Darfur Crisis and its Implication on Search for Peace and Development in North Eastern Nigeria

This article is published by the Zamfara International Journal of Humanities.

Abubakar Salihu *1 Asma Hussein M Adam*2

1  Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences Bayero University Kano

2 Department of Political Science, College of Social and Economic Studies

University of Bahri, Sudan,

1 get2abusalihu@gmail.com 08039681330

Abstract: Undoubtedly, the idea and practice of searching for peace and development are as old as humanity, then it follows that the history of wars and conflicts, which are its harbingers, is older. Given that scenario, there is hardly any doubt that the United Nations Security Council remains the World’s principal body vested with the responsibility of maintaining of International Peace and Security. Notwithstanding the success of the United Nations in resolving numerous conflicts across the world, the situation of violent conflict in Africa, Darfur region of Sudan in particular, has become a monster to be tamed. The region has become a theater of violent conflicts with high as a result of such crisis in the region. Conflict have escalated to other neighboring state to Darfur (North Eastern Nigeria Inclusive). Similarly it is presumed that war and conflict are like a wildfire they spread from one region to another. And it is for such reason that conflict have manifested from Darfur to some part of North Eastern Nigeria because of the boarder connection. It was presume that the proliferation of weapons in most African countries was as a result of such kind of crisis in Darfur. Against this backdrop this paper intends to examine the implication of Darfur crisis in search for peace and development in North Eastern Nigeria. In so doing the paper adopt the content analysis as it methodology. Some of the finding of this study showcase that the conflict in Darfur to a large extent implies the failure of AU and UN in handling conflict situation so far, the conflict has appeared to have defied all efforts at resolving it by both African Union (AU) and United Nation Organization, furthermore it demonstrated the complications of the African conflict. The multidimensional nature of the conflict made its resolution complicated and problematic. Finally the study recommends that there should be more commitment by African leaders in the area of de-escalating of conflicts in troubled parts of the continent and Relationships between communities need to be knitted together village by village in the context of numerous tribal agreements. Support to livelihoods is an important entry point for peace initiatives at the tribal level because different livelihood groups need to collaborate over access to natural resources.


Keywords: Darfur, Darfur Crisis, Conflicts, Peace, Development and North eastern Nigeria.


Sudan is the third largest country in Africa with a total surface area of 2.5 million square kilometres. The country is endowed with a wealth of resources ranging from oil,


which has become an important factor in the economic equation, to a vast agricultural, and livestock resource base (Savage, 2003). Sudan is the third largest African country by area after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, covering 1.88 million km2. The secession of South Sudan in 2011 reduced its size by 24.7 per cent (Sudan National Survey Authority 2017).


Sudan is one of the most diverse countries in the African continent with an estimated population of around 44.43 million, based on a projection from the 2008 census, and is predicted to increase to 57.3 million by 2030 (Central Bureau of Statistics 2018). With 40-50 percent claiming Arab descent and 60-50 percent is African; 60 percent are Muslims and the rest Christians and practitioners of traditional African religions (Niblock,1987). There are two distinct major cultures "Arab" and “black African”, and the country has more than 300 tribes with more than 100 widely spoken local dialects. Successive Sudanese governments since independence of the country in 1956, have failed to recognize the importance of this diversity as an important factor in the process of nation building. Instead, they have abused and exploited this diversity, turning it from a wellspring of strength into a source of diversion and violence (Legum, 1965). The result was that the entire country has become at war with itself through protracted conflicts that retarded the country’s economic and political development which have jeopardized its unity.


The first civil war erupted in the South of the country in August 1955, shortly before independence between the forces of the central government and the “Anyanya Movement” (Awork, 2007). The war intensified after independence of the country when the promise to grant a “Federal System of government” to the South of the country was denied by the ruling elites in Khartoum. After 16 years of war, the conflict war resolved in 1972 when the Addis Peace Accord, brokered by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, was signed by the two parties, according to which the South was granted regional autonomy. However, after 11 years of peace the civil war resumed in 1983 when, contrary to Addis Peace Accord, the South was divided into three regions and the Sharia’s laws were imposed in Sudan (Scherrer,2007). 

The second civil war led by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) was more intense than the first one. While there were no precise figures on the human tolls, some estimates put the number of those who have been killed in the conflict at about 2.9 million people and about 4.5 million have become internally displaced people (IDPs) while some have fled to the refugee camps in the neighboring countries (Oyesholla, 2005).


In July 1994 the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the SPLM/A agreed to negotiate peace on the basis of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)“Declaration of Principles” which recognized the right of self-determination for Southern Sudan (Natsios, 2012).


However, peace negotiations dragged on until 2002 when the Machakos Protocol, which concluded the first round of talks, sponsored by the IGAD, was singed by the GoS and the SPLM/A in which issues of self determination and separation of religion and state have been tackled. In May 2004 framework peace agreement was signed in Kenya, which paved the way for the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed on 9 January 2005, thus, marking the end of two decades of civil war. The Nuba Mountains of Southern Kordofan and the people of Angassana of the South East (Blue Nile) fought alongside the SPLM/A since the early 1980s. The grievances of the two areas, in addition to the problem of Abyei have been addressed by two separate protocols in the CPA5 Eastern Sudan, on the other hand, has been afflicted by war since the mid 1990s when the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) launched a military campaign against the government spearheaded by the Beja Congress, the political group that represents the Beja of Eastern Sudan. The Beja rebels as well as forces of other factions, including the SPLM/A were based in Eritrea from the early 1990s. In October 2006, the GoS and the Beja congress signed the Eastern Sudan Peace agreement in Asmara, Eritrea, ending a ten-year civil conflict in Eastern Sudan.


The breakthrough in the north-south peace process has come at a time of escalating fighting in the far-flung region of Darfur. In early 2003, two rebel groups, namely, the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) launched attacks against Sudanese army garrisons in Darfur, the rebel groups declared that their struggle is for the creation of a democratic united Sudan based on equity and justice. The conflict witnessed the mobilization of the government backed Janjaweet Militia, which conducted a terror campaign against the civilian population of the region described by many as genocida.


The Janjaweet attacks culminated in the most appalling humanitarian disaster in the history of the country (D-jam, 2007). More than 2500 villages have been torched and completely destroyed, over two million people have been driven away from their areas of origin and are living in IDP camps, in addition to more than 200,000 who crossed the borders to take refuge in Chad and Central African Republic. Since the advent of the civil war in Southern Sudan in the early 1980s, Nigeria has been engaged in the search for peace in the country. It hosted series of Peace Talks in Lagos, Abuja and Kano in the late 1980s and early 1990s, all intended to facilitate the resolution of the long raging conflict. The seeds that have now germinated in the signing of a comprehensive Peace Accord between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) were sown in those peace talks. 

In Africa, Nigeria's commitment in resolving the conflict in many region within the continent is an established fact by many scholars, the then president of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo deployed military expedition to Sudan, in line with Nigeria's spirit of good neighbourliness. The President canvassed for an African solution to the worsening humanitarian crisis in Darfur. However today many neigbouring Africa are face with similar crisis that has resulted to proliferation of arms and have resulted to militia group such as ISIS, Boko haram, kidnapping and banditry. Some literatures have noted that most of the arms found in north eaten Nigeria are brought in from chad and sudan. Infact some went to the extent of saying most of the Fulani herdsmen are not from Nigeria but Citizens of Chad and Sudan. As such the situation in most north eastern Nigeria such as Gombe, Adamawa and Yobe have resulted to Underdevelopment in those region. Infact, those aforementioned place are no favourable for investment. Base on this backdrop this study intends to examine Darfur crisis and its implication for search for peace and development in Nigeria. 

Review of Related Literature

Concept of Conflict


Like most concepts in social science conflict has no universally accepted definition.


(Stagner, 1967.p 16) defines conflict as a ‘situation in which two or more human beings desire goals which they perceive as being obtainable by one or the other, but not both; each party is mobilizing energy to obtain a goal; and each party perceive the other as a barrier or threat to that goal’. Likewise, to (Wallensteen 2002,p.16), ‘conflict is a social situation in which a minimum of two actors (parties) strike to acquire at the same moment in time an available set of scarce resources’.


Conflict is an existing state of disagreement or hostility between two or more people (Nicholson, 1992). By this, it means two or more parties do not have an accord and are as such on two different parallels on the same issue. It thus suggests the pursuit of incompatible goals. Put differently, conflict means collision course, it also refers to opposition to existing view, stand, or position.


According to Walker 2006 "conflict can be regarded as disagreement through which parties involved perceive a threat to their need, interest or concerns". According him have a lot in common.


"First, he indicate the inevitable of conflict in human affairs. Secondly he revealed key feature of conflict situation, for example conflict, can involve independent parties who perceive some kind of incompatibility between them".


Conflict as a condition that exist between parties (individual, group, society and national) in which one or more of the parties perceived goals incompatibility some opportunity for interfering with the goal accomplishment with the other (kochan, 1972). Social conflict as a struggle between opponents over value and claim scarce status power and resources (Ccoser, 2006). Conflict normally happens within a social settings


Conflict as" interaction of interdependent people who are perceive incompatible goals interest and interference between each other in those goals (Folger 1999).


Theories and other extensive discussions of conflict as a mean of explaining the dynamics of society trace to the contribution of Marx (1844) especially his treaties on social relations and class. These theory presume that conflict is the prime moving force in society and history.

Overview of Conflicts In Africa

The history of Africa as a continent is replete with conflict. (Alabi, 2016, p.41). One may even assert that the major current that runs through Africa: from North to South, East to West and Central is conflict and wars. Since the 1960’s, series of civil wars had taken place in Africa. Examples include: Sudan (1995-1990), Chad (1965-85), Angola since 1974, Liberia (1980-2003), Nigeria (1967-70), Somalia (1999-93) and Burundi, Rwanda and Sierra Leone (1991-2001) (Aremu 2010).


In many circles conflict has being characterizing future of the political processes in Africa. Historical and contemporary data on African conflict support this assertion. There is scarcely any part of Africa without its share of conflict in the past four decades. African conflicts exhibit these features.


Darfur Crisis


The Crisis in Darfur was caused due to discriminating government policies for instances the conflict began in February 2003 when the Sudan liberation movement (SLMA) and Justice and Equity movement (JEM) group took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favour of Sudanese Arab. The conflict in Darfur however has both local dimension over control of resources and higher level political dimensions. The local conflict over resources have become a dimension of the wider conflict between Darfur and central Sudan, relating to long term issues of political and economic marginalization Sudan gained its independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom (UK) in 1956, prior to this the southern part of the country had been ruled by the UK and the northern part by Egypt (Brosché, 2008). The capital of the country is Khartoum and consists mainly of elites from the northern region of the country. The northern region consists of less then 2% of the entire population but is dominating the countries politics. 

 However are not unified and are fighting for power amongst themselves. This has led to that several unstable governments and military regimes which have governed the country throughout the years (Brosché, 2008). Since its independence Sudan has been involved in several internal conflicts, starting with southern based rebel group fighting for independence called Anya Nya. This conflict ended in 1972 with the Addis Ababa agreement (Prendergast & Winter, 2008). In 1983 a new North South conflict emerged as the SPLM/A (Sudan’s Peoples liberation movement/army) started a rebellion to establish a united socialist Sudan. This conflict didn’t end until 2005 with the Comprehensive peace agreement. In 2011 a referendum was held in South Sudan regarding an independent South Sudan, as such majority of the people vote for a sovereign state South Sudan in order to become an independent nation on July 9 2011 (UCDP, 14). Darfur is in the western part of Sudan has a population of about 6 million people according to the US Department of State (2004). The Darfur conflict grew beyond a localized civil war on the 25th of April 2003 when the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attacked a Sudanese government air base, and thereby became a national civil war (Kohtari, 2010). The attack was a major success for the rebels (SLA and JEM). However the government responded by teaming up with and recruiting the Janjaweed. Janjaweed is a group of armed Arabs gunmen.


The Janjaweed had already been involved in fighting in the Darfur area when the conflict was still very local and had suffered loss of land due to droughts and the conflict (Kohtari, 2010). The government launched a campaign against the rebels with the help of the Janjaweed that led to a very high amount of civilian suffering and casualties.


The attacks of the campaign were launched in three stages first with bombing settlements with Antanov airplanes, then a second attack by helicopters and finally a ground assault by the Janjaweed and government troops (Adeba, 2011).A drought hit Darfur in the 1980s with 1984 and 85 being the worst years. During this time the Arabic nomad tribes in the region saw their animals die in the desert and tried to enter more fertile lands, however these were already controlled by tribes of non Arabic ethnicity which sparked conflict as these tribes refused the Arabic tribes access to these lands and the Arabic tribes tried to take the land by force (Suliman, 2008).This drought was believed to have been an effect of climate change and had a negative impact on the conflict in the area however there were many other issues that also made an impact on the conflict such as ethnic dimensions, the politics in the region, how the Sudanese government handled the problems and the economic factor (Sturdivant, 2012).


The Darfur conflict is very complex and can be seen as three parallel conflicts escalating simultaneously. These can be seen as interlinked communal conflicts, conflicts between different regional elites and periphery centre conflicts. (Mohamed, 2007) The centre periphery conflict is between the rebels and the

central government. The rebels originate from Darfur a region that is seen as marginalized and therefore the rebels feel like the policies originating from Khartoum doesn’t take the Darfurians into consideration and feel neglected (Ibid). The people of Darfur have been aware of this marginalization since the 1960s, when a movement called Darfur Resistance Front was formed.


They tried to increase political representation Darfur in Khartoum and wanted more development resources. In the 60s voices was also raised concerning used force as a means to reach a more stage of more political influence. Movements such as Sooni and the Red Flame were the main supporters of military or violent measures to reach more political influence. This shows that military means to reduce the marginalization of Darfur has been around for many years, even though since the 1960s they mainly have focused on using a democratic path to achieve their means (Brosché, 2008). The interlinked communal conflict is a tribal struggle over diminishing resources at a grassroots level due to environmental degradation and increased population and livestock footprint (Mohamed, 2007).


Throughout the last 75 years there has been several of conflicts between different ethnic groups in Darfur over water resources and grazing lands. A very broad generalization of these conflicts can be seen between farmers and nomads. During the 1970s and 80s environmental degradation increased which increased strain on the existing resources, during this time migration from Chad contributed to even more pressure on the resources. During this time there was no effort done to relieve the tensions existing in the area by ruling elites. Many see this as the primary factor for the violent eruption that occurred later on i.e. 2003(Brosché, 2008).The communal elites conflict began in the early 1980s when the central government in Khartoum wanted to appoint a regional governor from the local natives. The governor would appoint a cabinet from regional elites. Initially three ethnic groups aroused as the main contestants for this position in Darfur being the Arabs, the Furs and the Zaghawa. The Zaghawa is an African ethnic group which is mainly nomadic while the Furs is the largest ethnic group and have given name to the region since Darfur means home of the Furs. The Furs are African and mainly farmers (Brosché, 2008).


Broshce 2008 noted that the estimates of the total number of people killed in sudan during the Darfu crisis varies The Government of Sudan pegs the figure at 10,000, while many activists say the actual figure was 400,000. Most reports say around 200,000. Many people have also died from illness and malnutrition particularly early in the crisis. Since then, the enormous humanitarian response has stabilized conditions in the camps, but renewed insecurity is threatening this progress, and the large-scale displacement of people across Darfur is continuing. Already this year more than 200,000 people have abandoned their homes in the face of ongoing attacks. 

Concept of Peace

The concept peace has been different interpretations by different scholars, peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of a violence, conflict (Wolin 1996, p. 118) it is commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or international relationship, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working a political order that serves the true interest of all. According to (Rummel, 1981, P.11) peace can be defined as an "absence of war and violence in which human interaction are conducted in an orderly manner and dispute arising from such interaction are settle peacefully." As simple as the word “peace” may seem, providing a clear-cut definition of it in the study of International Relations seems more demanding as historic events, ideologies and peculiar regional circumstances have shaped the meaning of peace (Richmond, 2008). But at a first glance, (Galtung, 1967) describes it as an “umbrella concept”. To him, it is a state of mind felt as a consequence of the actualization of certain stated human desires. That is, it is a feeling of internal serenity as a result of external stability.


According to Canton (1963) peace denote a situation of tranquility and in and a situation in which there is no war between countries or in a country. Peace also include those positive factors that foster cooperation among human groups with different cultural pattern so that justice can be done and human potential can freely develop within democratic structures (Sulaiman 2005).


Theoretical Framework


The relevance of a framework in a research of this magnitude cannot be over emphasized. This is in cognizance of the fact that theoretical framework is a dynamic explanatory device that links the problem of study with a relevant theory. Thus realizing the presence of conflict in every part of the world, a lot of scholars have done tremendous jobs in the postulation of theories that not only explain the causes and consequences of conflict but also on the very best way or methods through which such conflicts can be resolved.


This study is based on Structural Conflict Theory. Another name of the theory is Group Theory or Pluralist Theory. Pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence. Important theorists of pluralism include Robert A. Dahl (who wrote the seminal pluralist work, Who Governs?), David Truman, etc. The central question for pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process. Groups of individuals try to maximize their interests. Lines of conflict are multiple and shifting as power is a continuous bargaining process between competing groups. There may be inequalities but they tend to be distributed and evened out by the various forms and distributions of resources throughout a population. Any change under this view will be slow and incremental, as groups have different interests and may act as "veto groups" to destroy legislation. The existence of diverse and competing interests is the basis for a democratic equilibrium, and is crucial for the obtaining of goals by individuals.


The theory also hold that society is composed of different social group which differ from one another based on some social identifiable characteristics. It further hold that these groups are continually involved in struggle for access control of power and resources within the atmosphere of relative scarcity in the society. Based of the above assumptions, the theory assume that relationship among social group are often conflicting and contradiction. As these struggle and scramble for competitive advantage within the context relative scarcity within society, conflict is therefore generated.


Applied to the context of the present study, it is to be noted the Darfur crisis has it's motives on the contradiction bases on political group within Sudan over political power and economic resources. In this regard, it's important to note that the Darfur crisis is basically a group based phenomena, based struggle for obtaining values.


Rejoinder: The Implication of Darfur Crisis on search for peace and development in north eastern Nigeria


The resolution of the conflict in Darfur and the restoration of peace in that region was a major challenge to Nigeria as a power to be reckoned within continental politics. While the international community was still debating over the nature of the conflict in Darfur, Nigeria did not waste time in re-launching and injecting greater impetus to the search for peace in Darfur. Nigeria has always been actively involved in the search for peace in the Sudan (Joseph 2011).


As a first step in demonstrating Nigeria's commitment in resolving the conflict, the then president, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo deployed military expedition to Sudan, in line with Nigeria's spirit of good neighbourliness. The President canvassed for an African solution to the worsening humanitarian crisis in Darfur where the government-supported militia group, the Janjaweed has killed more than 300,000 non-Arabs (Deng 1995).


The principle of non-interference in the domestic affairs of member states of Organization of African Unity (A.U) which prevented the Organization from putting pressure on the successive Sudanese government, dominated by the Arabs in the Northern part of Sudan, to refrain from carrying out policies that appear to be genocide against its own people, particularly the natives from the Southern Sudan were ignored by the African Unity (A.U) under Obasanjo's leadership of the A.U. This paved the way for the A.U. and other members of the international community to get involved in finding a peaceful resolution to the Darfur crisis.


Beyond its pan-African policy of maintaining peace and security on the continent, Nigeria has additional reasons to be concerned about developments in the Sudan. The two countries share a long history of relations in Islamic learning and exchanges. It is believed that there are a large number of Sudanese Nigerian origins in Sudan, totaling about 3 million, many of who took permanent residence in the country. There are second and third generations of Nigerians whose ancestors left Nigeria in a bid to perform the Holy Pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia by land over the years. As a result of difficulties of making the long journeys in those days, many of these Nigerians had little or no alternative but to remain in Sudan (Ugwu, 2008).


Since the advent of the civil war in Southern Sudan in the early 1980s, Nigeria has been engaged in the search for peace in the country. It hosted series of Peace Talks in Lagos, Abuja and Kano in the late 1980s and early 1990s, all intended to facilitate the resolution of the longraging conflict. The seeds that have now germinated in the signing of a comprehensive Peace Accord between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) were sown in those peace talks.


As a start in finding a peaceful resolution of the Darfur crisis, former President, Olusegun Obasanjo, while in office as President of Nigeria and AU Chairman appointed his predecessor in office, General Abdusalami Abubakar as his Special Envoy to Sudan. This appointment indicated Nigeria's poise for an active engagement in the Sudan, in a manner that was intended to inject credibility and sound judgment into the peace process.


According to George (2005), "one major lessons that Nigeria garnered in its various peace endeavours towards the resolution of the Darfur Crisis has been that mediators in conflict situations in Africa must understand the precise nature of the conflicts in terms of what issues are at stake, the claims and counter-claims of the parties, the various forces at play and the psychology of the combatants. Very often, outside interlocutors do not sufficiently take these matters into consideration. The result has been that their efforts have tended to achieve limited results."


Nigeria's hosting of series of peace talks between the Sudanese Government and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement at various times in Abuja and other major cities in Nigeria is predicated on her efforts to understand the nature of the conflict after listening to the positions of both parties. George's assertion could be the major reason why Nigeria did not waste time in injecting greater impetus to the search for peace in Darfur while the international community was still debating over the nature of the conflict.


The Implications of The Darfur Crisis on Search for Peace and Development in North Eastern Nigeria


To begin with, it important to note that where ever crisis or conflict prevails, peace is jeopardized and in the absence of peace, social stability security and development cannot be guaranteed (Drukkman,1993).


The Darfur has been on for about two to three decades now. Since its inception in the 2003, crisis has appeared to has been degeneration. More importantly, the crisis appeared to refused all attempts at remedying it over the years.


The impact of Darfur crisis is better imagined. Available records show that 50,000 thousand have been killed in the crisis (Osita, 2007). There have also been immeasurable losses, as well as humanitarian crisis consequence of the conflict. In the effect, the Darfur crisis has been worse instance of armed conflict in contemporary Africa. This is because it comes with toiled implication for the search for sustainable peace. In the first place, the conflict is spilling over to neighboring States who share borders with Sudan such as Chad and Libya and Nigeria. This has the likelihood of destabilizing these countries and creating an atmosphere of instability in the sub region (Sulaiman, 2005).


Already, the Darfur Crisis has led to the influx of rebel forces and refugees in Chad. Associated with this is the proliferation of small and light arms in the neighboring region, which poses serious security implications to the north eastern Nigeria. Places such as Adamawa, Gombe, Yobe and Maiduguri who share the same boarder with Chad are facing serious conflicts and economic backwardness in Nigeria. This has been attributed to the fact that conflict from one region diffuse and spread to other region and make all neighbouring region hostile and underdeveloped. There is no doubt that formerly before the Dafur crisis Yobe Adamawa and Maiduguri are important route for transportation and trade transaction. However with the emergence of Darfur crisis those region are term to be deadly zone.


Over all the Darfur Crisis in Sudan has created a general atmosphere of insecurity in the North eastern Nigeria. Considering it's result in term of loss of live and properties, population displacement and arm proliferation it is obvious that crisis remain one of most critical threat to peace and stability in the contemporary Africa.


The General Implications of the Darfur Crisis


The general implication of the Darfur crisis for Africa’s search for peace can be summarized as follows:


1.The conflict in Darfur to a large extent implies that the failure of AU and UN in handling conflict situation so far, the conflict has appeared to have defied all efforts at resolving it by both African Union (AU) and United Nation Organization.


2. The conflict furthermore demonstrated the complications of the North eastern Nigerian conflict. The multidimensional of conflict i.e (economical, Ethnic, Political etc) have complicated both the process and pattern of the conflict resolution.

3. The conflict have also resulted to vicious cycle of violence and adversity. The high incidence of poverty population displacement and humanity insecurity associated with the crisis tend to have entrenched a culture of systematic instability in Sudan (Elesergang, 2008). The implication of the above is that there is little or no possibility of sustainable resolution of the Darfur crisis. The scenario does not go well for the search for peace and stability in Africa.




The persistent increase of armed conflict in Africa over the year has earned the continent the name of land continually at war with herself in the international arena.


The Darfur Crisis in Sudan represents a typical instance of armed conflict in contemporary Africa which threatens the collective endeavors and aspirations for peace in Africa. So far, the crisis has persisted leading to massive killings lives mostly innocent civilians and the destruction of properties. The overall outcome of this scenario has been violence and instability which threaten sustainable peace both in Sudan and Africa at large, it is concludes that the Darfur crisis is truly a bane for peace and stability in contemporary Africa Development.




To ensure the resolution of the Darfur crisis in crisis in the interest of Africa peace and development, I think the following recommendation would be Relevant;


1.      The Sudan government should be committed to sustainable peace through good governance and development.


2.      The international community should seek greater remedial involvement in the Darfur crisis by way of diplomatic and third party military intervention.


3.      The Contending party in Darfur crisis (the Sudan government and the various rebel groups) should be encouraged to disarm and be ready for peace talk in the interest of the collective security of the people of Sudan and Africa at large.


4.      The Sudanese government should provide certain mechanisms and structure to address the remote and immediate causes and antecedents of the Darfur crisis to prevent it's future occurrence.


5.      The African Union and United Nations Organization should provide an effective mechanism which would prevent the external interferences which have help in fuelling the conflict over the years for instance counter like united state of America who support the Sudanese government with arm to fight the rebel group in Darfur


6.      Proposed support for economic development in Darfur needs to acknowledge that the resource base required as a foundation for sustainable development faces chronic degradation, which has been greatly exacerbated by the impacts of the conflict. Therefore, sustainable resource management, adaptation to the impacts of climate change, disaster risk reduction, drought cycle management, livelihood programming and rebuilding rural environmental governance will be core activities in restoring the foundation upon which

Darfur’s economy is built.




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