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Sabon Birnin Gobir Town: Towards Understanding the Resilience Traces of the Defunct Gobir Kingdom

Being a paper presented at the First International Conference on Gobir Kingdom, Past And Present: Transformation And Change, held at The Usmanu Danfodiyo University Auditorium, from 9th – 13th July, 2018

Sabon Birnin Gobir Town: Towards Understanding the Resilience Traces of the Defunct Gobir Kingdom

Aliyu A. Kware
Department of History and International Studies
Federal University, Birnin Kebbi
Email Add: aakware36@gmail.com
Phone No: 0803 636 8434 

And

Kamilu Musa
Department of History and International Studies
Federal University, Birnin Kebbi
kamilu.musagarki@fubk.edu.ng
Phone No: 08066501463 

Abstract

Sabon Birnin Gobir town emerged as the Headquarters of the Gobirawa after the fall of Alkalawa in 1808. With the creation of Sokoto State in 1976, Sabon Birnin Gobir was among the major towns in the State contributing in the economic development of the state. The intent of this paper is to discuss the position of Sabon Birnin Gobir town as the giant in the east of Sokoto, the hub of commerce and the centre of social and economic activities in Sokoto State, second only to Sokoto city. The paper highlights the importance of the town socially and economically as well as the economic acumen of the Gobirawa in the scheme of things in Sokoto State from inception to the present.

Introduction

The history of Gobir kingdom was and still is one of the very interesting and debatable topics among various scholars from different fields of knowledge, particularly in the history of Bilad-al-Sudan during the 18th and 19th centuries. More interesting are the events that led to the fall of Alkalawa as the last stronghold of Gobirawa and the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate (1804-1903)[1] etc. Gobir was an ancient kingdom and one of the powerful kingdoms in Hausaland. Historically, Gobir kingdom was in existence long before their settlement at Gulbin Maradi and the kingdom had expanded far beyond its original land, in what is known as Tsibiri, because it fought many wars with neighbouring empires like Katsina, Zamfara, Kabi, to mention but a few. The purpose of these wars was territorial expansion and search for fertile land for farming and other related agricultural activities. Gobir kingdom shared land border with the kingdoms of Kabi and Zamfara in the west and south respectively, in the north it bordered the land of Azbin, while in the east it bordered the empires of Katsina and Damagaran now (Zinder) in Republic of Niger, also in the west Gobir kingdom shared land border with the countries of Kwanni and Adar all in present day Niger Republic.[2]

However, the land of Gobir can be categorized into two main geographical zones namely the northern region of Gulbin Maradi and the western region around Alkalawa. The extreme northern region was situated close to the Sahara. In this region rainfall was not regular and heavy and the area experienced two or three months of rainfall during rainy season, coupled with the lack of grasses for the people to feed their animals, while, the dry season lasts much longer almost nine to ten months throughout the year. In this region of Gobir land, the inhabitants of the area experienced some serious problems in obtaining water supply for themselves and their animals particularly during the long dry season. In some cases they would construct very deep wells before they could get water. Such problems and conditions could have caused serious danger to the existence of human beings in the region. These problems therefore, associated with the drought condition of the region as well as others forced the Gobirawa to move southwards until they reached the fertile land of Gulbin Maradi. In this region they established their first capital at Birnin Lalle.[3]

In this paper the authors have examined the historical origin of Gobirawa people; their migrations as well as the reasons and motives behind. The paper looks at the various capitals of Gobirawa particularly from Birnin Lalle up to Alkalawa and its fall. The paper also discusses the dispersal of Gobirawa people from Alkalawa to various places. It examines how Sabon Birnin Gobir was established. Finally, the paper looks at the social and economic developments of Sabon Birnin Gobir right from the inception of the town up to the present.           

Brief About the Historical Origin of Gobirawa

With regards to the evolution of Gobirawa, there are numerous traditions of origin which suggest that Gobirawa came from the middle-east and their history began only with the migrations particularly from the middle-east to Azbin. Azbin was a vast territorial area, most of which was/is in today’s Niger Republic. However, one of the very important traditions of origin of Gobirawa which most of the scholars and historians clearly agreed upon is that Gobirawa originated from a town called ‘Gubur or Kubur’ which was between Makkah and Madinah.[4] But according to Muhammad Bello and Abdulkadir Dan Mustapha in their books, Infaqul-maisur and Raudat al-afkar respectively, the Gobirawa originated from among the Egyptian Copts. They left Egypt sometime in history until they arrived at the area of Rima Basin.[5] The Bayajidda-Bawo legend of origin also suggested and connected Gobirawa with various other Hausa speaking communities and which most of the historians are familiar with. Another tradition of origin believed that the Gobirawa once lived in Syria. Whatever might be the origin of Gobirawa people, they established their settlement somewhere in Azbin or the Rima Basin and the area came to be used for a specific territorial name in history.[6]

With regard to the period in history when Gobirawa migrations took place, these were connected with the events that have occurred at different periods. Hence, the tradition of origin connecting the people of Gobir with Egyptian Copts suggested that their migration took place during Prophet Musa. Other suggested periods include such divergent periods as the times of Prophet Suleiman as well as Prophet Muhammad. Also the legend of origin relating Gobirawa with Turks would stretch the time of the migration to the period of Ottoman Empire.[7]

However, several other reasons associated with Gobirawa migrations, especially from the Middle East to Azbin or Gulbin Maradi are also considered as far as the various traditions of origin are concerned. Firstly, with regards to the Egyptian Copts legend stated that the migration of the Gobirawa was as result of the dispute between the people of Prophet Musa and the Pharaoh of Egypt. Secondly, during time of Prophet Suleiman, the Tuareg and Fulani were given all their wealth, while the Gobirawa were refused any. Therefore, the Tuareg and Fulani decided to migrate from the Middle East with their wealth, hence the Gobirawa followed them because of the wealth. Thirdly, the Gobirawa moved out particularly from the Middle East facing westwards leaving Arabia during the life time of Prophet Muhammad. The reason behind this migration was that, the Gobirawa served as hypocrites in the war involving the Prophet Muhammad on the one side and his enemies or unbelievers on the other. Consequently, the Prophet is said, in this tradition, to have cursed them and prophesied that ‘they would forever remain divided among themselves.[8] This precipitated their series of migrations from the Middle East.

The Gobirawa people came out from the Middle East or Arabia passing and settling in several places until they eventually reached Azbin. From there they continued with their journey and settled in different places throughout the period up to the second half of the 18th century. The Gobirawa expanded in all directions pushing their neighbours farther away. Consequently, this expansion of the people of Gobir became stabilized around 15th century. In the 17th century therefore, the expansion of the people of Gobir resumed through the many wars they fought. In the west for instance, the Gobirawa occupied Kwanni and they also pushed near or into the territories of Kabi and Zamfara and again they expanded southwards into the territory of Katsina. These events led to the fall of Birnin Zamfara on the hand of Gobirawa somewhere in the second half of the 18th century.[9]

Despite the fact that, we do not have the actual period when and how Gobir kingdom was founded or evolved like other western Sudanese kingdoms and empires, it was the evolution of Kasar Gobir that can be clearly associated with the formation of the people called Gobirawa. According to Ibn Batuta, the 14th century Arab traveller, the Gobir kingdom was in existence since the 14th century A.D. This was as a result of his travels through some parts of Western and Central Sudan including the region of Azbin in which he cited an example to copper being exported from Tekadda situated in this region to several places including the land of Gobir.[10]

Somewhere in the 15th century therefore, the Gobir ruling aristocracy and their subjects migrated from the Azbin region southwards until they reached Gulbin Maradi. In this region the Gobirawa founded their first capital at Birnin Lalle. The reasons of this migration were associated with the Azbinawa pressure and drastic effects of drought as well as shortage of foods and water. Therefore, the Gobirawa settled at Birnin Lalle for almost 200 years or more. However, around the 17th century, the rulers and their people also left Birnin Lalle and established their second seat of power at Birnin Magale near Tsibiri (now in Niger Republic).[11] The reasons of this migration of Gobirawa were associated with the continued Tuareg pressure; drought and searching for fertile land for farming and pastoralism. At Birnin Magale, the Gobirawa met various groups inhabiting the region such as Mazuwawa, Gumarawa and Nayawa etc. The Gobirawa were now in close proximity to the neighbouring kingdoms of Zamfara, Katsina, Kabi and Kwanni. Consequently, many Gobirawa people entered and settled in Zamfara territory.

Meanwhile, because of the closeness of Birnin Magale with the land of Katsina, Kabi and Zamfara in 18th century, the Gobirawa moved to a place called Gwararrame or Goron Rami and found their new seat of power there. However, to cut it short the people of Gobirawa had long traditions and relations with the environment of Gulbin Maradi as evidence has been revealed in several instances. For example, the language spoken by the Gobirawa people has been identified to be of close relationship with that of other kingdoms and empires in the regions like the people of Zamfara and the people of Kabi. [12]

In 1737, Ibrahim Barbari became the leader of Gobirawa in Alkalawa within the territory of Zamfara. Ibrahim Barbari went to Gwararrame and fought war with the Sarkin Gobir at that very particular of time. In this battle Ibrahim Barbari and his people defeated Sarkin Gobir Uban’ashe and he became and turbaned himself as the King of Gobir. Furthermore, in 1762 Sarkin Gobir Ibrahim Barbari (1742-1770) together with many Gobirawa followers entered Zamfara and destroyed the power of Zamfara, sacked its capital, Birnin Zamfara and put Sarkin Zamfara Moriki to flight. Therefore, with the fall of Zamfara, Sarkin Gobir Babari built the new emerging capital of Gobir at Alkalawa, on the farmlands of the Alkalin Zamfara from where it got its name.[13]             

After the defeat of Gobirawa by the Jihadists, which led to the fall of Alkalawa in 1808, the Gobirawa dispersed to various places. Throughout the 19th century, the remaining history of the Gobirawa was characterized by factional disputes. In fact, during this century (19th century), many of the Gobirawa were united and later decided to establish new settlements like Kadaye, Tsibiri and Gawon Gazau etc. In 1860, Hassan Dan Halima, Dangaladiman Gobir in Tsibiri and the grandson of Emir of Gobir Yakubu (1789-1796) had disagreement with the King of Gobir at that time (Bawa Dan Gwanki). Hassan Dan Halima together with some Gobirawa migrated southwards and established a new Gobirawa base known as Sabon Birnin Gobir. Later, Caliph Ahmad Atiku (1859-1866) approved the establishment of the new Gobirawa town. Hassan Dan Halima became the first King of Gobir at Sabon Birnin Gobir and served from 1864 to 1871.[14]

The Establishment of Sabon Birnin Gobir Town

The early history of the Gobirawa people and their settlements, have been discussed above. The last capital and current one is known as Sabon Birnin Gobir. It has been a District since 1905 during the colonial territorial arrangement. Later as can be seen below, the District became a Local Government. Sabon Birni Local Government Area is situated in the north-east of Sokoto state. It shared land border with Niger Republic in the north-east, Isa and Goronyo Local Government Areas in the south-west.[15] The people of the Local Government Area were Gobirawa and Zamfarawa. There were also Bugaje from Niger Republic specializing in livestock rearing and providing labour to the people of Sabon Birni Local Government Area. Others were Bare-Bari from Damagaran in Niger Republic while some are from Borno and Yobe states. They also engaged in different economic activities since they arrived. Therefore, the above mentioned people intermarried among themselves because of their long period of interactions and peaceful co-existence in the area as well as similar historical trends. There were as well the Fulani people, both Fulanin Gida and Fulanin Daji (settled and pastoralists Fulani), who intermarried with other groups in the area. 

As a developing area there were also the Igbo, Yoruba and other people particularly from southern parts of Nigeria found in Sabon Birni Local Government Area. They also involved in varieties of business activities with the other people peacefully.[16]

After the British colonial conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate particularly in 1903, Sabon Birnin Gobir was placed under Sokoto province as a District. Since that period it had witnessed several changes and developments as well as peaceful co-existence with its neighbours.[17]

 In 1947 a new settlement of Sabon Birni was established this was a result of flooding from river Bunsuru almost all year round which eventually destroyed the old town and led to the loss of lives and properties. The new town of Sabon Birni was established and located on the west bank of the river. The purpose of this shift was in order to get out and escape from the dangers of River Bunsuru and as well as to find a secure and more lively place for their lives and properties far away from the river.

Sabon Birnin Gobir District remained a district under Sokoto emirate up to 1976 when Sokoto State was created and local government reform of 1976 which led to the emergence of local government councils as a third tier of government. However, in the same year, 1976, Isa Local Government Area was created and the districts of Sabon Birnin and Shinkafi were placed under the local government council. Sabon Birni Local Government Area was later created in 1989.[18] Sabon Birnin Gobir was and still is among the major towns in Sokoto State competing in all aspects of development and it was and still second only to Sokoto city in terms of social and economic developments.[19] As at 1980, Sabon Birni Local Government Area had a population of 194,000 people, majority of which was in Sabon Birnin Gobir town.[20]     

Economic and Social Development in Sabon Birnin Gobir

Sabon Birnin Local Government Area was located on a strategic location along Nigeria-Niger border and also within the Rima Basin couple with available Fadama for agricultural activities all year round. The emergence and growth as well as development of economic institutions in the area attributed to the development of economic activities. These factors made Sabon Birnin Local Government Area to be among the major areas in Sokoto State in terms of economic and social developments.[21] 

Agricultural activities in Sabon Birni Local Government Area are in three stages.[22] Dry season farming in Sabon Birni Local Government Area was very unique. Sabon Birni Local Government Area was opportune to have three Rivers of Bunsuru, Gagare and Dangulbi. The first two rivers met at Atallawa village in the area, while the third river met the two at Gidan Na Maimai village in Sabon Birni Local Government Area.[23] The three rivers circled Sabon Birni town: east and west. They spread water all over the Fadama of the area and provided agricultural opportunities to the people all year round.[24] The main problem of agricultural activities in Sabon Birni Local Government Area, and indeed other areas of Sokoto State, was the use of non-mechanized farming. Many farmers to date used manual farming tools. They water their crops using Shaduf, known as Kutara, which was a calabash mounted on a wood with a rope to draw water from a well and then thrown into a canal that took the water to the plants. Up to 2009 when I had the last interview in the area, many farmers were using the method which was slow and was not capable of enabling farmers to get the best from the land.[25] Major crops cultivated in Sabon Birni Local Government Area were millet, sorghum, beans, rice, maize, wheat, cassava, etc during the wet season while potato, onions, garlic, pepper, tomato, water melon, etc were cultivated in the dry season.

In Sabon Birni Local Government Area, fishing was practised as a result of the availability of rivers in the area.[26] Based on that, the people of Sabon Birni Local Government Area were opportune to engage in fishing activities, where some appreciable quantities of fish were produced almost on daily basis.[27] For example, some people of Tsamaye village along River Rima in the Local Government Area engaged in fishing activities all-year-round. But according to many informants, yields realized from the fishing exercise in the area were small quantities and because of that many of the fishermen have gone to other places such as Lake Chad to do their business while some of them abandoned the trade and took to other things in different parts of Nigeria.

Apart from the above mentioned agricultural activities in Sabon Birni Local Government Area, a significant number of people engaged in business. This was because farming activities only, especially rainy season farming, could not sustain households for months due to the large number of their families. However, in Sabon Birni Local Government Area, the people engaged in animal rearing of all types like goats, sheep, cattle and camels. Almost everyone practices livestock rearing.[28] There are rearers among the Fulani and other people of the area as well for fattening. Others rear cows or bulls for ridging purposes in the area. Meanwhile, women in Sabon Birni Local Government Area also involved in livestock production by organizing adashe and keeping asusu to capitalize business or even to start new businesses. They also engage in other ways of making money to raise animals. For example, in Tsamaye village and surrounding areas not everyone could afford to rear animal. Only the wealthy individuals could do that. Women could keep and rear sheep and goats, but rearing of cattle and cows were for the well to do individuals in the area.[29]

In Sabon Birni Local Government Area there were importers and exporters of animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, donkeys and camels purchased in the area and transport them to the southern parts of Nigeria. This business takes place almost every week. These businessmen were referred to ‘Yan jula. They buy and sell animals. Some of them travelled to Niger Republic to buy animals in large quantity and import them directly to Ibadan and Lagos as well as other parts of the country.[30]

Above all, there were also traders of all kinds of commodities of trade all over Sabon Birni Local Government Area. They bought these items mostly from Sokoto, Kano, Lagos, etc and from neighbouring Niger Republic like Maradi and Madawa because of the close proximity between Niger Republic and Sabon Birni Local Government. Moreover, in all parts of Sabon Birni Local Government Area many people particularly, youths engaged in commercial motor vehicles and cycles. This commercial driving including kabu-kabu which have contributed immensely to the socio-economic development of the Local Government in particular and Sokoto state in general. Others people engaged in different economic activities in order to earn a livelihood like technical works such as mechanics in motor cars and motor cycles repairs, carpentry etc. Others involved in marketing of products from one market to another.[31]                                                                                                                                                   

Sabon Birni town witnessed two market days in a week i.e. Wednesday and Sunday. On Monday the traders go to ‘Yarbulutu market, on Tuesday there were Tsululu, Bachaka and Dan kwari markets. There was also a market in Bangi in Niger Republic. Meanwhile, on each Friday the traders from Sabon Birni town and environs go to Mailalle and Tara markets. On Saturday they attended Jataka, Tunfafi, Tsamaye and Mallammai markets all in Sabon Birni Local Government Area for the purpose of selling and buying etc. However, on every Thursday the traders and marketers attended Shinkafi market, while some go to Sokoto city as well as Kano for that purpose.[32] These and many other activities keep the people of Sabon Birnin engaged all the year round and so having what to do. Therefore, by implication these eliminate poverty, youth unemployment and social vices.

Furthermore, in Sabon Birni town there were local and daily markets that operated on daily basis and people could go and purchase anything they want even in the night. According to one of my informants, only Illela could be compared with Sabon Birni in terms of business activities in Sokoto state. One of the major lucrative business activities engaged by the people of Sabon Birni Local Government Area was trade in petroleum products. There were many petroleum filling stations in the town more than any other town in the whole Sokoto State, only second to Sokoto metropolis. 

Some of the petroleum filling stations in Sabon Birnin Gobir town were;

1.      Sarki Surajo Petroleum

2.      Ma’inna Bakwai Petroleum

3.      IMAD Petroleum

4.      Jijitah Petroleum

5.      Aba Nurat (AP) Petroleum

6.      Babari Petroleum

7.      Natoriya Petroleum

8.      Zalla Bango Petroleum

Each of the filling stations has a number of workers employed to earn a living in Sabon Birni.[33]

Because of the strategic location and proximity of Sabon Birni Local Government Area on a transit route to Niger Republic, the two countries (Niger and Nigeria) benefitted from each other. For example, Thousands of litres of petroleum products were being exported daily from Sabon Birni town to parts of Niger Republic that is why proliferation of petroleum filling stations in Sabon Birni town. However, traders in textile materials also interacted with Niger nationals in Sabon Birni, others were yam, guinea corn, maize, sugar cane etc.[34] Others were beans, local and foreign rice, sugar and cooking oil (palm and groundnut oil) etc. Alternatively, these items of consumption were imported and exported from Niger and Nigeria. Nigerians also brought fairly used cars into the country through Sabon Birni Local Government Area.

Indeed, the above mentioned transaction was facilitated by free flow of the people of the two countries through the use of available transport facilities that have improved in the area like commercial and private motor vehicles and motor cycles commercial operation especially from towns of Tsululu, Maradi, Madawa, Gidan Runji, Dakwaro, Tunfafi etc. The afore-mentioned economic activities, businesses and developments in Sabon Birni town as well as its strategic location and proximity with Niger Republic provided the opportunity for the town to be second only to Sokoto city.[35]

The first elementary school in Sabon Birni town was built in 1933. Seven years after, the school was closed, this was as a result of lack of support from the government and community as well. Since that period request had been annually made for the school to reopen. In March 1957 new school began. Pupils enrolled into the school from all the parts of the town and beyond.[36]    

In 1964, the government of Northern region approved the establishment of ten additional primary schools in Sabon Birni and its surrounding villages especially Kurawa, Tara, Makuwana, Unguwar Lalle, and Tsamaye others were Teke, Gangara, and Gatawa etc. In 1977 additional primary schools were established in the area and this brought the total number of elementary schools to twenty-four since the inception of western education in Sabon Birni. There was the rapid advancement of western education in Sabon Birni and environs right from the beginning up to the present dispensation. This is because of various government educational policies and implementations such as the Universal Primary Education and Universal Basic Education[37] etc.

From 1999 to the 2008, western education has really improved in Sabon Birni Local Government Area. Junior Secondary schools were established in Gatawa, Kurawa, Makuwana, Unguwar Lalle, Tsamaye, Teke and Sabon Birni. There was also one Senior Secondary school in Sabon Birni town as at 2008.[38] Prior to the establishment of senior secondary school at Sabon Birni able parents sent their children to as far distant places like Gusau, Kauran Namoda, Sokoto and Zurmi and to neighbouring states for their secondary education. Therefore, with the establishment of senior secondary school in Sabon Birni town more students were attracted.[39]

One of the most important features of the British Colonial period was the great increase in the means of communication. Road construction was the main pre-occupation in this regard. Starting from 1908 when the British Colonial government began to connect or link new district headquarters with the emirate capital, as well as with one another, motor-able roads were constructed as a matter of British policy. Labour on these construction works was largely conscripted. By that very particular period of time, the Native Authority had become responsible for the construction and maintenance of all roads in the provinces or emirates.[40] With regards to road network in the Sabon Birni area, there were two lines. The first one started from Sokoto to Goronyo and terminated in Sabon Birni. The second one is the road that linked Sabon Birni with Zamfara through Isa, Shinkafi, Moriki, Kauran Namoda to Gusau.[41] These roads had greatly enhanced the economy and prosperity of the people of Sabon Birni Local Government Area.

From Sabon Birni town, one could go to Katsina and Kano through Tsululu. The road has two big bridges to facilitate the smooth use of the road. It also eased the transfer of farm products and other trading items from all parts of the Local Government Area to various markets in the area and beyond. The people of Gangare, Teke, Tara, Mai Lalle, ‘Yar bulutu and Tsululu villages all benefitted from the road immensely.[42] This made Sabon Birni town a centre of attraction from all directions.

Conclusion

Going by the foregoing discussion, though, a brief one, it is vividly clear that Sabon Birnin Gobir town is second only to Sokoto town in terms of all indices of development in Sokoto State. Out of the 23 Local Government Areas in the State, only Sabon Birnin Gobir, to our understanding, has developed as an urban centre. What we presented above was the situation as at 2008. Ten years later, 2018, the situation would have changed if not transformed to a modern society. Only further research can confirm that.

As a border town with rich historical antecedence, a vibrant economy, enormous business enterprises, large population, impressive educational potentialities, etc., Sabon Birnin Gobir can be a near future state capital on the eastern part of Sokoto State.

 

 

Bibliography

1.      Augi, A.R “Migrations of the Gobirawa: A Reconsideration” Post-graduate seminar paper presented at Department of History, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University on Saturday 31st March, 1979.      

 

2.      Augi, A.R (1984) “The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C. 1650-1808 A.D” Ph.D. History thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University, volume 1&2

 

3.      Aliyu, A. “Tarihin Daular Gobir” a chapter of book (no book title and n. d) found at Waziri Junaidu History and Culture Bureau Sokoto

 

4.      Gobir, S.Y (2016) “A Political and Social History of Sabon Birnin Gobir, 1903-2003” M.A History Dissertation, Department of History, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

 

5.      Gusau, S.M (2008) “Wakokin Baka a Kasar Hausa-Yanaye-Yanayensu da Sigoginsu” Kano, Nigeria: Benchmark Publishers Limited.

 

6.      Maikassoua, I. “Some Suggestions Relating to the Contributions of Gobir Migrants to the Transformation of Neighbouring Communities” Departmental Seminar, Zaria: Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University, presented on 19th June, 1982

 

7.      Maishanu, H.M (2018) Sokoto Caliphate in the Eyes of Historians: a Shifting Sand of Interpretations, Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University Press

 

8.      Musa, K. (2015) “An Economic History of Garki District, Kano Emirate, 1903-1991” M.A History thesis, Kano: Department of History, Bayero University

 

9.      Perera, P.D.A e’tal, (1981), “A Survey of Settlement in Sokoto State”, A report submitted to the Ministry of Economic Planning, Sokoto State, Sokoto: Department of Geography Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

 

10.  Sabon Birnin Gobir District Notebook, 1951-1952

 

11.  Zaruma: A Cultural Magazine of Sokoto State, February, 1981



[1] For better understanding of the history of Gobirawa migration trends see A.R Augi “Migrations of the Gobirawa: A Reconsideration” Post-graduate seminar paper presented at Department of History Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria on Saturday 31st March, 1979.

[2] Also for the study of historical origin of Gobirawa  consult Abdullahi Aliyu “Tarihin Daular Gobir” a chapter in a book (no title and n. d) found at Waziri Junaidu History and Culture Bureau Sokoto another book can also be consulted by, S.M Gusau “Wakokin Baka a Kasar Hausa-Yanaye-Yanayensu da Sigoginsu” Kano, Nigeria: Benchmark Publishers Limited, 2008. Pp. 18-20.

[3] A.R Augi seminar paper op. cit. p. 10 and Abdullahi Aliyu op. cit. p. 2

[4] The authors cannot however, ascertain the truth about the issue of Gubur in the history of the Gobirawa

[5] Also read Abdullahi Aliyu Op. Cit. Pp. 4-6 and A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. Pp. 9-16.

[6] Illa Maikassoua “Some Suggestions Relating to the Contribution of Gobir Migrants to the Transformation of Neighbouring Communities” Departmental Seminar, Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, presented on 19th June, 1982. Pp.2-3 and A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. p.16.

[7] A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. Pp.16-17 and Abdullahi Aliyu Op. Cit. Pp.4-6

[8] Ibid P.17

[9] A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. Pp. 1-4

[10] Illa Maikassoua, Op. Cit. P.6, Abdullahi Aliyu Op. Cit. P.7 and A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. P.13

[11] S.M Gusau “Wakokin Baka a Kasar Hausa” Op. Cit. P.18, Abdullahi Aliyu “Tarihin Daular Gobir” Op. Cit. Pp.7-10 and A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. Pp.15-21. 

[12] A.R Augi “The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C. 1650-1808 A.D” PhD History, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria volume 1&2, 1984. Pp.388-389 and A.R Augi seminar paper Op. Cit. p.15

[13] H.M Maishanu (2018) “Sokoto Caliphate in Eyes of Historians: a Shifting Sand of Interpretations” Sokoto: University Press, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Pp. 2-3, A.R Augi PhD thesis Op. Cit. Pp. 417-420 and S.M Gusau (2008) Op. Cit. Pp15-21.

[14] S.M Gusau (2008) Op. Cit. Pp. 19-20 and H.M Maishanu (2018) Op. Cit. Pp. 23-26.

[15] S.Y Gobir (2016) Op. Cit. P. 19

[16] Interview with Hassan Gidoga Kuka village, aged 44 at Sabon Birni town on 19/9/2008

[17] S.Y Gobir (2016) Op. Cit. P. 23

[18] Ibid. Pp. 66-67

[19] During my PhD studies in 2008 I toured all the districts in Sokoto State and observed, assessed and examined all of them. I finally made my conclusion that Sabon Birnin Gobir was second only to Sokoto city.

[20] A Survey of Settlements in Sokoto State, 1981, p, 155;  we tried our best to get the population of the Local Government Area and that of the town from the National Population Commission but all in vain. 

[21] See footnote 19

[22]First, at the beginning of each wet season, farmers plant their seeds both grains and pulses. Secondly, during the mid wet season, there is second planting exercise, which does not need watering. The flood retreat provides the best ground for good yields. The third phase of planting is during the dry season period when the farmers use pumping machines and wells to water their crops. Some of the informants who told me these stages include, Sarkin Gobir of Sabon Birni, Alh Abdulhamid Salihu, aged 60, Ubandoma Kane, aged 42, Ubandawaki Bala, aged 68. Galadiman Gari Sabon Birni, Alhaji Ya’u, aged 80, on Friday, 19/9/2008 

[23] Ibiden

[24] Ibiden

[25] However, widespread enlightenment and publicity in some parts of Sabon Birni LGA has been significant in convincing and educating some farmers to embrace agricultural activities especially dry season type,  interview with Sarkin Gobir of Sabon Birni, Alhaji Abdulhamid Salihu, Op. cit

[26] The rivers were Gagare and Bunsuru as well as another one from Maradi earlier mentioned. It has also been mentioned above that about two-third of the Goronyo Dam was in Sabon Birni LGA.

[27] Interview with Barayan Sarkin Gobir Abara, aged 60, on Friday, 19/9/2008 in Sabon Birni town

[28] Interviews with Sama’ila Mudu Kurukuru, aged 50, Adamu Na Buda Kurukuru, aged 45 on Friday, 19/9/2008 in Tsamaye town, and Sarkin Gobir of Sabon Birni, Alh Abdulhamid Salihu, Op. cit

[29] Hassan Gidoga Kuka aged 44 interviewed on 19/9/2008

[30] Ahmed Rufa’i, aged 40, quantity surveyor and businessman interviewed in Sabon Birni town on 19/9/2008.

[31] Interview with Ahmed Rufa’i op. cit

[32] Ibid and on markets in Sabon Birnin Gobir and environs see Sabon Birnin Gobir District Note Book

[33] Ya’u Na Koton Zomo Sabon Birni, aged 62 interviewed on 19/9/2008. Concerning the economic activities and development in Sabon Birni Local Government area please consult Sabon Birnin Gobir District Note Book at Waziri Junaidu History and Culture Bureau, Sokoto 

[34] Maigari Idi, aged 60, interviewed at Sabon Birni town on 20/9/2008

[35] Ibiden

[36] Sabon Birni District Note Book, 1951-1952. P.42, please read a survey of settlement in Sokoto state 1981: A report submitted to the Ministry of Economic Planning, Sokoto State.  By P.D.A Perera, M.S Siddhu and J. Taylor, Department of Geography Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and for detail of western education in Sabon Birni Gobir Local Government area see S.Y Gobir “a Political and Social History of Sabon Birnin Gobir, 1903-2003” Pp. 58-62. Op cit 

[37] S.Y Gobir “A Political and Social History of Sabon Birnin Gobir, 1903-2003” P. 59. Op cit

[38] Interview with Makado  Jadi at Sabon Birni, aged 54 on 19/9/2008

[39] S.Y Gobir “A Political and Social History of Sabon Birnin Gobir, 1903-2003” P. 60 Op cit

[40] Kamilu Musa (2015) “An Economic History of Garki District, Kano Emirate, 1903-1991” M.A History thesis, Department of History Bayero University Kano P.74

[41] S.Y Gobir “A Political and Social History of Sabon Birnin Gobir, 1903-2003” P. 62. Op cit

[42] Interview with Hassan Gidoga at Kuka village, Sabon Birni Local Government Area, aged 44 on 19/9/2008

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