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An Assessment Of Military And Warfare System In Gobir Kingdom In The 19th Century

Being a paper presented at the First International Conference on Gobir Kingdom, Past And Present: Transformation And Change, held at The Usmanu Danfodiyo University Auditorium, from 9th – 13th July, 2018

An Assessment Of Military And Warfare System In Gobir Kingdom In The 19th Century

BY

MUSTAPHA IDRIS SARKA
Sunnah2@yahoo.com, mustaphasarka@gmail.com
08033070777

&

IDRIS SALISU KURAH

ZAMFARA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION MARU
kurahidris@gmail.com
08063231180

Abstract

The Military and Warfare system played an important role in the rise and development of the Gobir Kingdom. It’s one of the factors that influence the rapid expansion of the Kingdom towards Kebbi, Zamfara , Katsina and beyond. The military and warfare system contributed in the protection of socio-economic and political activities of the Gobir societies. The arrangements of the Gobir military enable rapid expansion and consolidation of the state during the time of Bawa Jangwarzo up to the time of the outbreak of the Jihad of 1804 when Gobirawa re-united and developed its military strength to defend the Kingdom. Therefore, this paper intended to re-examine the military arrangement and nature of Gobir army, the impact of Gobir military in the territorial expansion. Also the materials or weapons used by the Gobir military since the establishment of Gobir Kingdom were examined.

Introduction

The military and warfare system played important role in the State formation in Hausaland. Gobir Kingdom was associated with superiority of military organization and warfare system. Gobirawa being a war-like people conquered areas and extended their influence over Zamfara, Adar, Azbin, e.tc., they raised into a prominence kingdom by establishing their suzerainty over Zamfara, Kabi, Katsina, Adar, Kwani and Azbin.[1] The Gobir Kingdom acquired symbolised political power, war leadership, imperial building and prosperity from 17th century to 19th century when Gobir Kingdoms were conquered by the Jihadist which led  some  Gobirawa migration to Niger republic (Tsibiri) where they were re-organised and continued to attack the caliphate until when the Europeans came and reduced the power of the Caliph.

Gobirawa emerged as the most strong military power among the state of the Rima basin, it come to be identify as Gidan Fada (literally home of war) the Gobirawa used Magic and belief in Iskoki in their wars . The praise of Gobir Kings (kirari ) shows how Gobir take war as their activities. i.e the Kirari of Bawa is that  Uban maza dan Bagaji, Bagobiri ka wuce yaki.(The father of men, son of Bagaji, Bagobiri passed attack)To Sarkin  Gobir Wangara,  Cida maza kasa- kasa tayi kugi, Gobir ta manu gidan yaki,  mai kibiyoyi da manyan masu, su sha jinni su kakkare kassa.( Throw down men on the ground and the ground to sound, Gobir of Manu home of battle which has arrows and large soears, to sock blood and break the bones) The praise indicate how Gobir take war among their activities.

A Brief overview of   Gobir History and their Wars

Gobirawa were said to have migrated from Azbin, they migrated to the areas of Zamfara, Kabi and Katsina.Gobirawa settled in several places before they eventually moved south wards from Azbin. The area of Gobir is a fertile land suitable for the livestock rearing, agricultural activities and hunting. The area has large deposit of iron. There were several indications that people had existed in the region before Gobirawa migrated out from Azbin and settle there.[2]  The Gobir region covers the Northern part of Gobir stretching from its borders with Adar Dutse in the west, to the eastern border of Gobir which lies along a line running north-eastwards(from a little distance east of the present settlement of Tsibiri on the Gulbin Maradi to join the Gurbin Tarka in the north). In the north the region stretches from the Gulbin Tarka to the Gulbin Maradi valley in the south. The territory of Gobir starching from the town of Galmi to the north-east of present Kwanni town to Tabotaki north-west of Madawa(all in the Republic of Niger).[3] The topography of Gobir is made up of largely sedimentary rocks, sand dunes and fewer valleys draining it. The dry season is much longer, lasting up to some 9-10 months.

Before the emergence of Gobir as a super power in the 16th century, Zamfara, Kabi, Katsina ,Zazzau, Adar, and Azbin were sovereign states and each Kingdom sought to expand it territories more into it neighbouring states. The Gobir wars were fought for territorial expansion. The process continued throughout up to the end of 18th and 19th century.[4]

The Sarkin Gobir Babari was the founder of Alkalawa in 1730. The Gobir kingdom had formerly been a great kingdom, but had long conflict with Zamfara due to their zeal to conquer several areas, they succeeded in conquering Zamfara in 1764, but Sarkin Gobir succeeded in the establishment of Alkalawa as capital through the help of some Zamfarawa.[5]  The origin of the name Gobir is not clear, but scholars like Augi view it from their origin. The original home of Gobirawa was Asben, from this they were forced out to south by Tuaregs pressure or drastic effects of drought to the area known as Gobir Tudu, from there the Gobirawa move southwards and began to settle in the areas of Zamfara.[6] They came as friendly settlers and letter took over the control of the areas of Zamfara. Gobir during the time of Sarkin Gobir Muhammad dan Chiroma, had an alliance with Sarkin Zamfara Yakubu dan Babba and Sarkin Asben Agabba and waged successful war against Sarkin Kebbi later Babari came in conflict and waged war with Zamfara. After the destruction of Birnin Zamfara the town of Kiawa( a town 15 kilometres away from Kauran Namoda) seems to have been the capital. Sarki Bawa was the second sarkin Gobir   after Babbari who ravaged Zamfara and besieged Moriki.[7] Bawa successor, Yakubu also besieged Kiawa and suffered a severe defeat and was slain there by the combined armies of Kiawa and Katsinawa.[8] From there great struggle arose with Katsina where the Sarkin Gobir use the term “ amasaya a kai iri gida” meaning to retreat home. They are too strong for us let us turn back so that our race may not become extinct.” Yakubu was succeeded by Sarkin Gobir Yunfa in whose reign

 

Shehu Dan Fodiyo commenced his Jihad. Yunfa laid waste a great part of Zamfara, but that  it was his time the Gobir Kingdom got into confusion and its power weakened and Zamfara separated from under it rule.[9] For a century of warfare, Gobir and many Hausa State had serious consequence on both the state and society thereby affecting normal commerce; industry, insecurity, and heavy taxation were imposed on peasantry by the ruling class.[10]

Several expansions were embarked open by the stronger kingdom against the weaker, for example before the emergence of Gobir as the most strong Kingdom, Zamfara has been one of the major super powers in the 18th century Hausaland, but the struggle for the territories with Gobir made Zamfara weaker, and led to it emergence of Gobir as the independent kingdom, carve out from areas of Zamfara, Kabi and Adar.[11]

During the reign during of Sarkin Gobir Babari (1741-1769), many expeditions were mounted against Kano, Katsina, Kiyawa and Shira in Barno each with varying degree of success. It was Sarkin Gobir Babari who finally destroyed the power of Zamfara, sacked its capital, Birnin Zamfara in 1762 and put Sarkin Zamfara Mairoki to flight.[12] With the collapse of Zamfara, Sarkin Gobir Babari built the nascent capital of Gobir at Alkalawa on the farmland of Alkalin Zamfara from where it got its name.[13]

In the second half of the 18th century, Gobir was the most militaristic state in the whole of Hausaland. Though employing the same tactics and weaponry like all of her neighbours it was constantly engaged in warfare up to the end of the century when the Jihad broke out which resulted to its collapse. Constant warfare like the one engaged in by Gobir in the 19th century brought serious dislocation in the society thereby affecting normal and settled life. War and its threat are antithetical to the pursuance of commerce and industry which has been for long the lifetime of Hausaland. The warfare affected the prosperity of the region, insecurity and destruction of life and properties.

The Gobir army were mostly peasants who were recruited by force and some intentionally to protect the integrity of the states. In Gobir most of the army were slaves and indigenous people of the states. Failure to serve in the army was always visited with severe consequence ranging from imprisonment to the confiscation of property it defence on the gravity of the offence.[14]

 In the 17th century, Gobir had direct military confrontation with Kwanni and Adar in an attempt to extend its territory into these areas or extend control over the trade route which passed through Adar from Azbin. The conflicts resulted into war leading Kwanni and Azbin to allowed Gobir to continued controlling the Adar Kwanni and  Azbin trade route. By the middle of the 17th century, the trade route of Azbin into Rima Basin and Adar fell under the control of Gobir Kingdom and much of it supplies of horses and war materials were through the trade route and the commercial relations between Gobir Adar, Kwanni  and Azbin continued. Kwanni also served as an important link between Gobir and areas of Dallols ( Zabarma), but in early decade of 17th century, (1687-1721).[15] Gobir laid surprised attacked against Kwanni and it suffered lot destruction, the rulers were forced to abandon their capital.[16] Following the establishment of the authority in Agadas Gobir also become engaged in several wars until 1725 when Sarkin Gobir Soba was attacked by Sultan of Agades. It is quite clear that Gobir became engaged in various military conflicts base on territorial ambitions, destruction and securing considerable booty from Zabarma that is why Zabarmawa become Tubassai  to Gobirawa.  Soba crossed the river Niger and attacked Gurma and Bargu both which lay over 500 Kilometres from the capital.[17] He also carried an expedition to reach the Kolanut growing region (Yoruba land).

The relationship with Kabi after the joint effort to end the Kabi kingdom, Gobir secured certain commodities from Kabi e.g Kola nuts, Slaves, horses, hide skin, swards and other materials in connections with Azbin. There was diplomatic relations involving the marriage of Gobir princess with   Sarki Tomo (one of the early ruler of Kabi) to end the conflicts. The transfer of kingdom to Birnin Magale made Gobir- Kabi relation to become closer. But the war  with Kabi become manifested during the reign of Sarkin Gobir Muhammad Dan Chiroma, who collaborated with Sarkin Zamfara,  and Azbin, in 1687-1721  and defeated the forces of Kabi  and  captured  Sarkin Kabi  Ahmadu and some of his leading officials. [18] At the beginning of the 18th century, there existed a friendly relation between Gobir, Katsina and its neighbours Agadez, but towards the end of the century, the relationship changed to war due to Gobir military might and ambition to control the trade routes of Agadez and border communities.

The Major Battles of Gobir in the 19th Century

The battle of Tsuntsuwa in 1804 was the first battle that took several days due to military might of Gobir, in several encounters the Mujahideen failed to take the city of Alkalawa. They decided to withdraw, this was however, after a great slaughter of the both sides as provided by Muhammad Bello “very many of the Jama’a was martyred and we also killed many among them”[19]. As the city of Alkalawa proved difficult to conquered, the Jihadist decided to retire to their camps. Among the multitude of people that gathered for the assault on Alkalawa were a group of Tauregs. Thereafter, when the battle was over they turned against the mujahedeen, raiding their camps and settlements. The Tauregs decided to act treacherously and launched an attack on the Jima’a who camped at Tsuntsuwa about six kilometres south-west of Alkalawa. The situation was very serious that the Shehu had to personally take to the field praying for support and assistance from Allah and as pointed by Muhammad Bello “Allah answered and defeated the enemy”, we battered them with weapons and they broke up and ran away one after the other.[20] Many groups of noble Muslims were martyred... actually about two thousand were martyred among us. Among them were chief Justice Muhammad Sambo the flag bearer Sa’ad ... we buried what we could then we returned home and spend the night in our homes then we came back in the early morning and buried the rest.[21]  This shows the degree of the encounter and destruction of lives at the battle of Tsuntsuwa ( two kilometres away from Alkalawa in December 1804.

 In 1806, there were another encounter between Gobir army and Mujahideen on  Alkalawa  but the Gobir army intercept with Jama’a, around the vicinity of Alkalawa, but the Jahadist observed that it is not yet time to capture Alkalawa, they therefore attack  the Tauregs whom always acted treacherously against them.  Many attempt were made to stop the Jihadist from taking over the Alkalawa, but in 1808, the third war occurred when the Jama’a mobilised all their armies against Gobir from Western side under the leadership of Aliyu Jedo,  at the end thousands of people were killed, Sarki Yunfa and his lieutenant were killed. The rebellion started in 1812 but their efforts failed until six years when Sarkin Gobir Gwanki dan Kura Gado summoned people at Katanga in Isah District. Several attacks were made against Gobir but the first encounter became unsuccessful, Muhammad Bello suffered a major defeat and lost 1,000 horses to Gobir. In 1820 the strength of the Gobir appeared weakened because the Caliphate succeeded in killing Gwanki.[22]

Battle of Tabkin Kwato

The battle of Tabkin Kwato was the major military engagement between Gobir and the Jihadist who were all belligerent in nature. The Gobir army was personally commanded by Yunfa, while Abdullahi Fodiyo was at the command of the Mujahideen, who were far outnumbered and ill equipped yet they were able to carry the day. Gobir army was routed and Yunfa fled to Tsibiri and mujahideen took large consignment of booty of assort types.[23]

Nature of Military, Weaponry and Warfare Strategies in Gobir Kingdom

Warfare system refers to the strategies, plan scheme and preparations put in place before war engagement, such as secrecy plan, spy, training of troops on war skill and tactics (drills). The weaponry includes all military tools and instruments used in the warfare. The military and warfare of Gobir were commanded by the Sarkin Gobir assisted by his Lieutenants and captains which were mainly Sarakuna or titles holders in the Kingdom. i.e Galadima, Doka etc.    Bello described the tactics used by Gobir during their encounter as he said

The enemy made ready and took up their position. They had donned mail and quilted armour, and with their shields they formed their line against us. We too formed our line against them and every man looked squarely into the eye of his foe. Then we shouted Allahu Akbar three times against them..[24]

 Muhammad Bello’s statement shows that the Gobir have a well equipped and well standing army compared to the Mujahideen.

 Gobir founded a chain of fortress made with clay and stones at Alkalawa to protect it encroachment, the Gobir use slaves, voluntary labour to build a fortress for the protection against their enemies.  

The Gobir Military was headed by Sarkin Gobir in collaboration with his Lieutenants to command the army. The titles of the Gobir military official were Sarkin Yaki and Barade with support of several junior officers to maintain their own contingents. The lieutenants had military functions of commanding some section of troop in battle.  Likewise, there were cavalry (Mayakan dawaki), whom were recruited largely from the ranks official (Talakawa), selected slaves, and men of wealth who could afford to mount themselves and fight in the battle field. The heavy cavalry, of   Sarkin Gobir consist of his lieutenant  (barde,barade) with large number of yanlifida, with Daggers, Sheath, assorted Spears and  wood arrow proof or iron arrow proof (lifida) worn by both rider and mount army. The armour used by Gobir army, were manufactured locally and some little imported, i.e Takobi,, war clubs (kulki,gwarmi or gwama), and battle axes(gatari,gafiya,masari) . Gobir army have heavy cavalry especially when fighting at close distance, the materials used included metal horse trappings, variety of javelins or spears, swords, cudgels, maces or battle-axes, knives, daggers. Swords (takobi) were the principal weapons of Gobir it was usually slung over the shoulder. [25]

The infantry (land army) is one of the military organizations of Gobir. They consist of archers (Mahalban Kibiya) spearmen and swordsmen. The archery was a real force with effective weapons in the battle, they were usually headed by Sarkin Kibiya or Sarkin Harbi . The archers were allowed to deal with the Cavalry of the enemy from the long distance range they will target the opponent with bows and arrows. While the spearmen and sward bearers are to clear the front on the close range with Javelin (Mashi) and Swards (Takobi). There were also military contingents and local doctors (Bokaye or Ma ‘aska) who will support the infantry and Calvary with food, water and treatments if needed.[26] Gobirawa planned adequately for wars with two groups, one in the war fronts while there are reserves in case of emergency and support of the infantry.

Resistances and counter attacks were also used by the Gobirawa as war strategies. The Gobirawa will not stop the war except if they over power their enemy or else they will turn the war into peace talks .i.e Gobirawa, Zamfarawa and Katsinawa. In the case of Gobir war with Mujahedeen they fought several times even if they were over powered until in the 19th Century when some of the Gobirawa accepted defeat while others migrated to Tsibiri where they continued attack on the Caliphate.

Alliance system was another strategy exercise by Gobirawa. Gobir adopted diplomatic means in getting supports from its neighbours; this had happed in the 19th century between Gobir Kabi, Zamfara, Adar, and Azbin against their common enemy the Jihadist.[27]The alliance system and trust for protection were reached between Gobir and Tuaregs against Sokoto. The diplomatic tactics used by Gobirawa prolong the collapse of Alkalawa  up to 19th century. The waning of the Gobir alliance with Tsibiri persisted the Gobirawa revolt this led Aliyu Babba to attacked Tsibiri. The Maiyaki alliance with the Tuaregs and Maradi made them powerful to raid various towns and villages of Lajinga and Shinaka the two northern most Ribat of the Caliphate.[28] There were also case of Dangaladima’s negotiation with sokoto and they allow him to build Sabon Birnin Alkalawa.

Gobir also applied the peace talks ( Wasar Taubashi) among it neighbours to whom they think will be loyal to them or whom they found difficult to capture. Like the case of Katsinawa, Yorubaland and Zabarmawa.

Spies is also another strategies used by Gobir. Intelligence was use to report about the military might and weakness of the enemies, the gathering of intelligence is important before the battle. The commander of the Gobir army always sends out mobile lightly armed troops to probe and observe the armies of the enemies.  This method was necessary before decisions are taken as to conduct the battle. Guerrilla warfare was also practices.[29]

The use of modern technology obtained from Adar and Azbin enable Gobir to overpower most of it enemies. The growth of the iron technology in making swards, arrow, axe e.t.c were used by Gobirawa for sudden attacks.  Most of the modern weapons used by Gobir were imported from Adar and Azbin[30]

Drums and war songs were part of the warfare tools use in Gobir Kingdom. The drums include Tambari Yaki, Ganga, Kalangu e.tc. There were also long and shorts musical instruments used to flatter and praise warriors during war time and festivities of special occasions. There were also girdle ( Damara) which was common in Gobir, it was tied at the waist or on the hands for support and identification of the warrior. There is also war loin (bante) and leather skirt (walki).

Lastly Gobir use  Magic (tsafi) and protective instruments like armlets, garments, Malaman Tsibo and Yan Bori to stop the iron objects from entering into the body of the Gobir warriors. The Gobirawa specialised in using magic to protect their towns. Like the case of Sarkin Gobir Bawa used magic when he invited Shehu Usman bin Fodiyo to his place, he ask Shehu to pray for rain in the dry seasons.[31]  Shiek Shehu Usman bin Fodiyo requested him to bring  Farar Hankaka(white Cock) , Bawa quickly brought it out and Shehu prayed for water and the rain fall.  In addition, the use of charms and amulets are belief to be capable of making Gobir warriors invincible. All the practices pointed above were the role of Bokaye and malaman tsibbo who prepared hidden security and defensive objects as buried charms (kafi).[32]

Conclusion

Gobir emerged as the strongest military power among the states of the Rima Basin. War is one of the major activities of Gobirawa as it always referred to as Gidan Fada. The wars of Gobir were many,  it began in 16th century and ended in the 19th century. Gobir used various methods like alliance system, Magic, use of spies and modern technology to conquered various areas like Adar, Zamfara, Kwanni, Kabi and protected themselves against the Jihadist. Gobir continued to revolt against the Sokoto who brought an end to it existence as a sovereign state.

Bibliography

Adeleye , R.A.   ” Hausaland and Barno, 1600-1800” in J.F.A Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds) History of West Africa, London, Longman, 1985,

Alkali,  M.A., A Hausa Community in crisis, Kebbi in the 19th Century, M.A. Thesis, A.B.U., Zaria, 1969.

Arnett  E.J., ESQ, Nigeria, Northern Province , Gazetteer of Sokoto province, London, Waterlaow &son ltd., 1920,

Arnett E.J., The Rise of the Sokoto Fulani; Being a Translation and in Some Parts a Translation of the Infaq al Maisur of Muhammad Bello.

 Augi, A.R.,  “Migration of the Gobirawa, A Reconsideration”, Seminar Post Graduate, A.B.U Zaria, 1979.

_______, The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C1650-1808AD PhD Thesi, Volume II 1984.

Maishanu H.M., , Sokoto Caliphate in the Eyes of Historians; A Shifting sand of interpretation, Sokoto, UDUS Press, 2018.

Nadama G., The Rise and Collapse of a Hausa State; A Social and Political History of Zamfara, PhD Thesi, A.B.U Zaria, 1977.

Smith R.S., Warfare & Diplomacy in Pre-Colonial West Africa, London, Wisconsin University Press, 1989

The article of Malam Sanda  Karshe Alkalawa, Waziri Junaidu History and Cultural Bureau Sokoto.

Urvoy Y., Histoire des Populations du Sudan Central, Paris, 1936.

 Yusuf S., A History of Islam Scholarship and Revivalism in Western Sudan , Being an annotated Translations with introduction of Infaqul- Maisur, F Tarikh Bilad al Tukur al Sultan Muhammad Bello bin Fodiyo, Zaria, Tamaza, 2013.



[1] R.A.Augi, “The Gobir Factor in the social and Political History of the Rima Basin C.1650-1808 AD”, PhD Thesis UDUS, Volume2, 1984,P352..

[2] A.R. Augi, “Migration of the Gobirawa, A Reconsideration”, Seminar Post Graduate, A.B.U Zaria, 1979. P.10.

[3] D.Hamani, Contribution a L’ Histoire des etats Hausa: Adar Precolonial. Etudes Nigeriennes. No.38 Niemey , 1975,p.8.

[4] R.A Augi … Op.cit. P.353.,

[5] E.J.Arnett ESQ, Nigeria, Northern Province, Gazetteer of Sokoto province, London, Waterlaow &son ltd., 1920, P.10.

[6] A.R. Augi Op.cit...... 1979.p.15.

[7] Barth put the events in 1764 AD See also Bello, Raulat el Afkari.

[8] A. Arnett. Op.cit p.11.

[9] Ibid. P.12

[10] H.M. Maishanu, Sokoto Caliphate in the eyes of Historians; A shifting sand of interpretation, Sokoto, UDUS Press, 2018. P.16.

[11] Ibid P.3

[12] R.A. Adeleye” Hausaland and Barno, 1600-1800” in J.F.A Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds) History of West Africa, London, Longman, 1985, p.590.

[13]A.R.Augi, The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C.1650-1808 AD. 1984, PhD Thesis Volume II, A.B.U Zaria, PP.370-415

[14]  Interview with Abubakar Bango Jibrelu, 85 years, Kanwuri area Sabon Birni, 20/6/2018.

[15] A.R., Augi, The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C16501808ADPhDThesis, Volume II 1984. P.59.

[16] Ibid.P.

[17] Op.cit H.Barth, Vol.III, P.34.

[18] P.G.Harris, Gazetters,PP.81-82, see also  A.R. Augi…..Op.cit. PP351-353.

[19] . M.Bello Infaqul Maisur Fi Tarikh Bilad al Tukur , See also M.B. Alkali, “A Hausa Community in crisis, Kebbi in the 19th Century”, M.A. Thesis, A.B.U., Zaria, 1969, p.207.

[20] M.Bello Infaqul Maisur Fi Tarikh Bilad al Tukur, see also S. Yusuf, “A History of Islamic Scholarship and Revivalism in Western Sudan” , Being an annotated Translation with introduction of Infaqul- Maisur, Fi Tarikh Bilad al Tukur al Sultan Muhammad Bello bin Fodiyo, Zaria, Tamaza, 2013, p.192.

[21] Ibid. P.11

[22] A.R.Augi..Op.cit PP.515-518.

[23] . H.M. Maishanu op.cit.  ans see M.B. Alkali p.215

[24] R.S.Smith, Warfare & Diplomacy in pre-colonial West Africa, London, Wisconsin University Press, 1989, p.134.

[25] Oral  Interview with Bango ,86 years , at Sabon Birni, 25/5/2018.

[26] A.R., Augi, The Gobir Factor in the Social and Political History of the Rima Basin C1650-1808AD, PhD  Thesis, Volume II, 1984. P.597.

[27] R.A Adeleye, Power and Diplomacy in Northern Nigeria 1804-1906, The Sokoto Caliphate and its Enemies, Ibadan, Longman,1971,P.6.

[28] A.R. Augi., Migration of Gobirawa; A reconsideration, paper presented for History postgraduate Seminar, Zaria, A.B.U, 1979. P.31

[29] Oral interview, Ibrahim Ba-Mishkila Bagobiri, interview at Gusau, 58 Years,10 June,2018.

[30] N.Aliyu and J.Shehu, “A Re-Assessment of warfare system in Kasar Kabi( Kebbi) since 1515”. A paper presented at 2nd National conference, AFAIS UDUS, July 2017. P.14

[31] The article of Malam Sanda  Karshe Alkalawa, Waziri Junaidu History and Cultural Bureau Sokoto.

[32] Interview with Abubakar Bango Jibrelu, 85 years, Kanwuri area Sabon Birni, 20/6/2018.

An Assessment Of Military And Warfare System In Gobir Kingdom In The 19th Century

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