Exploiting And Harnessing Tourism Potentials As A Source Of Revenue Generation In Katsina State

Chapter published in a Book of Reading, FUDMA @ 10, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Chapter Thirteen, page 223-237 November, 2020.


Exploiting And Harnessing Tourism Potentials As A Source Of Revenue Generation In Katsina State




Revenue generation in the 21st Century is an important issue that deserve serious attention by communities, states and countries the world over. Many countries, Nigeria inclusive that solely defend on a single source of revenue generation are facing serious problems in taking care of the needs of their people. Nigerian Nation at large is enriched with enormous rich cultural heritage that if properly harnessed will attract many people within and outside the country to visit them and pay any amount of money that will contribute to the existing revenue generation. Katsina State in the North-West Political Zone of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is one out of the many states in the nation that have many tourist attractions that include natural and manmade spread across the state, such as monuments, museums, galleries, festivals, arts and crafts, to mention but a few. The aim of this research is to exploit some tourism potentials that will help boast revenue generation in Katsina State. The research was able to identify some of the said tourism attractions that include; Monuments, Museums, Galleries, Traditional Art and Crafts, etc.  and are highly respected by the indigenes of the state, their neighbors and even the Arab and European adventurers, merchants and colonial masters that come to Katsina before, during and after 19th Century. This made some of them to conduct researches and document their findings. Such kind of researches can be accessed at the National Museum Kofa-Uku Katsina, Katsina State History and Culture Bureau, Palaces of the Emir of Katsina and Daura. Further exploiting and harnessing the said tourism potentials in Katsina State will seriously improve the revenue generation of Katsina State in particular and the Nigerian Nation at large. This will also empower the youth to be self-employed and fight restiveness and unemployment that has been a major socio-economic problem of the nation at large. Conclusively, the research suggested some recommendations in harnessing the tourism potentials of Katsina State.  

Keywords: Exploiting, Harnessing, Tourism, Revenue, Katsina State

1.0 Introduction

Katsina State was created out of the defunct Kaduna State on Wednesday 23rd September 1987.  The State comprises the two Emirates of Katsina and Daura, with an estimated population of 5,792,578 people based on 2006 census. The State occupies an area of about 23,938 sq. kilometers. It is situated between Latitude 110 07’ N and 130 22’N and Longitude 652’ E and 90 9’E.  The predominant tribes in the State are Hausa/Fulani.  Languages spoken in the State are Hausa and Fulfulde. The State is one of the most peaceful States in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It has an average temperature of between 210C and 300C. Due to its border with the Sahara, the State has almost two distinct climatic zones. The south with its heavier rainfall and dense vegetation differs significantly from the northern part of the state, which has less rainfall and vegetation coverage. About 95% of the State’s population is engaged in subsistence agriculture namely, farming and animal rearing.  Both food and cash crops are produced in the State. During the dry season people engage in irrigation farming in Fadama areas along river basins. There are at present thirty-four (34) Local Government Areas in the State namely: Bakori, Batagarawa, Batsari, Baure, Bindawa, Charanchi, Dandume, Xanja, Danmusa, Daura, Dutsi, Dutsin-ma, Faskari, Funtua, Ingawa, Jibia, Kafur, Kaita, Kankara, Kankiya, Katsina, Kurfi, Kusada, Mai’adua, Malumfashi, Mani, Mashi, Matazu, Musawa, Rimi, Sabuwa, Safana, Sandamu and Zango.


1.1 Research Methodology

In the process of collecting data for this research three important techniques were implored that include interviews in some parts of Katsina State, visiting sites were arts and crafts are practiced and some monument sites in Katsina and Daura Emirates and finally accessing relevant written literatures that include published text books, dissertations, thesis and journal articles from various University libraries in Katsina, Kano, Zaria and more importantly from the library of Katsina State History and Culture Bureau.


2.0 Tourism Potentials in Katsina State

Katsina State is enriched with a lot of tourism potentials and sites that include natural and man-made, if properly harnessed will seriously attract people and boast revenue generation and add in-come to the already existing revenue sources of the state and compliment government efforts in serving people with necessary amenities that will improve their socio-economic well-being. Some tourism potentials that can be found in Katsina State include; Monuments, Museums, Galleries, Traditional Art and Crafts, etc.


2.1 Monuments

Monuments are either natural structures or man-made that are found in many communities and are related to the history and values of each community. In Katsina State, there are many monuments, museums, galleries that include Kusugu well in Daura, Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi in Mani Local Government, Gobarau Minaret in Katsina, Dutsen Bamle in Mashi Local Government, Old Katsina College in Katsina, National Museum Katsina, State Gallery at History and Culture Bureau, to mention but a few.


2.1.1 Kusugu Well

Kusugu well is located in the ancient town of Daura.  The well is of great historical importance to the Hausa people because of its link with establishment of the saurata system in Hausa land.

According to historical tradition, Kusugu well was discovered in the 7th century during the reign of Queen Daurama who was said to have shifted the capital of Daura Kingdom from Tsohon Birni to the present Daura town as a result of the new found source of water (i.e. Kusugu Well). This information was ascribed with Bayajidda legend that states his contribution in killing the snake in Daura that prevented people from accessing water for domestic use (Smith, 1978: 52-53).

At present, Kusugu well is preserve as a historical site and monument.  Many tourists from within and outside the country visit the well.  The sword and the knife which Bayajidda used in killing the snake and the royal drums of his wife Magajiya form part of the royal regalia of Daura, and are preserved in the palace of the Emir.  The water in Kusugu has never dried up, and believed to cure many ailments.


2.1.2 Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi

Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi is a historical site in Mani Local Government Area.  It is an ancient site or settlement about 40 kilometers east of Katsina in northwestern part of Nigeria.  The settlement was founded around 900 A.D; and it served as the ancient capital of Katsina kingdom.  The area contains the tombs of pre-Islamic kings of Katsina who were buried along with their belongings hundreds if not thousands of years ago.  The area got its name from the title of ‘Durbi’ one of the traditional king makers of Katsina charged with the responsibility of appointing a new king when the incumbent dies or deposed.  Besides this, Durbi also served as the Chief Priest in-charge of the shrines of ancestral worship located in the area (Dankousou, 1970: 7, 9, 11, Usman, 1981:5-6).

In historical context, Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi served as a religious and political centre of some importance.  This is because of not only being the first administrative capital of the kingdom, but also because of its position as the centre of religious worship in the ancient times.  This kind of worship is believed to have helped in uniting the people, which brought cohesion, tolerance and harmony, which are vital in the economic, social, cultural and political advancement of any society.

            About ten rulers feature in the king list of Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi, among them six kings are said to have been buried at the site. These include Kumayo, Bataretare, Jannarata, Sanau, Jibdayaki and Korau (Dankousou, 1970: 7, 9, 11, Usman, 1981:11).  Their tombs as well as the shrines have been preserved for historical and tourism purposes.

In April 1992 a team of archeologist came to Katsina State from National Commission for Museums and Monuments for another excavation work at Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi.  The team was headed by a re-known German Archaeologist Dr. G. Liesegang, two Nigerian Archaeologists – Mr. Olusegun Opadeji and Mr. Femi Adeyinka, a Geologist Mr. Simeon Momoh and three semi-skilled laborers.  The Katsina State History and Culture Bureau attached two of its staff to the team; Late Idris Abdullahi Mahuta and Malam Sani Danbaushi to take the detailed account of the exercise.

            The purposes of the excavation work include among others:

(a)               To obtain clues as to the period the site was occupied;

(b)              To explore the site and determine its nature;

(c)               To have a fuller picture of the history of this part of the Country, since Katsina history is linked to that of Daura, Kano, Zazzau, Zamfara and Songhai.

(d)              To document cultural and structural aspect of the site in order to place them on the record of cultural, economic and social development of this part of Nigeria.

During the excavation, data collection of the history of the State, as well as the measurement and mapping of the whole area were carried out and ten trenches were dug.  Findings include charcoal, shreds, flakes and late stone tools.  Below is the list of the trenches with all the findings.







1.  Two medium size copper bangles

2.   Numerous cowrie shells

3.   Numerous ivory arm rings

4.   One metal bar (which seems to be a staff of office)

5.   Two copper bangles with decoration






1.   Two copper anklets

2.   10 big size copper bangles

3.   1 copper plate

4.   1 copper spoon

5.   1 spoke-like copper object (copper hair stick)

6.   2 copper bars

7.   piece of wood

8.   Numerous cowrie shells

9.   Tiny beads of different colours

10.  5 copper finger rings







1.   1 big copper pot

2.   2 copper buckets

3.   1 small copper pot

4.   1 copper spoon

5.   2 ivory arm rings

6.   2 gold finger rings

7.   1 glass finger ring

8.   6 small size copper bangles

9.   Numerous semi-precious stones around the neck


10.  A small copper necklace (around the neck)

11.  Numerous small size beads (Jigida) of different  

       Colours around the waists.


The above mentioned archeological findings of 1992 at Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi has shade more light on the social, cultural, economic, political as well as technological advancement of Katsina people before this time.  It also help in assessing the history of the Hausa people in general as well as other kingdoms in other parts of Africa and the World at large (Liesegang, 2012:83-97).

At present, the site is preserved as a historical site and monument, and the Federal Government has declared it as a National Monument.


2.1.3 Dutsen Bamle

Dutsen Bamle is a rock situated between the village of Kasanki and Majigiri about fifty kilometers north of Mashi town the headquarters of Mashi Local Government Area of Katsina State.

            According to historical accounts, the rock got its name from the surrounding area popularly called Bamle.  Another source says that the name of the rock was derived from the Fulani word Bamle which means ‘Come let us move around’.  The people who reside close to the rock are predominantly Fulani.  However, even before the arrival of the Fulani, there were some Hausa people living in the neighboring villages of Kasanki and Majigiri (Nababa, 2007: 44).

Dutsen Bamle occupies an important historical position in the socio-economic development of Katsina kingdom. One of the focal point of this development was the iron ore mining and smelting which flourished in the area.  In those days iron was the major source of raw material for the manufacture of tools and implements. The iron ore was mined during the dry season by groups of people usually ten in number.  When the ore is collected, the smelters used a Hausa iron foundry called Rahoniya to smelt it.  After the iron is smelted, it was allowed to cool for some time.  It was then removed in a big round flat shape.  Later, blacksmiths come to buy the iron and use it to produce farming implements, weapons and household utensils.  This trend is said to have contributed to the development of agriculture among the rural communities.

            Dutsen Bamle also contributed to the development of commerce in pre-colonial times.  For instance, as a result of the strategic location of the rock as a centre of iron mining and smelting activities, a network of trade route and a market emerged in the area.  The market is said to have attracted traders from far and near.  The commodities traded included pottery, mats, and foodstuffs, grinding stones, cotton, indigo and textiles (Nababa, 2007: 45-47).

Another economic importance of the rock is that it served as a centre of kaolin mining in the ancient time.  The economic importance of kaolin in our society both in the past and present cannot be over emphasized as it is used in the decoration of residential houses, chalk making, calabash decoration, women tattoo and even for medicinal purposes.

Besides its economic significance, the rock had also spiritual importance.  It was reported that in the pre-Islamic period people from various walks of life used to visit the rock and offer prayers and offerings for the fulfillment of their worldly aspirations.  Items offered included grains, money, perfumes, clothes, etc.  This accounts for the reason why the rock is called in Hausa dutsen fata meaning ‘Rock of Fulfillment’.  From this information therefore, we can deduce that the rock was centre of Hausa traditional religion, which involves the worship of spirits who were regarded as Supreme Being, having control over human affairs (Nababa, 2007:47).

Similarly, the existence of bunkers or underground shelters suggests that the rock was probably used for defensive purposes.  From available records, the neighboring kingdoms of Gobir and Damagaram which were situated to the North-West and North-East of Katsina were at one time not in good relationship.  Therefore, Bamle rock is located North-East of Birnin Katsina might have been used by Katsina rulers in checking the activities of foreign invaders and other undesirable elements.

At present, the rock provides a good environment for relaxation especially for people who want to explore a typical Katsina country site.  The atmosphere around the area is cool and peaceful with good scenery, variety of trees and birds. The inhabitants are mainly Hausa and Fulani whose socio-cultural and economic configuration has not changed much from what was obtained in the past.  The climate is comparable to what is obtained in other parts of Northern Nigeria, as it falls within the Savanna belt.

Some of the remaining legacies of the rock include Hausa iron foundry which is half buried in the ground and iron slags. The rest are: an underground shrine called Du’urja’, well as numerous bunkers which qualifies its slogan as dutsen fata (Rock of Fulfillment).


2.1.4 Gobarau Minaret

Gobarau Minaret is part of a mosque, which was built in Katsina in the late 14th century.  The historical origin of the mosque could be attributed to the introduction and spread of Islam in Hausa land, and in particular the contribution of Sheikh Muhammad Abdulkarim Almaghili, who arrived Hausa land in the late 14th century from the Maghreb. During his stay in Katsina, Sheikh Maghili prompted the building of Gobarau mosque to serve as a centre of spiritual and intellectual activities.  The mosque developed into a kind of University just as the Sankore in Timbuktu Mali which was also developed into a kind of University.  Many scholars and students from different parts of the West African Sub-region came to Katsina to teach or to learn.  Among prominent scholars who visited Katsina include Sheikh Umar bn Aqit the grandfather of Ahmed Baba al-Timbukti.  His visit is said to have taken place sometime before the death of Sunni Ali the famous ruler of Songhai.  The city also received Sheikh al-Tadihikti popularly known as Aida Ahmad, and also Sheikh Makhluf bn Salih al-Bilbali a distinguished scholar from Timbukti area (Na’iya, 1997:35-36).

The Institution of Gobarau had contributed to the diffusion of knowledge in West and Central Bilad-al-Sudan.  It led to the emergence of an indigenous intelligentsia of high repute in Katsina. These included Muhammad al-Sabbagh (Danmarina) and his teacher Muhammad ibn Masani. Danmarina is credited with commentary of Ishriniyat of al-Fazazi.  He also composed a poem in which he celebrated the victory of Borno forces under the leadership of Mai Ali against the Jukun forces. Another important work which al-Sabbagh was reported to have compiled was a book curriculum of education on various branches of knowledge (Lugga, 2005: 42-45).

Another scholar of repute, which Katsina produced, is Muhammad ibn Muhammad Al-Fulani al-Katsinawa.  He composed many important works that deals with the Science of letters, magic and magic squares. Al-Katsinawi’s unparalleled mastery and manipulation of such complex esoteric disciplines had endeared him to some notable scholars in Egypt who developed special interest in the world of occult, and decided to sit at his feet in order to unlock the secrets of the natural and the supernatural world or the physical and the metaphysical world (Lugga, 2005: 45-48).

What now remains of Gobarau mosque is the minaret, which has been preserved for historical purposes.  The minaret has a large block of solid masonry at base.  There are steps at the northern and eastern sides, which lead to the top of the minaret.  The middle block is built on its vertical axis (Lugga, 2005:24).

Because of the importance of the Minaret as a historical landmark, the Federal Government of Nigeria has put it under the protection of National Commission for Museums and Monuments and is now a National Monument.


2.1.5 Old Katsina College

The old Katsina College was the first institution of higher learning in Northern Nigeria.  The College was built in 1921 and officially opened by the Governor General of Nigeria Sir Hugh Clifford (Na’iya, 1997:202).   The college attracted students from every part of the Northern provinces. The College produced many important personalities who played a significant role in the political, economic and social development of Northern Nigeria and the nation at large.  These include Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the defunct Northern Region, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the first Prime Minster of Nigeria, Alhaji Shehu Usman Shagari, the Second Republic President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Malam Aminu Kano, Aliyu Makaman Bida, Malam Bello Kagara, Alhaji Abubakar Imam, Alhaji Isa Katsina, Alhaji Nuhu Bamalli, Alhaji Musa Yar’adua, Alhaji Abdulrahman Mora, Alhaji Muhammed Ngilerama, Malam Sa’adu Zungur, Alhaji Shehu Ahmad Madakin Kano (Deputy Speaker Regional House) and many others (Na’iya, 1997:203, 208-209).

In 1938, the College was transferred to Kaduna as Kaduna College. From Kaduna it was moved to Zaria where it was named as ‘Barewa College’. On 23rd April, 1959, the Federal Government declared the Old Katsina College as a National Monument.


2.1.6 Kofar ‘Yandaka Gate

Kofar ‘Yandaka gate is one of the old city gates in Katsina.  It was constructed over five hundred years ago.  The gate was built to provide additional security to the inhabitants of Katsina town during the inter-tribal wars. Beside this, another historical importance of the gate is that, it was through it that Lord Laggard entered Katsina during the British conquest of the Emirate in 1903.The gate was named from the title of ‘Yandakan Katsina one of the traditional Kingmakers of Katsina Emirate and the District Head of Dutsin-ma (Nababa, 2007:13).


2.1.7 Kofar Gabas Daura

This gate is located in the historic city of Daura.  It was built over one thousand years ago.  According to historical myth, it was through this gate that the renowned warrior Bayajidda entered the city of Daura. The gate is preserved as a historical monument.


2.1.8 National Museum Katsina

The National Museum Katsina was established in 1988 by the National Commission for Museums and Monuments.  The Museum is located in the premises of the old Katsina College.  It contains many historical artifacts, and is open to the public from Monday’s to Friday’s between the hours of 8:00 a.m. – 4:00 pm. It’s among the well-equipped museums in the Federal Republic of Nigeria that attract the attention of visitors, tourists, students, researchers, etc. The artifacts of the archaeological findings of 1992 at Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi are deposited at the National Museum Katsina.


2.1.9 State Gallery at Dr. Mamman Shata Theatre

The Katsina State History and Culture Bureau was formally established as an autonomous body on 1st January 1991. The major function of the Bureau as contained in its Edict of 1991 is to encourage, foster and promote the history and rich cultural heritage of the people of  Katsina State; and shall in particular have powers to organize exhibitions, performances at festivals of arts and culture of any and admit the public with or without charge; to establish and maintain a gallery and museums throughout the State and also to identify and maintain any historical handiwork, as the sole authority on the identification and protection of historical monuments as may be claimed by the National Commission for Museums and Monuments.

The state gallery was established in 1998 at the Headquarters of Katsina State History and Culture Bureau Open Air Theatre now Dr. Mamman Shata Theatre along Jibia Road. It displays ancient and contemporary crafts peculiar to the State.  Beside this, the gallery also exhibits some historical materials, which include old pictures, maps, charts, diagrams, calligraphic works, etc. The gallery is open to the public from Monday to Friday excluding public holidays. Beside the gallery the Bureau have an Open Air Theatre where cultural performances such as traditional boxing, traditional wrestling, drama performances, etc. are taking place from 04:00pm – 06:30pm every day. The Bureau received visitors and tourists on daily basis including Institutions, Organizations, Scholars, Researchers and Foreign Diplomats.


2.2 Traditional Art and Crafts

Arts and Crafts form an integral part of the people’s culture which is passed from one generation to another.  The State has been a home of many crafts such as cloth weaving and embroidery, raffia works, mats and basket weaving, calabash and wood carving, pottery, leather works, metal crafts, as well as horse and royal costumes which if properly harnessed across the state will empower the youth and attract tourist and increase revenue generation.


2.2.1       Decorative Calabashes

Calabash carving is one of the oldest crafts in Katsina State.  The craft is practiced in almost all the thirty-four (34) Local Government areas of the State.  In the olden days, calabash is used mainly for domestic purposes as well as for religious and cultural purposes.  However, in the modern times calabash carving has taken a new dimension as people have discovered that they can be used for interior decoration in residential houses, offices, conference halls and hotels. These can also be used in museums, art galleries and as souveniers to important visitors. Therefore, calabash carving has very high potential in tourism industry as it has the capacity for export to generate foreign exchange for Nigeria thereby improving the income generation of our crafts men.  In the State Pavilion various designs of calabashes are displayed for this purpose.


2.2.2.     Pottery and Ceramics

Pottery is an ancient craft in Katsina State. The occupation originated from time immemorial.  The craft is practiced in almost all the Local Government Areas of the State. However, in recent times, the art of pottery making has undergone improvement especially with the establishment of Ajiwa Pottery Centre and Katsina Youth Crafts Centre. The two Centres now produce beautiful ceramics and pottery which is comparable to China ceramics wares.  In the State Pavilion various products of pottery and ceramics such as flower vases, pots, lamp holders etc. are usually displayed.


2.2.3 Leather Works

The historical origin of leather works could be traced to the early hunting communities who are believed to have processed hides and skin of animals they killed and used them as protection from the effect of weather.  However, historical sources indicate that from the early 15th Century the craft became an important occupation in Hausa land to which Katsina State belongs.

Several factors contributed to the growth and development of leather works in Katsina State. This includes the availability of hides and skin which are the major raw materials in the production of leather goods.  Some of the products which are manufactured with leather in the State Pavilion are; Carpets, Pillow Cases (Tin-Tin), Shoes. Bags. Wallets, etc.


2.2.4 Traditional Textiles and Embroidery

This is an art that came about after man developed the art of cloth weaving as a means of covering himself and also for decoration purposes. Different patterns are used for men and women in varying colours depending on needs. The embroidery maker uses needle and thread and sometimes razor blade.  First, the embroider gets the particular pattern he/she wants draw with either a pencil or a biro and using a needle and thread expertly, he stitches over the patterns to have the desired embroidery.

Embroidery is used in caps, kaftans and ‘Babbar-riga’ (gowns), all used by men.  It may take a day or even a month from start to finish depending on the size and quality. In Katsina State the embroidery commonly used for male gowns vary from ‘Kwado da Linzami’ which is a simple style to the more complex ‘Aska Daya’, ‘Aska Biyu’, ‘Aska Uku’ and ‘Aska Tara’ patterns.

For centuries, traditional embroidery in the State has largely been a family occupation passing from one generation to another.  This explains why these craftsmen tend to settle in particular quarters in towns where the trade has flourished for long, for example in Malumfashi Local Government Area and Katsina City.

The presence of embroidery machines notwithstanding, the local crafts industry is still flourishing and provides a sizeable number of the populace with a means of earning a living particularly the women.


2.2.4. Raffia Works

Raffia works started several centuries ago when early communities used leaves, grasses and reeds to weave materials such as mats and baskets for domestic purposes.  However, gradually man developed the use of raffia to replace the old materials used. And with further human needs to obtain and use for durable items, the use for raffia works developed further, making it one of the important occupations.

Several factors led to the development of this industry, among which are the availability of raw materials in abundance in Katsina State Raw materials such as Dum Palms kaba and Deled Palms giginya grow well in the soils of Katsina State. The growth of the city of Katsina as an important trade route in the Trans-Saharan Trade, which provided for ready markets for the raffia products also helped developed the industry. The expansion of animal husbandry as a result of rapid population growth in prominent towns in the State is another factor that led to the development of raffia crafts industry.

Raffia craftsmen and women in Katsina State use different techniques and tools in the production of their products, ‘kaba’ is obtained from the bush or is bought from the market as the case may be.  Then it is prepared by using a small knife and a small sharp pointed tool depending on type of material to be made. In this process, all the unwanted part of the kaba is removed.  Then the raffia worker sits to commence his work.

The products of raffia workers include igiya (rope), gammo, tarde, faifai, ragaya, lehe, malfa, adudu, sanhomafecitabarmi (mats), asaberi, etc. Currently, two of Katsina raffia works are outstanding throughout Hausa land. These two are the ‘mafeci’ a local hand fan which is designed in beautiful colours and are portably handy while the ‘Yar Jibia  mat out shines any of its kind in the Country. Mafeci is found in the city of Katsina while ‘Yar Jibiya in Jibia Local Government Area of the State.

For centuries, this trade has been an excellent means of livelihood, particularly to women who are known to excel in the art in Katsina State.


3.0 Importance of Tourism in Revenue Generation

After assessing the above mentioned tourism potentials in Katsina State we can say they can contribute immensely in the revenue generation of the state if they’re properly harnessed for the fact that, youth in the 21st century are seriously promoting entertainment industries through various activities. Moreover, monuments and galleries attract the attention of tourist from within and outside Katsina State and even outside Nigeria.  Cultural activities in Katsina State have been very encouraging especially with the awareness of potentiality of culture as a tool of economic development and self-empowerment.








4.0 Suggestions and Recommendations

After exploiting tourism potentials in Katsina State the next line of action is to harness them in such a way they will attract tourist to Katsina State for revenue generation.

The first line of action is for the government of Katsina State to establish a new ministry that will be responsible for Culture and Tourism, to be named Ministry of Culture and Tourism as practiced in most states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This is for the fact that all tourism potentials of a community, state and any nation are part of the cultural heritage of the said community, state or nation. This clearly indicate that tourism is a branch of culture. In this case, Katsina State History and Culture Bureau be removed from Ministry of Information, Culture and Home Affairs, while Department of Tourism be removed from Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Tourism. This new ministry will be charged with the responsibility for further exploiting and harnessing all cultural and tourism potentials of Katsina State for revenue generation.  The second step to take in harnessing the tourism sites in Katsina State is to rehabilitate all existing monuments in such a way they will be more beautiful in the eyes of tourist. An example is Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi. Its site is located in an open space covering 2 square kilometers.  Altogether, there are six earthen mounds in the area, which has existed for over 1000 years.  As a result of lack of protection and conservation, the site has been encroached by farmlands, while the height of the mounds have been reduced considerably due to wind and water erosion.

            The process of protection, restoration and conservation are as follows: -

(1)              Circular block fencing of the mounds.

(2)              Refilling of the mounds using earth and stones

(3)              Provision of access road of about 2 kilometers in the site for easy movement.

(4)              Fencing of the legendry Baobab tree and the shrine

(5)              Construction of a Mini Museum

(6)              Provision of Signboards.

      Another example is Gobarau Minaret. The Minaret was built in the 15th Century.  However, due to lack of regular maintenance coupled with the effect of weather it developed cracks, while the rafters have been destroyed by termites.  Moreover, the minaret has been encroached by residential houses.  These problems pose danger to the existence of the minaret.

      The process of conservation, restoration and protection involves the following:

(1)         Remedial work on the cracks on the wall by using compressed earth and Loda mixture.

(2)         Replacement of over 100 rafters destroyed by white ants.

(3)         Removing cement plaster on the wall and replacing it with Katsi the original local cement used during the construction of the minaret in the 15th century.

(4)         Retrieving all necessary archival materials related to the Ulama of Gobarau that are in the hands of their descendants in Katsina and other places within and outside Nigeria.

(5)         Establish an archival library for the materials retrieved.

To harness traditional institutions as custodians of culture and traditional festivals for revenue generation, there is need for the government to collaborate with the Emirates of Katsina and Daura, other stakeholders that organize entertainments in Katsina State to make an elaborate audience development plan that will look into the following:

Ø  Know the audiences and what they want.

Ø Speak to the audience through; Social Media, Website, Newsletter, Post, Advert through Print, Television, Radio, etc. Using Town Criers, Invitation Letters, Posters, Face-to-face interaction., Any other form of mobilization

Ø  Security to safeguard organisers and audience

Ø  Logistics

Ø  Ticketing

  In harnessing the tourism potentials in art and crafts, there is need for the government to establish at least three Centres in the State, preferably one in each of the three Senatorial Districts. These Centres will be responsible of identifying the practitioners of all forms of arts and crafts practice in the zone. After identifying them, the government should empower them to produce more materials that will attract the attention of tourist. Moreover, they should also be tasked with the responsibility of training younger generation to keep the arts and craft industries active and functional. This will also empower the youth to be self-employed.   



Tourism is an important economic sector, if properly harnessed will bring huge revenue to many countries in the world today. There are many countries in the world today that harnessed tourism potentials as a source of revenue generation, such as, Egypt, India, Republic of South Africa, Canada, Malaysia, Trinidad and Tobago, to mention but a few

By looking at the identified tourism potentials in Katsina state, one will definitely agree, if they are properly harnessed will attract the attention of tourist from other states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Africa and the world at large. This will make them come to Katsina State and see for themselves the rich tourism potentials of the State. It will also make them pay any amount of money for any service rendered to them. Moreover, some investors will have the courage of investing in the tourism sector. This will seriously boast revenue generation in the state.


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Alhaji Abba Khali, (Wamban Katsina) aged 86, on 28th June, 2015, at Emirs Palace, Kofar Soro, Katsina, Katsina State.

Alhaji Amadu Na-Funtua (Sa’in Katsina) aged 88, on 28th June, 2015, at his Residence in Sararin Kuka Quarters, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Alhaji Umar Babani Isa Mani (Durbin Katsina District Head of Mani) aged 56, on 18th May, 2016, at his palace in Mani, Mani Local Government, Katsina State.

Alhaji Mamman Siya (Sarkin Tarihin Daura) aged 76, on 18th May, 2011, at Emirs Palace, Daura, Katsina State.

Yahaya Majemi Shinkafi, aged 62, on 12th January, 2018, at his Residence in Shinkafi Village, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Dahiru Maikayan Fata Masanawa, aged 68, on 30th April, 2016, at his Residence in Masanawa Quarters, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Alhaji Sale Maitandaye Masanawa, aged 76, on 30th April, 2016, at his Residence in Masanawa Quarters, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Malama Nana Galadanci, aged 59, on 26th March, 2017, at her Residence in Galadanci Quarters, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Malam Nuhu Makeri Yammawa, aged 65, on 13th May, 2017, at his Residence in Yammawa Quarters, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Malam Faruk Maikorai Sabon-Garin Kare, aged 58, on 23rd May, 2017, at his Residence in Sabon-Garin Kare, Batagarawa Local Government, Katsina State.

Hajiya Asma’u Shinkafi, aged 57, on 20th April, 2018, at her Residence in Shinkafi Village, Katsina Local Government, Katsina State.

Galadiman Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi, aged 88, on 18th May, 2016, at his Residence in Durbi-Ta-Kusheyi Village, Mani Local Government, Katsina State.

Malam Muhammadu Kwarare, aged 55, on 23rd September, 2018, at his residence in Kwarare Village, Matazu Local Government, Katsina State.

Malam Yaro Sarkin Gini Ajiwa, aged 67, on 27th September, 2018, at his Residence in Ajiwa Village, Batagarawa Local Government, Katsina State.

Malam Tukur Yargamji, aged 69, on 28th September, 2018, at his Residence in Yargamji Village, Batagarawa Local Government, Katsina State. 

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