Negligence of Traditional Occupations as a Contributory Factor in the Youths Unemployment in Northern Nigeria

Published in Journal of African Culture and International Understanding, No. 7 January – March, 2014, a UNESCO Category 2 Institute at the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria.


Negligence of Traditional Occupations as a Contributory Factor in the Youths Unemployment in Northern Nigeria

Bashir Aliyu Sallau
Department of Nigerian Languages
Katsina State University
P.M.B.2218, Katsina


For many centuries back before the coming of the Europeans to what is now referred to as Northern Nigeria the economy of the region was so buoyant and its inhabitant doesn’t think of what is now called unemployment. There were so many factors that contributed to such a development. The inhabitants of the said region worked hard and utilized their resources and managed their crafts and occupations in such a way their daily needs were catered. Traditional crafts such as weaving, wood and calabash carving, pottery and raffia works, blacksmithing, etc, and occupations that includes farming and animal husbandry played a very prominent role in shaping the economy as well as the well-being of the people of Hausaland. There were other traditional occupations practiced by the people of Hausaland which includes Hausa Barbers Tradition ‘wanzanci’, butchering ‘sana’ar fawa’, bone-setting ‘dori’ and many others which were and are still among the prominent ones practiced by the Hausa people. In those days it was the youth that became the dominant force in carrying out the above mentioned traditional crafts and occupations; this made some of them to be self-employed, while others became apprentice or labourers in some of the afore-mentioned industries. With the coming of the Europeans in the late 19th and early 20th century and their introduction of western type of education, our youth neglected these traditional crafts and opted for white collar jobs. With the rapid increase in the number of secondary, post secondary school and University graduates, the labour market became choked which resulted to massive unemployment of many able bodied youth. The purpose of this paper is to highlight to the public how our traditional crafts and occupations are now neglected by our youth, and if we are able to turn our attention towards improving them that will solve the problem of youth unemployment and our economy will once again boast with golden colours.


1.0  Introduction

The present day Northern Nigeria is a name given by the British imperialist to most parts of the region which in the early years of the 19th century and beyond was referred to as the Central Sudan, and it housed various ethnic groups with diversified cultures. Among them includes Hausa, Fulfulde, Angas, Kanakuru, Kanuri, Shuwa Arab, Tiv, Kaje, Kagoma, Kagoro, Jaba, Dakarkari, Babur, Tangale, Waja, Idoma, Igala, Ganawuri, Kamuku, Kambari, Gungawa to mention but a few. At present, it covers most parts of the three out of the six geo-political zones of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which includes North-Western with KadunaKano, Katsina, Jigawa, Zamfara, Sokoto and Kebbi States. The second zone i.e. North-Eastern covers, Yobe, Borno, Adamawa, Taraba, Gombe and Bauchi States. While the third zone i.e. North-Central housed, Plateau, BenueKogiNiger, Kwara and Nasarawa States.

Before the coming of the British Colonialists to this region and their introduction of western type of education which gave birth to the present day white-collar jobs, each of the above aforementioned ethnic groups lived independently and had their own civilization which goes hand-in-hand with their socio-economic, political and religious activities. It was only the coming of the European Imperialists that united these diversified communities to be one people administratively. In some cases before the 20th century, what existed between them was only raiding to capture slaves and warfare to acquire wealth and land, but in other cases there were times when they share economic activities through internal and external trade relations.

Since time immemorial, the present day Northern Nigeria has traditionally been a place where many crafts were and in some cases are still practiced. These crafts include iron and leather works, cloth weaving, raffia and pottery works, wood and calabash carvings to mention but a few. They also practiced traditional occupations such as farming which include agricultural and animal husbandry, traditional Hausa barbing ‘wanzanci’ and many others.

The art of iron smelting was a great scientific and technological achievement of the people in the region. This is because for many years back the people of the region had acquired the technical know how in identifying and extracting iron ore from the deposits, crush and smelt it to metal, which is forged into various tools and implements which really improved the living standard of the people of the said region and beyond. Similarly, other crafts such as pottery assumed an important increasing position of importance, so also leather work which became an important industry which produced excellent materials for home use as well as for other markets in West African sub-region.

The agricultural sector also played a very prominent role in enriching the region with food and cash crops. This was through the cultivation of grains such as millet, maize, guinea corn, cotton, ground nut and many others. Other traditional occupations such as traditional Hausa barbing ‘wanzanci’ serve as a way of curing sickness and illnesses which every member of the community needs their services.

The Hausa people respected their traditional occupations and crafts for the purpose of sustainable development which they were able to achieve before this time.

 I will now concentrate fully on the crafts and traditional occupations practiced in Hausa land and examine how the Hausa people practiced them and the way they help them in solving the problem of unemployment before the coming of the British Colonialists into the land.


2.0  Hausa Land And Its Inhabitants

For the purpose of this discussion, it is very important for us to know the geographical location of Hausa land and those people that inhabit the said area today.

Many scholars have earlier defined Hausa land, as “the land which is located in West Africa and it is situated between the Sahara desert in the north and the forest zone leading to Atlantic Ocean in the south. It is also referred to as Western Sudan i.e. the land between Lake Chad and Niger Bend in the west (Alhassan, 1981:1).

Another scholar stated that “Hausa land is located in Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger Republic in West Africa. In the east it is boarded with the Kanuri Empire of Borno, while in the west it is bordered with the Dahomeans. In the north Hausa land is boarded with the country of Adar in Niger Republic, on the other hand i.e. in the south it is boarded with the Gwari tribe and the minority tribes of Southern Zaria and Southern Bauchi (Ibrahim, 1982:1).

Presently, Hausa land is an area that housed the states of Kano, Katsina, Jigawa, Zamfara, Sokoto, Northern Kaduna State and some parts of Bauchi, Gombe and Niger States in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, and the states of Maradi, Damagaram and some parts of Tahoa and Dousso states in Niger Republic (Birnin-Tudu, 2002:11-12).

While on the other hand the inhabitants of Hausa land include ‘Hausawa’, the plural form of ‘Bahaushe’ and they form the majority of the inhabitants of the land and the Nigerian nation at large. There are also other inhabitants that include the ‘Fulani’, Toaregs’ and ‘Bornoans’. The Hausa people are defined as those people that lived in Hausa land from time immemorial and speak Hausa language as their mother tongue (Adamu, 1978:3).

There is another category of people that are defined as Hausa people, this is as a result of their long stay in Hausa land and had lost their ancestry and took the language, literature and culture of the Hausa people in place of their lost identity, they include some ‘Fulani’, ‘Toaregs’, ‘Bornoans’, to mention but a few (Sallau, 2000:71).

Another definition of Hausa people states that they are the people that speak Hausa language, their norms, values and culture reflects that of the people living in Hausa land and Islamic religion has a great impact on their life style (Magaji, 1986:3).


2.1 Hausa Traditional Occupations and Crafts

Hausa land is bestowed with abundant human and natural resources which in the late 19th and early 20th century its inhabitants fully utilised them in such a way that they were able to carter for their daily needs. Traditional crafts such as weaving, wood and calabash carving, pottery and raffia works, blacksmithing, etc, and occupations which includes farming and animal husbandry played a very prominent role in shaping the economy as well as the well-being of the people of Hausa land. There are other traditional occupations practiced by the people of Hausa land which includes Hausa Barbers Tradition ‘wanzanci’, butchering ‘sana’ar fawa’, bone-setting ‘dori’ and many others which were and are still among the prominent ones practiced by the Hausa people. According to tradition each occupation or craft is controlled by a particular family or community and they are responsible for safeguarding and projecting the image of such craft and it was an abuse or to some extent an abomination to any body that deliberately refused to learn the craft of his family or community. We will now examine these traditional occupations one after the other and assess the contributions they gave to the development of Hausa land before the coming of the British Colonial masters in the 19th century. For a sustainable development in Hausa land to be a reality we must copy the Asians i.e. Japan and China through applying the knowledge we acquire from the Western world and transform our crafts and traditional occupations in such a way they will go hand-in-hand with modernity.


2.1.1 Agricultural Activities

Farming and animal husbandry which are partners in progress were and in some cases are still the main sources of lively-hood of most people of Hausa land, as Dr. Barth noticed in 1850 when he was approaching Katsina from the direction of Tassawa in present day Niger Republic, there was hardly any field that was not cultivated; this resulted to high competition in the cultivation of food and cash crops which were grown side by side, particularly guinea corn, millet, tobacco, coco-yams, sweet potatoes, beans, cotton and many others (Adamu, 1978:10).

It is a fact that every community in Hausaland before the coming of the Europeans was capable of producing abundant food that will cover the whole year and in many cases with surplus which they used to help the needy among them and sell the remaining to other neighbouring communities. The reason for such a development was total commitment by all including the old, young, male and female.

Most of the traditional occupations and crafts of the Hausa people to some extent depended on the proceeds obtained from agricultural activities, for example cloth weaving, wood and calabash carving, and raffia works depended on what is obtained from the farm or bush.


a) Cloth Weaving Industry

The historical evolution of cloth weaving was in response to the basic needs of our communities to device a means of covering their bodies. The growth of cotton in many parts of Hausaland is believed to be one of the major factors responsible for the development of weaving industry. The main producing areas were Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Zazzau, Gobir, Kebbi, Yawuri and many others, and up to this time they are able to maintain their position.

Similarly, there was growth in cotton markets which gradually accelerated the growth of weaving industry in the whole of Hausaland. The art of Kadi (thread making) which in those days thrives in many villages and towns of Hausaland also contributed immensely to the growth of weaving industries. This was as a result of active participation by all categories of women i.e. old and young, married and girls. They process cotton into Suttu and then to Sulaye (bunches of threads) which were sold to weavers especially on market days.

In the 17th and 18th centuries the products obtained from the weaving industry were among the most important articles of export trade from Hausaland to other parts of the world through Tran Saharan trade routes.

The weaving industry before the coming of the Europeans into Hausaland seriously contributed towards eradicating unemployment, for the fact that the families or communities that inherit the craft respected it, were proud of it and practiced it for sustainable development.


b) Wood and Calabash Carving Industry

Wood and calabash carvings are believed to be among the first crafts to be produced in Hausaland. The historical origin of these crafts could similarly be traced to the ancient times when people realised that some trees and plants in their natural surroundings could be used to curve useful objects which could help them in their daily activities. As a result of this, they invented wooden tools, plates, spoons, chairs, saddles, handles and many other useful objects for house hold usage. Beside that they were able to decorate calabash with different designs to beautify them.

The products obtained from the aforementioned industry before the coming of the Europeans to Hausaland in the 19th century were among the goods that were exported from Hausaland to the outside world and the industry really helps the youth to fight what is now referred to as unemployment. This was for the fact that those people who inherited the craft did not neglect it; they respected it and practiced it for the purpose of sustainable development.


c) Raffia Works Industry

The historical origin of raffia works could be traced several centuries ago when the early communities used leaves, grasses and reeds to weave materials such as mats and baskets for domestic purposes. However, with the growth of civilisation people became more aware of the importance of these materials in their daily activities. Therefore the art of raffia works further developed and consequently became one of the important occupations practiced by the Hausa people.

 The finished products from the raffia industry were among the goods for external trade from Hausaland to other parts of the world and they equally played an important role in solving the problem of what we now refer as unemployment. The reason was that the people that inherited the said craft practiced it and maintained it as a craft that will help them cater for their daily needs.


d) Animal Husbandry

On animal husbandry, in those days every house you visited you will find that they owned a herd of goats, sheep and in some cases cattle. They also possessed birds such as chicken and their like in which one can find every member of a given community possessed one or more, and he can eat, sell or give as a gift to who ever he so wish when ever the need arises.


2.1.2 Iron Works Industry

The use of metals is believed to have started around 4,000 B.C. The earliest known metal to be adopted is said to be copper. Later, iron was discovered. The first transformation of metal into objects probably begun during the stone age period when hunters saw the need to fashion more durable weapons like spear, daggers, knives, and arrows which would help them in their hunting activities. They later realised that iron could be smelted through the use of fire, after which different kinds of weapons could be made. Therefore, the art of iron works develop (Nababa, 1997:9).

Although not much has been written on the early history of metal technology in pre-colonial Northern Nigeria in particular, however there is enough evidence which shows that indigenous metal industries thrived before European, American and Asian products were imported. For instance, archaeologists had excavated iron spares and axes at Nok, and iron smelting furnaces had also been found at Taruga in present day Jaba Local Government of Kaduna State. Similarly, in 1992 archaeologists unearthed metal wares at Durbi-ta-Kusheyi in Mani Local Government of Katsina State which are yet to be dated (Mahuta, 1992:2-5).

Iron ore smelting and iron works became an important craft which its products were used for home consumption as well as articles for export trade from Hausaland to neighbouring markets near and far. The families that engaged in the said craft were among the rich and the well-to-do families in Hausaland. They were able to attain such a position through their dedication to the craft they inherited from time immemorial. These enabled them to be self-employed and in some cases they even employ the services of other people.


2.1.3 Leather Works Industry

The historical origin of leather works could be traced to the early hunting communities who are believed to have processed hides and skin of animals they killed and used it as a protection from the effect of weather such as cold and wind. However, some historical sources indicates that from the early 15th century the leather works craft started becoming an important occupation in Hausaland (Nababa, 1997:21).

By the 18th century two major sets of professional leather workers are believed to have emerged. These are tanners (majema) and (dukawa) i.e. producers of finished leather goods. The former produced tanned and dyed skin as well as leather aprons (walki) and praying skin (buzu). While the later produced saddles (sirdi), halters (ragama) and shields (garkuwa). Household leather goods made include containers for drawing water from the well (guga), leather bags (sulkumi) leather sacks (taiki) as well as shoes. They also sewed skin covers for amulets (layu), hand charms (kambu) and those worn around the waist (kiri) and many other products (Nadama, 1977:109-110).

The superiority of leather tanned in Hausaland and its strategic position as an important trade centre attracted the attention of businessmen, artisans and scholars from MaliNorth Africa and Borno to engage in leather trading with the people of Hausaland. The importance of the leather tanned in Hausaland was not only felt in Africa, it was imported to the outside world as far as Europe and America. For instance, the Europeans became familiar with a superior brand of leather which was termed as ‘Moroccan leather’ and in fact this type of leather was tanned and dyed by Hausa people of Northern Nigeria (Rodney, 1972:50). 

The leather industry played a very prominent role in enriching the people of Hausaland and making them more prosperous before the coming of the Europeans to their land. The reason was that the families that inherited the craft utilised it and practiced it and produced qualitative goods that were sold within and outside Hausaland which brings in enough money to the producers which they used to cater for their daily needs and doesn’t think of what is now termed as unemployment.

Beside the above discussed crafts that produced goods that can be seen with eyes and torch them with hands and use them for one or more purposes, there are traditional occupations practiced by the Hausa people which were and are still equally important to the well-being of the Hausa people. These traditional occupations include Hausa Barbers Tradition (wanzanci), born setting (dori) and many others.


2.1.4 Hausa Barbers Tradition (Wanzanci)

It is difficult to say when the art of Hausa barbers tradition originate, but is agreed that it came into being as a result of solving human problems that are associated with health care delivery. One hypothesis states that this art came into being in order to solve the problem of too much hair that gradually develop on human head and face. This forced him to look for an alternative to reduce or shave the hair so that he can be comfortable (Bunza, 1990:  149-150).

The art of Hausa Barbers tradition consists of shaving hair (aski da gyaran fuska), performing surgery that include cutting of uvula (cire belun-wuya), circumcision (kaciya), inciting facial marks (tsagar gado da ta kwalliya da ta magani), cupping (kaho), dispensing with traditional medicine (bayar da magungunan gargajiya) and many other practices that are helpful to Hausa people (Sallau, 2000:7).

Before the coming of the Europeans to Hausaland the traditional barber was a physician as well as a doctor who takes care of different kinds of diseases and illnesses. He treats those that needs medicine and perform surgery to the ones that are complicated. This made the art to be a craft that its practitioners are respected by all male and female, old and the young. Through the services they rendered to the community they were able to get what to eat and take care of their families without any difficulty.

2.1.5 The Art of Bone Setting (Dori)

The art of bone setting is a curative method in which there are certain category of professionals that possessed the know how to treat people with dislocation of bone, set broken bones to their normal positions. The practitioners learn the craft from their families and they are capable of treating compound as well as complicated fractures.

Before the coming of the Europeans to Hausaland the bone setters played an important role in the field of health care services and up to this time, there some Hausa people that depend on the services of traditional bone setters when ever the need arises.


3.0  How The Neglect of Traditional Occupations Led to Youth Unemployment in Northern Nigeria

The coming of the Europeans in the late 19th and early 20th century has made a great turning point in the social, economic, political as well as the cultural set-up of the people of the said land. The Europeans brings with them a new form of education which is termed as western type of education, in this type of education schools were established to train teachers, artisans, modern health care personnel and many others. This led to employing such category of people to work as clerks, messengers, artisans and many others in colonial government offices and companies established by European merchants. 

The Europeans also bring with them finished goods that were manufactured in Europe and sell them to the people of Hausaland at a subsidised price. They did this intentionally in order to gain more market for their finished products and kill the indigenous industries. Gradually, some people in Hausaland started neglecting what they inherited and replaced them with what the Europeans brought. With this the crafts as well as traditional occupations of the Hausa people started to decline which at present led to the partial and in some cases total collapse of some of the above discussed crafts and traditional occupations. We have now reached a stage in which as a result of total dependency on European, American and Asian produced materials most of our youth don’t use the locally produce materials of the Hausa people. In some cases there are some that by birth came from the families that practice a certain craft or traditional occupation, but for the fact that they neglected such a craft they cannot even name the implements or tools that are use in the practice of such craft not to talk of practicing the craft.

At present with the rapid increase in secondary school leavers, tertiary Institutions and Universities graduates the labour market became choked and in some cases retrenchment, forced retirement and dismissal of civil servants by governmental ministries, their subsidiaries and companies led to massive youth unemployment in Northern Nigeria in particular and the Nigerian nation at large.

Now it is an undisputable fact that youth unemployment is becoming a major problem that needs to be taken care of by any reasonable government. I am of the opinion that the way our youth neglected our traditional occupations is a contributory factor that led to massive youth unemployment in Northern Nigeria. This is because many of our youth have the colonial mentality that our crafts and traditional occupations are too odd for them to practice as a means of lively-hood and the proceeds from them are too meagre. Instead, they prepare to be employed in government and private firms where they can get rich over-night They also view what ever that come from Europe, America and Asia are more superior than what they inherited especially traditional crafts and occupations. For the purpose of this discussion, I will give an example of some episodes that happened to me and I was able to succeed through respecting the traditional occupation I inherited from my father.

By birth and practice, I came from a house that by tradition safeguard and project the image of Hausa barbers tradition (wanzanci) in our community and I was even turbaned as the head of barbers (Sarkin Aska) of our community by the District Head of Safana in Katsina State. My late father trained me to be a traditional barber who can perform all the art of wanzanci and I was lucky to learn every thing from him. I continue to practice the art up to the time when he later handed over everything to me before his death in April 1996 which at present I did the same to my children. Many things happened to me which I was able to solve many of them through traditional occupation which I did not neglect. Out of the proceeds I am getting from Hausa Barbers Tradition wanzanci, I was able to succeed in many endeavours, for example, I was able to sponsor myself to read N.C.E., B.A.ED.,M.A. and Ph.D., taking good care of my large family, relatives and other dependents and also giving my children a sound education from Pre-Primary School to University.

The first episode was in 1984 while I was a student in College of Education Kafanchan, Kaduna state. That year we were unfortunate to have taken a long time before the Kaduna State Scholarship Board pay scholarship allowance to us, as such many of us became destabilised and some even had nothing to eat. I remembered that my traditional barbing instruments were with me. After lectures and on weekends, I took them and go round the town to practice the art. I was so lucky that there was serious shortage of traditional barbers not only in Kafanchan and the nearby towns but in most parts of southern Kaduna State. This made the people to accept me whole heartedly in which up to this time they invite me to perform the art of wanzanci craft to their families. With this I am able to get what to take care of my large extended family.

The second took place in 1993 when I was opportune to travel to Saudi Arabia on Holy Pilgrimage. On the 10th to 12th of Zul-Hajj I was able to get what I paid for the Pilgrimage through shaving Pilgrims hair. While I was busy performing my duties as a barber, there was a group of Hausa Pilgrims that were gossiping at me. Some of them were saying, look at that traditional barber he holds a Bachelors degree from Bayero UniversityKano and he is not feeling shy to be a traditional barber. When they realised that I heard what they were discussing, one of them out of shy asked me, Alhaji, is it true that you hold a Bachelors degree and still practicing traditional barbing? I confidently answered him yes and asked him what is wrong with it? Many people around us became surprised and started looking at me. From there I was able to made so many friends whom envy me and took me as a model for the present day youth to emulate in order to safeguard our cultural heritage and fight unemployment.

The third episode was in the year 2006 when I was also opportune to re-travel to Saudi Arabia for the second time on Holy Pilgrimage. That year we spent more than forty days in Saudi Arabia and many of the Pilgrims had their pockets empty, but for fact that I was with my traditional barbing instruments, I was able to get enough money every day which I used in taking care of my self and other Pilgrims in our group up to the last day when we were air-lifted back to Nigeria.



By assessing the above discussions, one can conclude that if our youth can turn their attention towards practicing crafts and traditional occupations, the problem of youth unemployment will be by-gone story. Beside that the economy of the region and the nation which solely depends on the proceeds from petroleum products will be assisted and have another source of income for the nation. At present there is the out-cry of shortage of food in many parts of the world, if our able bodied youth can take to agricultural activities, we will be able to produce abundant food and cash crops for our local consumption as well as for export trade to other parts of the world.

Finally, one can agree with Dr Walter Rodney as cited in his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa in which he said, “The weakness in Africa seemed to have been the lack of a professional interest in acquiring more scientific knowledge and in devising tools to lighten the load of labour as well as to transform hostile environments into areas suitable for human activity”.



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