwestern Nigeria. The Southeast is a haven for ritual killings, economic crimes, separatist agitation, kidnappings, herders-farmers clashes, and attacks by unknown shooters and bandits.

The South-South region continues to be threatened by militancy, kidnappings, and environmental unrest. The Northeast has been the target of a humanitarian crisis caused by Boko Haram and the Islamic State in the West African province for more than a decade. Meanwhile, illegal mining, ethno religious killings, and banditry plague the Northwest. As a result, insecurity in Nigeria has weakened political positions, claimed thousands of lives, and caused immense damage and property loss. Hence, it cannot be denied that the insecurity in Nigeria is more pronounced today than in the past. This shows that the government has a huge task to do whatever it takes to restore peace and normality in the country. It should not be strange for Nigerians to seek foreign aid when needed. Every government must ensure the safety of the lives and property of its citizens, and every means to ensure peace and tranquility is not only welcome but also desirable (Oyewusi, 2022). Therefore, this research study will examine the assessment of insecurity in tourism development in Nigeria.

Security and Sustainable Tourism Development

Security has consistently been a pivotal component of sustainable tourism development. Meanwhile, it is an incontestable reality that security and well-being issues got much higher essential in the tourism industry in the previous twenty years (Giacoma & Horsey, 2013). During the last few years, movements in the world have been enormous, often caused by insecurity. Accordingly, this reality requires investigating and examining the relationship between security concerns and the travel industry, including the formation of an inventive, most recent idea and definition. Exploring security and well-being issues got essential for the travel industry's advancement.

Examine some questions about the issue of insecurity in Nigeria; For what reason did security become so critical in the global sustainable tourism industry? The significant parts affecting security and wellbeing are extremely critical to analyze. Numerous examinations have communicated that tourists' activities are profoundly affected by the state of security (Destinationworld.info, 2014). Settling every one of these questions contributes not exclusively as per the general inclination of the analyst's advantage has exceptionally logical objectives that offer administration strategies and working systems to all triggers and phases of the tourism industry to avoid or diminish the threats.

Tourism is hugely identified as one of the world‘s biggest financial products. In 2003 (Nacd.gov.ng, 2014), the WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council) known that tourism comprises about 11 percent of the global GDP. The organization also declared that the worth of expert tourist provisions is nearly 6-7 percent of complete exports of services and goofs. The assessment shows that tourism industry hires almost 6% of the global professional population (Tourist safety and security: practical measures for destinations, 1994). Staff includes railway staff, travel agents, airline employees, taxi workers, hotel staff, bank personnel, insurance, tour or travel guides, vendors, photographers, lifesavers, porters, as well as individuals in control of areas visited by tourists like museums, shops, galleries, parts, and theatres. Therefore, tourism is a sector that cuts across the majority of a country's economic activity.

Nigeria is one of Africa's largest and demographically, traditionally, and socially most diversified nations. It has an area mass of about 923,768 km2 (Tourism.gov.ng, 2014). Nigeria is so rich in natural and human resources. The local market is also dependent on imports. Over 60 percent of the people are hired in agriculture, which offers the big of the nation‘s raw and food resources provision and non-oil overseas selling (Bjornlund et al., 2020). The government guides socioeconomic reforming and alignment; therefore, the focus on tourism development is important.

The development and growth of tourism in any nation can only be partially debated by explaining its impact. The tourism development impacts can be positive as well as negative or both. The development brought by tourism can make or destroy an aspect relying on the extent of supervision and regulation by the essential companies and a state's legislative provision into impact. This relates explicitly to the environmental feature of the influence, although there can also be a downturn in economic, political, and social influences (Tourism.gov.ng, 2014). However, insecurity has been a thorn in the sustainable tourism development in the Nigeria democratic dispensation, and there is a need for urgent action to curb these insecurity issues.

Sustainable tourism development is a multidimensional concept that is conceptualized in many ways. However, the widely used one is consensually stressed by the Bruntland Commission (1987) and the United Nations World Committee on Environment and Development 1992. Both defined sustainable development as a development that meets the present wants without compromising the ability of future ones to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is a two-way relationship between development and the environment. Another conceptualized consideration that has contextual relevance to this paper is Chinsman (1994), which added ―human‖ to sustainable development. According to him, sustainable human and tourism development is centered on the variables and elements of human and tourism development. Sustainable tourism development is a dynamic framework that meaningfully provides people with job options, eliminates poverty, and ensures equitable distribution of wealth in a society.

Tourism development can also be among the most influential drivers for developing nations‘ economies. Many developing countries promote tourism as it can create jobs, improve community incomes, and increase foreign exchange earnings and government revenues (Sharpley, 2000). The tourism sector's sustainability is an act that relates to the conservation and maintenance of the environment, wildlife, hospitality industry, and other resources that aim at profitability for future generations (Biotic et al., 1998).

The tourism products are:

·         Accommodation: Everywhere a traveler goes, whether outbound, inbound or domestic, a place to stay and rest is necessary. The tourism industry provides many lodging facilities, from luxurious resorts to modest bed and breakfast establishments.

·         Food and Drinks: Getting safe food and drink for tourists is necessary. While hotels and resorts provide many core food and beverage facilities for tourists, restaurants and other food and beverage service outlets (including the ‗Mai Shai‘, ‗Mai Suya‘, Fried yam, and

‗Akara‘ ball spots) also serve tourists.

·         Security: Safety and Security is the primary concern of tourists. With its slogan of ‗home away from home, the hotel guarantees maximum security and safety of life and property of their guests (e.g., the Inn keeper‘s Liability Act) and the provision of health facilities and services.

·         Attraction: The aesthetic view of hotel buildings, guest facilities, and amenities provided therein is a major attraction (Swarbrooke, 1995). For example, the one-stop destination of Disney Land, Singapore‘s Sentosa Island, is a popular attraction featuring resort hotels, rides, and attractions (WTO, 1997).

·         Leisure and Recreation Center: Previously, clubs and corporate organizations provided relaxation centers with indoor games for members. The hotels and restaurants have witnessed the provision of activity and leisure. First-class hotels and restaurants have discovered that leisure and recreational facilities serve as big markets had created activity places and leisure settings in their establishments for guests, such as concert halls, cinemas, sports facilities (indoor and outdoor), amusement facilities, i.e., bingo halls, casinos, nightclubs, etc. (Alex-Onyeocha, 2016).

·         Transportation: Hotels and first-class restaurants have collaborated with tour operators to see the too easy movement of guests to and fro the hotel and the destination area. The emergence of international hotels has witnessed collaboration with airline operators and even investment in the airline travel business and vice versa to catch the global market. This development positively impacts international tourism (WTO, 1997, p. 76).

·         Information Services: The hotel foyer/lobby has permitted displaying and advertising tourist destinations, travel agents, and tour operators. The distribution of pamphlets (or brochures) at the hotel reception desk containing the hotel facilities and areas of interest to guests in the hotel location's towns and cities is helping promote destination image. The toll- free hotel reservation systems, computers, and the internet make it convenient for individual tourists to arrange their travel on the internet scene. The emergence of airlines' Computer Reservation Systems (CRS) and the travel company‘s investment in the hardware and software to link the services together offers travelers easy access to airlines, travel agencies, car rental companies, and hotel chains (WTO, 1997, p. 87).

·         Technological Development: The hospitality industry has encouraged technological development. For example, The CRS that evolved into the Global Distribution System (GDS) has helped potential tourists to view pictures and ‗tour‘ the property before making a reservation. The worldwide reservation system has become a significant force for change in the hospitality industry (WTO, 1997, p. 87). The industry also uses the latest technology due to demand from international guests.

·         Promotion of Culture and Biodiversity: The hospitality industry has displayed and sold arts and craft-work of the host community as a souvenir and used it for interior decoration, developed the indigenous menu and made it acceptable to both national and international visitors, used indigenous service materials like carved calabash, wooden ladles, and spoons, design food service area such as bars and restaurants on local architectural design, wearing local fabrics as staff uniforms and napkins. The industry has preserved the host community's biodiversity (flora and fauna) with its premises in the form of landscape or mini- park/garden, thereby bringing nearer to tourists the image of the host country's forest and vegetation (Alex-Onyeocha, 2016).

·         Technical Assistance: Hospitality companies or societies have provided facilities and technical services to the government. For example, Le Meridien (A Hotel Development and Management Company) partners with the Akwa Ibom and Osun state governments in the constitution of a 5-star hotel in Uyo and Oshogbo, respectively, based on Build, Operate, and Transfer (BOT). Protea Hotel pioneered foreign investment and technical service for Cross River State at Obudu Ranch Resort and Tinapa Resort (Akpabio, 2007).

Insecurity and Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria

Observation of the current insecurity in Nigeria is a result of some causes that have made tourism unattractive to people and investors. From literature reviews and analysis, the following are some causes of insecurity in the country:

Pervasive Material Inequalities and Unfairness: A significant factor contributing to insecurity in Nigeria is the increasing awareness of inequalities and differences in life chances, which cause violent reactions by many people and affect the sustainable tourism development in Nigeria. There is a general view of marginalization by some people in government development policies and political patronage, which triggers disaffection, resentment, and revolt.

Unemployment/Poverty: According to Adagba et al. (2012), unemployment/poverty among Nigerians, majorly the youths, is a major cause of unsafety and violent crimes in Nigeria. In particular, youth unemployment has contributed to Nigeria's rising cases of violent conflict. Also, one of the significant causes of insecurity in the nation is the failure of successive administrations to address issues of poverty, unemployment, and inequitable distribution of wealth among ethnic nationalities.

Organized violent groups: Organized violent groups such as ethnic militias, vigilantes, secret cults in tertiary institutions, and political thugs contribute significantly to security challenges in Nigeria in different dimensions and forms. Their emergence has been linked to several factors, including the culture of militarism that has its antecedents in military rule, the disappointment of the state and its institutions, and economic disempowerment, including the structure of the state and Nigeria‘s federalism, non-separation of state and religion, politics of exclusion, the culture of patriarchy, ignorance and poor political consciousness (Ibrahim and Igbuzor, 2002 as cited in Eme and Onyishi, 2011).

Porous Borders: Achumba et al. (2013) observe that the porous frontiers of the country, where individual mobility is largely unfollowed, have contributed to the point of insecurity in Nigeria. As an outcome of the porous borders, there is an unlooked inflow of Small Arms and Light Weapons into Nigeria, which has aided militancy and criminality in Nigeria (Hazen & Horner, 2007). Available data reveal that Nigeria host over 70 percent of about 8 million illegal arms in West Africa (Edeko, 2011). Furthermore, the porosity of the Nigerian borders has aided the uncontrollable influx of migrants, mainly young adults, from neighbouring nations such as the Republic of Niger, Chad, and the Republic of Benin, responsible for some of the criminal acts (Adeola & Oluyemi, 2012).

Systemic and Political Corruption: This twin evil and the hydra-headed monster have held the Nigerian state captive. This has contributed to government failure and the breakdown of institutional infrastructures. The state of insecurity in Nigeria is significantly a function of government failure, traceable to systemic and political corruption. It has added another dimension of violent conflicts, which has eroded national values. It is estimated that Nigeria has lost more than

$400 billion to corruption since gaining independence in 2012 (Onodugo, Okoro, and Nwuba, 2016). In 2021, the country will be ranked 154th out of 180 countries included in Transparency International's Corruption Index (with South Sudan being the most corrupt to date -180 and Denmark the least) (Okoye, 2012; Ijewereme, 2015). Corruption is terrible not because money and benefits change hands and not because of participants' motives but because it privatizes valuable aspects of public life, bypassing representation, debate, and choice processes. It has been described as cancer militating against Nigeria‘s development because corruption profoundly threatens the fabric of Nigerian society (Nwanegbo & Odigbo, 2013). The Corruption hinder economic growth, disproportionately burdens the poor, and undermines the effectiveness of business and aid (Iyare, 2008).

Ethno-religious Conflicts are caused by suspicion and distrust among various ethnic groups and the country's major religions. Ethno-religious conflict is a situation in which the nexus between members of one ethnic or religious and another of such group in a multiethnic and multi-religious society is characterized by a lack of cohesion, mutual suspicion, and fear, and a tendency towards violent confrontation (Achumba et al., 2013; Salawu, 2010). The frequent and persistent ethnic conflicts and religious clashes between the dominant religions (Islam and Christianity) are significant security challenges confronting Nigeria. Since independence, Nigeria appears to have been bedeviled with ethnoreligious conflicts. There are ethnoreligious conflicts in all parts of Nigeria. These have emerged due to new and particularistic shapes of political consciousness and identity often structured around ethnoreligious identities (Ibrahim & Igbuzor, 2002). Ethno-religious violence is also traceable to the inability of Nigerian leaders to tackle development challenges and distribute state resources equitably. Other causes are accusations and allegations of neglect, oppression, domination, exploitation, victimization, discrimination, marginalization, nepotism, and bigotry. In all parts of Nigeria, ethnoreligious conflicts have assumed alarming rates. It has occurred in Shagamu (Ogun State), Lagos, Abia, Kano, Bauchi, Nassarawa, Jos, Taraba, Ebonyi, and Enugu States, respectively. These ethnoreligious identities have become disintegrative and destructive social elements threatening Nigeria's peace, stability, and security (Eme & Onyishi, 2011).

Politically Based Violence: Nigeria has a long history of politically based violence since the collapse of the first republic on January 14, 1966, and the military's incursion into governance on that same date. Violent conflicts, political thuggery, assassinations, and arson have characterized the electoral politics in Nigeria right from the 1960s till date. Politicians in Nigeria do not accommodate dialogue, negotiation, and consensus (Eme & Onyishi, 2011). Political contests are characterized by desperation and a violent struggle for political power among politicians. Systematic political violence in Nigeria could be attributed to the overzealousness and distress of political gladiators to win elections or remain in office at all costs. These misadventures have often been catastrophic, leading to the decimation of innocent lives, disruption of economic activities, and the destruction of properties, e.g., the religious crisis in Jos, Boko Haram Insurgency in Borno, etc. (Kasali, 2020). The various implications of these are the destruction of properties by terrorists, the decline in revenue from various resort centers, low patronage from foreign visitors, etc.

Impacts of Insecurity on Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria Democratic Dispensation

The continued killing and bombing by terrorists and violent crimes undoubtedly negatively impact sustainable tourism development in Nigeria. Though there is an absence of a quantitative evaluation of the catastrophic impacts and decline, available statistics has it that after the democratic handing over to the civilian government, Human Rights Watch (2012) revealed a total death toll of 935 people in 164 attacks of Boko Haram insurgency between July 25 and February 2011. It is also reported that estimated thousands of individuals were killed through bombing and other means; 550 persons have been killed in 135 attacks since the rise of terrorism in the country. While in 2011, at least 500 persons were killed in terrorist attacks (Amnesty International, 2012). Apart from the loss of lives, there is also the wanton destruction of property worth several billions of naira through bombing (Oluwaseun, 2012).

The above cases have dire consequences for sustainable tourism development in the regions of attack and Nigeria in general. In the areas where the bombings are pervasive, the property was destroyed potentially and, in absolute terms, dragged their economic fortune back by several moves. Besides the destroyed property, economic life in those areas is immediately halted. Individuals are no longer free to go about their economic activities for fear of being killed. This is made worse as many people have migrated swiftly to the southern part of Nigeria. The overall implication for sustainable tourism development is that the industry is fast deteriorating. The murderous campaigns and vicious onslaughts on individuals and institutions provide internal and foreign investors with a highly unfavourable business environment (Manzoor et al., 2019).

Foreign investment is a significant factor in the achievement of sustainable tourism development. It contributes significantly to boosting the Gross Domestic Product of any country, and Nigeria is no exception. Apart from the significant economic contributions at the national level, foreign investors create livelihood opportunities by creating job opportunities and providing large-scale tourism products and services in the host nation. Nigeria can no longer support itself of this opportunity due to the unfavorable business environment of insecurity created by violent crimes and terrorism activities. The Boko Haram insurgency has hurt agriculture, especially in some of the country's main food-producing areas. For instance, the states of Yobe, Adamawa, and Borno, which were hardest hit by the unrest, are known to produce peas, rice, millet, tomatoes, onions, sweet potatoes, corn and sorghum, livestock and fish (Amalu, 2015).

Apart from the unfavourable business climate and stagnated external resources inflow into Nigeria, the insecurity problems have caused a more significant percentage of the internal resources and attention to be committed only to the security sector, making the tourism sector less funded. With the enormous resources at its disposal, leading in Nigeria is confronted with the challenges of focusing its expenditure priorities on safety in disfavour of real human capital development and further growth and productivity promoting sectors. This undoubtedly poses a severe challenge to a dynamic framework for providing job options and eliminating poverty, which constitutes the hallmark of sustainable tourism development. This is made worse as leadership is preoccupied with waging and bent on winning the war against terrorism and crimes through substantial budgetary allocations to the security sector (Umaru, 2015). Nigeria's ongoing struggle with rebel groups and ongoing government corruption threatens the stability and political integrity of Africa's most populous nation. Since 2011, Boko Haram, one of Africa's largest Islamist militant groups, has carried out terrorist attacks against religious and political groups, local police, and military and indiscriminately attacked civilians in crowded markets and villages. The kidnapping of many girls from their learning center in April 2014 drew international attention to the ongoing Boko Haram threat and the government's inability to contain it. Following talks between Boko Haram and the Nigerian government, mediated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, 103 girls have now been released (Global Conflict Tracker, 2022).

Mitigating Insecurity and Achieving Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria

Nigerian security policies and strategies must be based on the immediate short-term struggle for survival to address the more excruciating long-term imperatives of sustainable tourism development. Out of pragmatic necessity, the government should fix tourism and other socio- economic sectors as a pointer to key development issues to ensure a realistic chance of success. The Nigerian economy has remained a dormant mono-economy because of ever prolonged one commodity for an expert for a long. It is suggested that the country use the New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD) and other international organizations to attract investment from the outside world. We can succeed in sustainable tourism by effectively promoting small and medium- scale industries (Itayemi, 2017). Anybody who goes into politics to amass wealth should be shown the way out through constitutional means. At times they should be made to denounce the oath of office they have sworn. The police, as it is today, harbor criminal-minded persons and other corrupt elements in the force, which have constituted the greatest challenge to the point as an entity in her bid to check threats to the lives and property of Nigerians (Onodugo, Okoro, & Nwuba, 2016).

Government should review all its policies relating to recruitment into the police force to ensure that rotten eggs will no longer find their way into the service. To provide and sustain a crime-free society, the morale of officers and men should be kept high through training and retraining, welfare and re-orientation, and building people‘s friendly police force. No investor can invest in an atmosphere of insecurity; otherwise, our quest for sustainable development will be a mirage. Though there is a statutory limitation to what state government can do for security, the states have something to contribute (Bakare, 2021). The constitution places safety on the exclusive federal list. The police and the Armed forces are national institutions, not legally accountable to state governments. However, it is suggested that there should be collaboration between the state and federal governments in security agencies with needed logistics for optimal performance. Secondly, states should sponsor community-based vigilantes to complement traditional security agencies' operations. Again, re-organizing the security sectors to take them through a new reorientation via re-training security agents. People should be more security conscious and share data with the police and other security agencies. The populace should not leave security matters to security personnel only. All should be engaged in security information and data gathering. Moreover, efforts should be put into crime prevention than control.

Furthermore, the government should increase the size of Nigeria‘s security agencies, strengthen and motivate them very well and improve neighbourhood watch. Governments should equally fix social amenities like roads, street lights, schools, and skill acquisition centers. Apart from the above, there is no gainsaying that the lack of youth support programs contributes immensely to polity's social insecurity. The government should create programs that would support our youths technically. This will enable them to be self-reliant and change their minds about criminal tendencies (Chukwuemeka, 2022).

Moreover, a cycle of authoritative and established audits should survey the country's constitution and revise or cancel as important territories that have been found to offer ascent to clashes and security issues. The cycle should likewise present new arrangements and enactments that will guarantee a better and more powerful exchange of interests among all gatherings and partners in Nigeria. Such exercise should again grasp methods of making the country's vote-based space more open, accessible, reasonable, and lenient as existing in different majority rule governments around the globe. Lastly, strong funding and support should be placed on the tourism industry to foster sustainable development in the tourism industry.


The tourism sector must be guarded and secured due to the occurrences in Nigeria that clearly shows that the state of insecurity in the polity has assumed a frightening dimension on the industry. While it can be posited that insecurity is an international hassle, what looks ordinary in our state of affairs is the seeming lack of ability of authorities to tackle the undertaking head-lengthy. The cliché' safety hazard‘ has nearly become a protection crumble. Terrorists use different weapons to attack innocent Nigerians, and tourists on a daily routine. In all, what we need is an awesome government and support from the citizens. And an awesome authority is viable in as lots as individuals who are installed positions of authority are allowed and are devoted to discharging their responsibilities without worry or favour; are decided to serve with commitment and patriotism; are not geared up to sell out to discharging their responsibilities without worry or favour; are decided to serve with zeal and patriotism; are not prepared to sell out to international capital and are ready to face via the truth and die for it. Making the sustainability vision for the tourism sector to grow and develop will rely on the security of life and properties in the country.



Achumba, I.C., Ighomereho, O.S., &Akpan-Robaro, M.O.M. (2013), Security challenges in Nigeria and the implications for business activities and sustainable development.Journal of economics and sustainable development, 3(6), 20-32.

Adagba, O., Ugwu, S.C., &Eme O.I. (2012), Activities of Boko haram and insecurity question in Nigeria.Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(9), 77-99.

Adeola, G.L.,&Oluyemi F. (2012), The Political and Security Implications of Cross Border Migration between Nigeria and Her Francophone Neighbours. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(3):1-9.

Agbelusi, S. (2022, June 6), Insecurity: A norm In Nigeria. https://www.thecable.ng/insecurity-a- norm-in nigeria#:~:text=Insecurity%20in%20Nigeria%20is%20a,%2C%20ritual%20killings%2C%2 0and%20banditry.

Alex-Onyeocha, O.U. (2016), Challenges of tourism in Nigeria: As tourism ministry in federal level is scrapped or merged. Abuja: Mastermind Culinary and Catering Institute.

Amalu, S.N. (2015), Impact of Boko Haram insurgency on humansecurity in Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 14: 35-42

Arowolo, O. &Fabarebo, S. (2005), Nigeria: contemporary issues. 1st edition.

Bakare,      B.      (2021,      July      7),      Perspectives      on      the      Nigeria      Police      Force.


Bjornlund, V., Bjornlund, H., & Van Rooyen, A.F. (2020), Why agricultural production in sub- Saharan Africa remains low compared to the rest of the world a historical perspective, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 36(1), 20-S53.

Biotic (1988), Sustainability and the future generation (IPPF).Review of population and development, 4(2), 63-70.

Chinsman, B. (1995), The role of UNDP in the operationalization of sustainable human development. A paper presented at the Nigerian geographical association conference held in University of Benin Nigeria May 28th -31st May 1995.

Chukwuemeka, E.S. (2022, January 4), 9 Major Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria. https://bscholarly.com/causes-solutions-to-insecurity-in-nigeria/

Eme, O.I., &Onyishi A. (2011), The challenges of insecurity in Nigeria: A thematic exposition.

Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(8), 172-184

Global    Conflict    Tracker.    (2022,    May    12),    Conflict    with    Boko    Haram    in    Nigeria. https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/boko-haram-nigeria.

Giacoma, J., & Horsey, R. (2013), The home front: Sub national conflict in Myanmar, Nigeria and Brazil. 1st ed.

Ijewereme, O.B. (2015, June 19), Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector: Theoretical Perspectives and Some Empirical Explanations. SAGE Open. 5 (2).

Itayemi,      O.      (2017),      The      Challenges      of      Sustainable      Tourism      in      Nigeria. https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2017/10/07/the-challenges-of-sustainable-tourism- in-nigeria/

Kasali, T. (2020, December 18), Bad governance and political selection in Nigeria has a human cost.https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/12/18/bad-good-governance-political-selection- in-nigeria-elections-human-cost/

Manzoor, F., Wei, L., Asif M, Haq, M.Z, Rehman, H. (2019), The Contribution of Sustainable Tourism toEconomic Growth and Employment in Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16(19):3785. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16193785. PMID: 31597376; PMCID: PMC6801594.

Oluwaseun, B. (2012), Boko haram catastrophic terrorism: An albatross to national peace, security and sustainable development in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 14(1), 32-44

Okoye, R. (2012, 31 August). Nigeria has lost $400bn oil revenue to corruption since Independence

Ezekwesili. Daily Post Nigeria. (Accessed on 28 June, 2022).

Onodugo, I.C., Okoro, E.O., &Nwuba, B.N. (2016), Insecurity and its effects on Nigerian sustainable development. International Journal of Academic Research and Development, 1(1), 1-6.

Oyewusi, J. (2022, April 29), The gale of insecurity in Nigeria. https://guardian.ng/opinion/the-gale- of-insecurity-in-nigeria/

Tourism.gov.ng,              (2014), Nigeria              official              tourism              website.Available at: http://tourism.gov.ng/ [Accessed 18 January. 2021].

Sharpley R. (2000), Tourism and sustainable development: Exploring the theoretical Divide.

Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(2), 16-28.

Swarbrooke, J. (1995), The development and management of visitor attractions. Oxford, Butterwoorth - Heinemann.

Umaru, A. (2015), The impact of insecurity and poverty on sustainable economic development in Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 2(2), 32-48

Vacationer wellbeing and security (1994), Tourist safety and security: practical measures for destinations. 1st ed. World Tourism Organization.

Wang, Y. &Pizam, A. (2011), Tourism Destination Marketing and Management: Collaborative Strategies. 1st ed. Cabi.

World Tourism Organization. (WTO 1997), International Tourism; a Global Perspective. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Post a Comment