An Appraisal of Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Juma'a Mosques in Rigasa, Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

 This article is published by the Zamfara International Journal of Humanities.


Nuhu A1., Ibrahim A. Y2., & Muhammad R. Z3.,

1Ministry of Education Kaduna, Kaduna State

2Department of Islamic Studies, Kaduna State University

3Department of Islamic Studies, Kaduna State University

Corresponding Author: abdullahbinnuhu@gmail.com

GSM: 08065456428


The study aimed at appraising the spatio-temporal distribution of Juma'a Mosques in Rigasa, Kaduna Metropolis in Nigeria. The study used 12 Imams of different Juma'a Mosques as sample. Interviews and field observations were the techniques used in the data collection. Data were obtained through both primary and secondary sources. In the primary sources of data, the 12 Imams were contacted at least twice at differently locations to obtain the relevant data that correspond with the objectives of the study, while the secondary source of data provided data on pictures and maps which are relevant to the study. Purposive sampling and simple random sampling were the techniques applied in collecting the sample of the Imams in the study area. The study employed descriptive statistics, percentages, frequencies, tables and charts in analysing the data. The result of the study revealed that the oldest Mosques in the study area was established in 1968 (Rigasa Central Mosques off Zaria Street). It further discovered that between 1981 – 1990 additional six Mosques were established. Similarly, the study also observed that the Juma'a Mosques that can accommodate 1001 - 2000 people and 2001 - 3000 people are the majority Juma'a Mosques in the study area. The study also observed that the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques is as a result of high rate of urbanisation. Therefore, the study recommends among other things that the authorities concerned should monitor the administration of religion centres thereby make sure that Mosques are established and constructed at the appropriate sites.

KEY WORDS: Appraisal, Mosque, Temporal, Proliferation And Kaduna Metropolis.


Faith and religions worship are traits common to all human cultures. Individuals and communities seek meaning from their lives. They protect their faith on their physical environment. Therefore their faith is linked to places. (Bridget and Alex, 2020). Every civilisation has its share of sacred places, that is, geographical locations, buildings, monuments or environmental features such as lakes, mountains, rocks, water falls, cliffs, caves, beaches, lagoons among others. (Encyclopedia, 2018). From indigenous communities, scared places might include local mountain tops, rivers and spring. On global scale the world's major religions all recognise and revere sacred places, a few of them visited by millions of pilgrims spiritual experiences come in many forms, from the religious and intellectual, to those centres in art and culture. (Bridget and Alex, 2020). However, extensive analyses have been made by many Philosophers, Ethnologist, Sociologist, Anthropologists, Psychologist and Historians on sacred places as a concept (Harry, 2014). These scholars work implied that sacred places are one in which focuses attention on the objects and action performed within it. There exist different types of scared places ranging from individual rooms within a building to single structure often known as shrine. For instance, Tombs, Temples, Mosque, Churches, Saints, Synagogues) to entire cities or vast inhabited spaces (Harry, 2014). The ritual performed by  groups journeying to shrines and at the shrines themselves are typically orchestrated by leaders, such as priests or experienced laity, who draw on special knowledge and their ascribed and achieved status as experts (Bajc, 2007). Sacred places are very important publically in the sense that they are sacred for religious believers or citizens as a collective that shares moral orientation (Jonathan, 2021). It is argued that place that can be an integral part of religion and religion can in turn play an important role in the development of place attachment (Shampa and Sanjoy, 2004).


Statement of the Problem

Kaduna metropolis like other cities in the world has some Mosques that have been there for many years. Rigasa is the biggest borough in Kaduna metropolis and is well known for its population density which triggered the proliferation of Mosques. No doubt, several studies have been conducted both locally and internally by different researchers on the proliferation of Juma'a mosque. Thus, this work also tend to investigate into the effects of  the proliferation of Juma'a  mosques, using Kaduna metropolis as focus.


Objectives of the Study

 The aim of this study is to appraise the spatio-temporal distribution of Juma'a mosques in Rigasa, Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. The study has the following objectives; to examine the duration of the Juma'a mosques in the study area, to examine the capacity of each Juma'a Mosque in the study area and to examine the causes of the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques in the study area.


Brief Historical Survey the Study Area

The study area is found in Igabi Local Government of Kaduna state. Kaduna state is located within latitude 10o 25” 27’ N to latitude 10o 35” 29’ N and longitude 7o 22” 27’ E to longitude 7o 30” 27’ E. Igabi Local Government is bonded in the North by Zaria Local Government in the East by Soba Local Government, in the South-East by Chikun Local Government and in the South by Kaduna South Local Government. Its climate is tropical wet and dry. The wet season is between April and October and the dry season is between October and April. The rainfall is variable with its highest peak in August and sometimes September. The rainfall decreases from the South to North wards.The rainfall is heavier in the South. It has about 1500mm of precipitation annually. The humidity follows the pattern of rainfall in the wet season with 60% and in the dry season with 20-30% with the highest temperature between April and May while the lowest is between November and February. The elevation of Kaduna range between 500m-700m above the sea level. It is among the Hausa plain. In terms of vegetation, Kaduna has Sudan savanna vegetation characterized by numerous grasses. Some grasses are tall while others are short. It has some deciduous trees which are scattered. The vegetation is also characterized by some trees which wither in the dry season in adaptation to water shortage (Liman,2004). The soil of Kaduna is tropical ferruginous soil or nitrosols which are usually reddish in colour due to the presence of iron. The soils are also heavily leached due to rainfall. They are also sticky when wet and hard when dry. The soils support the growth of cocoyam, cassava, maize, rice, Guinea corn, Groundnut, Soya Beans, millet among others (Liman,2004). Kaduna circumscribes different ethnic  groups like Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Kadara, Gwavi, Jaba, Bajju, Kaje among other. Kaduna state has a population of 6,066,562 million as betokened by the National population commission (NPC Census,2006).


Literature Review

In historical perspective the mosque cannot be separated from the early history of Islam . The first mosque built by the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the Qubah mosque, followed by prophet's mosque in Madina. Both mosque were built on piety (Mufidah, 2016). According to Islamic theology everyone is encouraged to learn. In early Islamic era mosque played a very important role in education. The word mosque comes from the Arabic word "Masjid" which means a place where all Muslims meet, gather and worship (Lee et al, 2015). Mosque commonly serve as locations for prayers, Ramadan vigils, funeral services, marriage agreements, business agreements, alms collection and distribution, homeless shelters, community centre, court of law, religious school as well as religious instruction centres (John, 2014)(Patrick, 2004). It is impossible to discuss the role of mosque without its use for daily congregational prayers as well as weekly Juma'a players (Falah and Na'ib, 2016). Mosque are integral part of any Muslim majority countries as well as any other country with Muslim population (Azni and Kandar, 2019) in (Abdulmatin and Green, 2010). It is the the general rule that when the Friday prayer is called all Muslims should immediately respond and proceed to attend it. It is said in Qur'an; Believers! When the call to prayer is made on Friday go straight away to the prayer and leave off your trading. This is the best for you if you but knew it. when the prayer is finished, disperse in the land and seek Allah's bounty. Remember Allah often so that you may be successful (62: 9 - 10) (Rose, 2019). Juma'a has wujub conditions and sihah conditions. The wujub include, manhood, freedom, residence and to be free of handicap. The condition for sihah include; to be found in a country, twelve men beside the Imam, the Imam to lead the prayer, praying the salat in the Mosque and the prayer must be performed after the mid-day (Fiqh 1, 2021., Muhammad, 2005). For Hambali scholars like ibn Qudama has the view that there is no harm for the proliferation of Juma'a mosque if there is need for it and people can maintain decorum (Bn Muhammad, 2014) in (Ibrahim and Lambu, 2020).Similarly, when the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was in Madina everybody combined together in his Mosque and observed Juma'a prayer, but where there is need for more Juma'a mosque due to increase in population more Juma'a mosque can be provided (Muhammad, 1982).

Materials and Methods

Reconnaissance surveys were made primarily for familiarization to the study area prior to the detail field survey. It was through such visit relevant information such as extent of physical development and availability or otherwise of link roads in these areas were gathered prior to the detailed field survey. The study used field observation and interview methods for the sources of data. The study contacted and interviewed 12 Imams of 12 Juma'a Mosques (representing 25%) which serve as the sample size out of the population of 47 Juma'a Mosques in the study area. Purposive sampling and simple random sampling were the methods applied in selecting the sample of the Imams. Two visits were made for the interview and the field observation. Among the 12 Imams, the chairman Juma'a mosques Imams forum Rigasa Division and his secretary were included. The study used the questions that correspond with the objectives of the study. Therefore, the questions included the duration of the Juma'a mosques, the capacity of each Juma'a mosque and the causes of the proliferation of the Juma'a mosques among others. In the data analysis the study employed descriptive statistics, frequencies, tables and bar charts.


Data Analysis, Results and Discussion

The result is presented using table and charts. The duration of the Juma'a mosques; the Juma'a mosques in the study area have differed in their duration

Table 1. Duration of the Juma'a mosques

 Source: field work 2022

Table 1 is a representation of the duration of Juma’a Mosques in the study area. The table shows that some Mosques have been built many years ago while some have taken only very few years. Thus, the oldest Mosque was the one that was established between 1960 to 1970 (1968), (the Rigasa central Mosque off Zaria Street Rigasa) followed by the six mosque that were established between 1981 – 1990 (12.77%).These include, Fajru Juma’a mosque, Ansaruddeen Juma’a Mosque, Danmani I Juma’a mosque, Danmani II Juma’a Mosque, Malamawa Juma’a Mosque and Maigiginya Juma’a Mosque. However, 2011 to 2020 appeared to be the time when many Juma’a mosques were established in the study area where out of 47 Mosques 19 Mosques we’re established within the period of ten years (40.43%). These include Salam Juma’a Mosque, Ihya’uddeen Juma’a Mosque, Nariya Mosque, Ahbabullah Juma’a Mosque Nariya, Layin Sandamu Juma’a Mosque, Mallam Assudany Juma’a Mosque, Mosque Hayin Mallam Bello, Misbahuddeen Juma’a Mosque Nariya, Railway station Juma’a mosque, Ladi Wudil Juma’a Mosque, Bushara Juma’a Mosque, Hayin Amina Juma’a Mosque, Behind GSs Rigasa main Juma’a Mosque, IIRO 2 Juma’a Mosque Hayin Mallam Bello, Tankin Ruwa Juma’a Mosque, Mai hafizai Juma’a Mosque, Layin Mai Guga Juma’a Mosque, Satellite area Juma’a Mosque, Juma’a Mosque Danmadami, Central Mosque Mahuta and Mallam Mika’il Juma’a Mosque Mahuta.This could be attributed to the population increase and urban expansion. However, some studies have shown that some mosques have been established for a very long period of time, which include Masjidil Haram in Macca Saudi Arabia in pre 622 (Telegraph, 2016), The Grand Mosque of Conakry in Guinea 1982 (Quadri, 2015) and Abuja National Mosque 1984 (Inside, 2020).

Table 2: the capacity of the Juma’a Mosques

     Source field study 2022

Table 2 shows that differences that exist in the capacity of the 47 Juma'a Mosques in the study area. Juma'a Mosques that can accommodate 1001 - 2000 people are 13 (27.66%) as well as those that can accommodate 2001 - 3000 people (27.66%) are also 13 Juma'a mosques. Thus they appear to be the Mosques with the highest number of people out of the 47 mosques. This could be attributed to their location because most of them are located far away from the core centre of the study area. However,it is revealed that Rigasa central Juma'a Mosque off Zaria street can accommodate over 8000 people. This could be attributed to it's centrality of its location because it is located in the core centre of the study area. Similarly, there are about 12 Juma'a mosques that can accommodate 3001 - 4000 people (25.53%).

   However, in Macca Saudi Arabia a study revealed that the masjidil Haram can accommodate 4,000,000 people. Similarly, the Grand mosque of Conakry in Guinea accommodates about 20,000 people. Additionally the Abuja National mosque in Nigeria accommodate 25,000 (Telegraph, 2016 Quadri, 2015 and inside, 2020). Thus, the causes of proliferation of Juma'a Mosques varied in the study area.

Causes of the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques

Figure 2: Causes of proliferation of Juma’a mosques.

Source: Field work

Figure 2 represents the causes of the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques in the study area. It shows that out of 47 Juma'a mosques, 25 of the Mosques are established as a result of urbanisation. Thus, this serves as the major reason behind establishing many Juma'a Mosques in the study area. For instance, the Mosques under this category include; Dan Mani Juma'a mosque, I.I.R.O Juma'a Mosque Hayin Mallam Bello, Yardan Allah Juma'a Mosque Hayin Mallam Bello, Makera Juma'a Mosque by zaria street Makera Rigasa, Tajdid Juma'a Mosque Hayin Barde Rigasa among others. Similarly about eight Mosques are established due to population density. Some quarters in the study area are density population and triggered to the establishment of some Mosque in those areas. These comprised Arewa Dattawa Juma'a Mosque behind Lawal teacher/Dattawa, Danmani Rigasa, Rasraj Juma'a Mosque behind Rasraj hospital Rigasa, Danmani 3 Juma'a Mosque among others, however, about 6 Juma'a Mosques whose establishment is linked to the physical distance. Thus some Juma'a Mosques are far from one another and this triggered the establishment of new Mosques. In addition to this, philanthropists play role in establishing Juma'a mosques especially the affluent reward seekers. About 5 Mosques are the product of philanthropists. These comprised Bushara Juma'a mosque opposite Bushara filling station Makarfi road Rigasa, Railway station Juma'a mosque Rigasa, Fajru Juma'a Mosque opposite Fajru Islamiya School Rigasa among others.

However, a study was conducted in Kano, Nigeria by Muhammad and Kabir (2019) on the proliferation of Juma'a Mosque in Kano metropolis. A historical perspective. The study revealed that the factors responsible for the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques include population increase, urbanisation, competition and contestation for religious public sphere by the various Islamic groups and philanthropic activities of some wealthy reward seekers. The study further highlighted that in the late 1980s and early 1990s to date there has been constant and massive proliferation of Juma'at mosques in Kano . In another study by Ibrahim and Lambu (2020) in Sokoto, Nigeria, on mapping of proliferation of Juma'at Mosques in Sokoto metropolis, the study discovered that the proliferation of Juma'a Mosques is owing to the occurrence of conflicts and misunderstanding among the leaders of some Mosques, expansion of town and population density, existence of some religious sects, physical distance, financial gain and educational tourism among others.

The capacity of the Juma'a Mosques; the capacity of the 47 Juma'a mosques differ in the study area.



The study appraised the spatio-temporal distribution of Juma'a Mosques in Rigasa, Kaduna metropolis. The result revealed that the oldest Mosque was established in 1960 - 1970 (1968) called the Rigasa central Mosque, followed by six mosques established between 1981 - 1990. The study also discovered that Rigasa central Mosque can accommodate up to 8000 people. Additionally, it is also observed that the proliferation of mosque in the study area is mainly as a result of urbanisation. The study therefore recommended that authorities concerned should always ensure that rules and regulations are followed towards the establishment of mosques. Religious centres should always be given sensitisation on religious activities to boost their moral where necessary and authorities concerned should not relent their effort in making sure that Mosques are established at the appropriate sites.




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