Hausa Language Academic Website

Tuesday, 25 December 2018

Gobarar Zuci: Nazarin Raddin Da Mawaƙan Hausa Suke Yi Wa Marowata



Rowa wata ɗabi’a ce da al’umma ke yi yau da kullum. Kodayake Hausawa basu goyon bayan rowa saboda kasancewar ɗabi’ar kishiyar kyauta wadda ake son ta zama ɗabi’ar kowane Bahaushe domin tafiyar da sha’anin rayuwarsa. Mawaƙan Hausa kan yi gobarar zuci a cikin waƙoƙinsu don su nuna rashin alfanun…

                                                           
Daga
Dr. Haruna Umar Bunguɗu
Kibɗau:harunaumarbungudu@gmail.com
Lambar waya: 08065429369

Da
Habibu Lawali Ƙaura
                                                           
Tsakure
Rowa wata ɗabi’a ce da al’umma ke yi yau da kullum. Kodayake Hausawa basu goyon bayan rowa saboda kasancewar ɗabi’ar kishiyar kyauta wadda ake son ta zama ɗabi’ar kowane Bahaushe domin tafiyar da sha’anin rayuwarsa. Mawaƙan Hausa kan yi gobarar zuci a cikin waƙoƙinsu don su nuna rashin alfanun rowa. Haka ne ya janyo ra’ayin jama’a da dama kan lamarin rowa tun daga shugabaanni da magabata da dattijai da malamai har ma da mawaƙa. wannan takarda ta yi ƙudurin fayyace ma’anarrowa tare da lalaben ra’ayoyin makaɗa da mawaƙan Hausa a kan rowa. Akwai bayanai a kan nau’o’in rowa da rabe- rabenta har ma da masu yi da waɗanda ake yi wa.
1.0  Gabatarwa
            Hausawa ba su son rowa, kuma ba su son a yi masu ita saboda tana da wani raɗaɗi a cikin zuciya kuma takan haifar da wanzuwar munanan al’amura a tsakaninsu na ɗan lokaci da na din- din – din.
            Malaman addinin Muslunci sun yi ta ƙoƙarin kira ga jama’a don su bar yin rowa ga ‘yan’uwansu kamar yadda al’qur’ani mai tsarki ya ce:
“Ga ku, ya ku waɗannan! Ana kiran ku domin ku ciyar ga tafarkin
Allah, sa’annan daga cikinku akwai masu yin rowa, kuma wanda ke yin rowa, to, yana yin rowar ne ga kansa. Kuma Allah ne  Wadatacce alhali kuwa ku faƙirai ne. kuma idan kuka juya (daga yi masa ɗa’a) zai musanya waɗansu mutane, waɗansunku sa’annan ba za su kasance kwatancinku ba.  
 Suratul Muhammad (47:38:775) 
1.1  Ma’anar Waƙa
Masana da dama sun yi ƙoƙari ƙwarai wajen bayyana ma’anar waƙa domin amfanin manazarta da sauran jama’a, ya kamata a wannan lokacin mu dubi wannan yunƙurin nasu domin a sake taskace su don amfaninmu na yau da kullum:
Shehun malamin Yahya (1997) cewa ya yi:
 “Magana ce da ake shisshirya kalmominta cikin azanci, ta yadda wajen furta su ana iya amfani da kayan kiɗa.”(Yahya 1997:1)
            Wannan ma’ana da wannan malami ya bayar ta nuna waƙa tana da wani tsari wanda zuben labari ba ya da shi. A lura malamin ya kawo awo da reruwa ga kalmomin da aka zaɓo da niyyar tsara waƙa da su. Wato idan babu awo kuma babu reruwa, to ko da an zaɓo kalmomi an ƙunsa ma’ana mai yawa a ciki ba zai sa maganar ta zama waƙa ba.  
Shi kuma Yahaya (1976:1) a ruwaitowar Gusau (2003:xii)  a lokacin da ya gabatar da waƙar haɗa kan Afirka ya ce:
“Waƙa magana ce ta fasaha a cure
wuri ɗaya a cikin tsari na musamman”.
                                                            (Gusau, 2003:xii)
          Wannan magana ta Shehun malami game da ma’anar waƙa ta nuna cewa; ita waƙa magana ce mai ƙunsar ma’ana mai yawa a cikin ‘yan kalmomi kaɗan, amma a cikin wani tsari na musamman ba kamar zuben labari ba. Wato kenan wannan ma’ana ta fitar da karin magana da zama waƙa, domin ko ya ƙunsa ma’ana mai yawa a cikin kalmomi ƙalilan, to ba a bisa wani tsari na musamman aka ɗora shi ba, haka yake tamkar kara zube.
            Ɗangambo (2007) ya ba waƙa ma’ana yana cewa:
“Muna iya cewa, waƙa wani saƙo ne da aka gina shi kan tsararriyar ƙa’ida ta baiti, ɗango, rerawa, kari (bahari), amsa-amo (ƙafiya), da sauran ƙa’idojin da suka shafi daidaita kalmomi, zaɓensu da amfani da su cikin sigogin da ba lalle ne haka suke a maganar baka ba”. (Ɗangambo 2007:5)
Shehun malamin ya bayyana cewa lalle waƙa magana ce wadda ta saɓa wa zance yau da kullum da aka saba da shi. Ana tsara ta bisa wasu ƙa’idoji da tsari wanda ya ƙunshi kary da amsa-amo, kuma dole kalmomin da za a yi amfani da su wajen tsara waƙa su kasance an zaɓo su ne tare da daidaitarsu da wajen da za a yi amfani da su, kenan ana zaƙulo su a tsattsara su a daidaita su kamar yadda ake bukata don su amfanar.
A wani aikin kuma Gusau cewa ya yi:
“A taƙaice waƙar baka wani zance ne shiryayye cikin hikima da azanci da yake zuwa gaɓa-gaɓa bisa ƙa’idojin shiryawa da daidaitawa a rere cikin sautin murya da amsa-amon kari da amshi da kiɗa” (Gusau 2008:188).

          Wannan masanin ya nuna cewa da waƙar baka da rubutatta kusan ma’anarsu ɗaya, bambanci kawai shi ne; ta baka ana haɗa ta da wasu abubuwa da rubutatta ba ta da su, kamar kiɗa da amshi (kodayake yanzu wasu rubutattu suna da amshi). Ta fuskar amsa-amo kuwa bambanci kawai shi ne ita ta baka amsa-amon karin sauti take da shi, ita kuwa rubutatta na gaɓar sauti take da shi, amma dai dukansu waƙa ne. 
          Shi kuma Bunguɗu (2015) cewa ya yi a cikin aikinsa:
“Waƙa wata magana ce da ake zaɓo kalmomi a tsara su cikin hikima bisa wasu ƙa’idoji na musamman domin daɗaɗa zukatan masu saurare da kuma isar da wani saƙo gare su a kuma yi amfani da wata murya ta musamman domin rerawa wadda ke fizgar hankalin jama’a ya zuwa bin diddigin ma’anoni da manufofin da ke cikin kalmomin”. Bunguɗu (2015:80)
            Wannan manazarci ya daɗa yadda rerawar waƙa take fizgar hankalin masu saurare domin su fahimci manufofin da waƙar ta samar. Wannan ne kan janyo jama’a su bi kalmomin waƙa daki-daki domin tantance manufofin nasu.
            Makaɗan Hausa sun fito da rashin jin daɗinsu game da rowa a tsakanin jama’a kasancewar sana’arsu ita ce roƙo. Sun fi sauran jama’a rashin jin daɗin rowa tare nuna rashin alfanunta gare su da sauran jama’a, Hausawa dai na cewa “Gyara kayanka ba zai zama sauke mu raba ba”
2.0  Abubuwan da rowa ke Haifarwa
Akwai wasu abubuwa da rowa take haifarwa a tsakanin jama’ar Hausawa waɗanda kan shafi hulɗoɗinsu na yau da kullum, waɗannan abubuwan sun haɗa da: ƙiuya da jin haushi da ƙiyayya da zunɗe da takaici da hassada da faɗa da kuma gaba. A ɗayan ɓangaren kuma rowa tana haifar da wa’azi ko nasiha ko zambo ko habaici ko zagi ko tonon asiri da sauransu. (Hira da Sarkin makaɗan Sarkin Fulanin Bunguɗu)
2.1 Ƙiuya
            Ƙiuya wata halayya ce da aka fi sani ga yara, ta rashin zuwa wani wurin da babba ya aike su, (Bunza, A. M. 2009:71)
Kamar yadda marigyayi Sa’idu Faru yake cewa a cikin waƙarsa ta Alhaji Macciɗo sarkin kudun Sakkwato.
           
                                    Jagora:     …..Laihin yaro ya yi ƙiuya,
                                                          Laihin babba ya yi rowa,
                                                          Ina ƙaunar ka Muhammadu,
                                                          ..…………………………….
                                                                      (Sa’idu Faru:Waƙar Sarkin Kudu)
            A nan dai idan mutum yana da halin rowa, shi kuma zai haɗu da masu yi masa ƙiuya a duk lokaci da yake son ya aiki wani ko yaro ko babba a cikin al’ummar Hausawa, Sa’idu Faru ya bayyanar da haka a wannan waƙar tasa, har ma ya nuna ƙarara cewa rowa ta haifar da ƙiuya.

2.2 Jin Haushi
            Wannan shi ne damuwa da wani a kan wani abu da ya yi. Idan wani mutum ya yi wa wani rowa a mafi yawan lokuta yana sa wanda aka yi wa ya ji haushinsa, ya riƙa damuwa har ya ji baya son ganinsa! Babu wani dalili ko wani abu day a janyo hakan in banda rowar da ya yi masa, kuma duk lokacin da ya  dawo ya yi masa kyauta zai iya daina jin haushinsa.
            Bawa Ɗan Anace Gandi a waƙarsa ta Ado Ɗan kore ya kawo wasu ɗiyan waƙarsa inda ya nuna rowa kamar haka:
            Gindin waƙar: Baka da tsoro maƙi garaje Ɗan kore
                        Jagora:             Ga wani ya sami ‘yan kwababbanai ƙauye
                                                Kuma ya koma yana gudun ‘yan wajjensu
                     
                       ‘Yan amshi:     Haba Ƙwanƙiro ɓoye abinka bam u son komi naka. X2
                                                           (Ɗan anace: Ado Ɗankore)
            A wannan waƙar Ɗan’ anace ya ji haushin wancan mutumen wanda ya sami kuɗi ya guji mutanen wajjensu, inda har ya yi masa laƙabi da ƙwanƙiro. Idan an ce ma mutum ƙwanƙiro a al’ummar Hausa ana nufin marowaci wanda bai ba kowa abinsa. A ƙarshe ma mawaƙin ya ji haushi ya nuna jin haushinsa inda har y ace baya son komai na wannan marowacin saboda kawai halinsa na rowa ga jama’arsu.
2.4 Zagi/Yankan Ƙauna
            Al’ummar Hausawa al’umma ce da ke son mutumta juna ta kowane irin hali, haka kuma al’umma ce mai son zaman tare cikin girmamawa da ƙauna. Amma yin ɗabi’ar rowa kan haifar da akasin haka kamar zagi da kuma yankan ƙauna da sauransu. Zagi dai shi ne kiran sunan iyayen mutum da niyyar ɓatanci gareshi ko kuma yin munanan kalaman taɗazwa da za su iya tunzura shi.

3.0  Hanyoyin Da Wasu Mawaƙan Hausa Ke Bayyanar Da Rowa
            Kasancewar rowa ba abu ce maid aɗi ba ga mawaƙan Hausa, sai suka riƙa nuna abin bai yi masu daɗi ba a cikin waƙoƙin nasu. Suna yin haka ne ta hanyar bin waɗansu hanyoyi daban – daban don su bayyana wa jama’a cewa rowa ba halin kirki bane. Waɗannan hanyoyin su ne:

3.1 Zagin Marowaci
            Mawaƙan Hausa suna bayyanar da rowa a cikin waƙoƙinsu ta hanyar zagin duk wani mai halin rowa wato marowaci a cikin al’umma.

A waƙar Ɗan Anace Gandi yana cewa:
                                   
                                    Jagora:      Na Gode Rakkiyar Gano
                                                      Harkar da tay yi rannan na gode


                                                      Rannan ga Ɗan Anace ya zo gaishe ta
                                                     Waccan ga zane da riga ta ba ni
                                                      Kuma waccan ga zane da riga ta ba ni
                                                      Kuma ga zane biyu an ba ni
                 

                                ‘Yan Amshi: Ke shegiya ɓoye abinki ba a cin komi naki
                                                      Haba shegeya ɓoye abinki ba a cin komi naki
                                                                     (Ɗan anace ado Ɗankore)
            A nan mawaƙin ya yi zagi ne ga wata mata marowaciya, wadda ba ta son bayar da abin hannunta, musamman ga shi mawaƙin, sai y ace mata shegiya wanda kuma a al’adar Hausa wani irin babban zagi ne, wanda sai faɗa ya yi faɗa ake ce wa mutum shi.
            Haka kuma wani mawaƙi Maidaji sabon birni a cikin waƙarsa cewa ya yi:
                       
                        Gindin waƙa: Gagari gaba na Salihu
                                               Mainasara ɗan Hayatu ɗan durumbu magajin gidan kada.
                         Jagora:         Na so ɓacin tcibilbila
                        ‘Yan amshi:  Zaman Zauren nan nika Gudu
                                              In zaure ya buwaya,
                                              Yanzu ko ga itace zama takai
                         Jagora:         Na so in ɓaci hakimin sarki
                                                Rowan nan da yatc tcira
                        ‘Yan amshi:  baƙar rowan nan ta wane shi ka sa a tcira mai ɗumumuwa.
                                                                                       (Maidaji Sabon birni: Gagari gaba)
                        Can gaba kuma sai ya fito da maganarsa a fili yana faɗin:
                           
                        Jagoran:         Ashe kyawon Ɗan Bagobiri
                                               Ya kwan da shiri nai shirin hwaɗa
                       
                       ‘Yan amshi:   Zanka tunawa da Bawa
                                              Dauri kalle wuyan’yan maza yakai.
                                                          (Maidaji Sabon birni: Gagari gaba)

            Idan an kula a wannan wurin, za a iya fahimtar cewa mawaƙin ya yi zagi ne kaikaice ga hakimin sarki domin ya furtan cewa saboda baƙar rowarsa ne har jama’a tare da shi mawaƙin suka yi masa miyagun maganganu (ɗumumuwa).
3.2 Yabon Kishiyar Rowa (wato kyauta)
            Mawaƙan Hausa suna amfani da dabarar yabon wanda yake da halin kyauta domin su kushe halin rowa, wanda suke ganin cewa ba halin kirki ba ne. wato duk lokacin da mutum yake yaba wani abu to ko shakka babu yana daƙile ɗayan kishiyar ne.
            Alhaji Mamman Shata a cikin waƙar sarkin Daura Bashar Ɗan Musa ya yaba kyautarsa wanda ke nuni ga irin darajar da rashin rowar ked a ita a tsakaninsu.

                    Jagora:          Bashar ya kawo rigar kurma,
                                          Han na tafi ca nai nisa,
                                          Sai niw waigo daga baya,
                                          Shiru kada in maka taɗin mata,
                                          Alhaji turmin matar kurma.
                   ‘Yan amshi:   Na gode ma Bshar Ɗan Musa
                                           Mamman mai mulkin Daurawa.
                                                     (Shata: Bashar Ɗan Musa)
            Alhaji Mamman Shata a wannan wurin ya yabi sarkin Daura ne Alhaji Muhammadu Bashar Ɗan Musa, bias irin halinsa na kyauta ba ƙafƙaftawa, wanda har yake ba shi tausayi idan ya fara yin kyautarsa.
            Haka kuma Alhaji Musa Ɗanƙwairo a waƙarsa ta Alhaji Amadu Sardaunan Sakkwato yana yaba kyautar da ya yi masa wanda kushewa ne ga rowa:

                   Jagora:      Sardauna ya yi man kyauta
                                     Wani garin ya hi gaban kunu
                                      Sai niy yi shiu ina kallo
                 ‘Yan amshi: Alhamdu lillahi ɗai munka tsare
                                      Allah ya tabbata ma sutura.

                    Jagora:        Ƙwairo ya bani kore
                                       Da wando mai surhwani
                                       Sannan kuma da tunas
                                       Da turmi huɗu na mata
                                       Kana ya bani alkyabba
                                       Kana ya bani tasala.
                                                 (Alhaji Musa Ɗanƙwairo: Amadu Sardauna)
            Mawaƙin a wannan waƙa tasa ya yabi Sardauna ne da irin kasancewarsa hannun baiwa ga kowa da kowa, amma dai shi ya bayyanar da kyautar da yayi masa ne don jama’a su ji  su kuma san yadda Sardauna yake kyautata masa.
    A wata waƙa ta shiryayye Malam Isah yace:
                       Jagora:       Mai ƙwazo nika wa waƙa
                                          Ni ba ni kiɗin raggo.
                     ‘Yan amshi:  Shiryayye Malam Isah,
                                           Bai yada gazawa ba.
                                              (Alhaji Musa Ɗawairo: Bai yada gazawa ba)
            A nan ƙwazo yana nufin kyauta shi kuma raggo marowaci kenan. Wato mai iya bayar da abin hannunsa shi mai ƙwazo ne, kuma duk wanda bai iya yin hakan to shi raggo ne.

3.3 Wa’azin Da Gargaɗi A Kan Rowa Ko Kyauta
            Mawaƙan Hausa suna yin wa’azi ko gargaɗi a cikin waƙoƙinsu don mutane su ga sha’awar alheri kuma su guji yin rowa a tsakaninsu.
Alhaji Mamman Shata Bakandamiyarsa yana cewa:
                       Jagora:       Kai mai nufin ka yi alheri,
                                         Allah baka abin alherin,
                                         Kayi alherin muji daɗi,
                                         Kuma kai mai nufin yi mana rowa,
                                         Allah baka abin yin rowar,
                                         In kai rowar mu ji zafi,

                                         Iyakar ta dai mutum ya yi rowar,
                                         Ba ya hana mu shiga aljanna,
                   ‘Yan amshi: Ala ala mai ganga ya gode,
                                        Yaran mai ganga sun gode,
                                         (Alhaji Mamman Shata Bakandamiya)
                   
Alhaji Sani Sabulu Kanoma a cikin waƙarsa yana wa’azi ne inda yake cewa:
                     Jagora:        Mai rowa maƙiyin Allah ne,
                                        Ba yaganin Annabi,
                                        Saboda azaba ɗai anka yi shi.
         Jagora:       kowas sami abin duniya yaz zauna yac canye shi ɗai,
                           Da ya mutu ya san wahala ta ɗauko taggo ta kai shi ƙasa

                     Jagora:       Shi ɗai zai mutuwa a kwasai a zuba rame,
                                        A kyale shi ciki,
                                        Nakiri ya iske shi gida,
                                        Ya sa mashi sarƙa ta wuta,
                                       Ya dunƙule hannunsa ciki
                                        Ya hude gabanai hannu ya wuce,
                                       Ya hude baya,
                                        Sai a hwaɗa mashi rowa tak kaishi haka.
                                                  (Alhaji Sani Sabulu: Abu Zaki Magajin gari)

            Wannan kuma wani wa’azu ne ga al’ummar Annabi cewa kowa ya daina yin rowa don tsoron horon da za a yi masa a cikin kabarinsa. Wannan Magana ce ta malamai mawaƙin ya yi amfani da ita don ya wa’azi ga marowata. A ganinsa masu rowa ne saboda bas u son bayar da abin hannunsu ga maroƙa sai su ce roƙo zunubi ne!

3.4 Yankan Ƙauna
            Mawaƙan Hausa ta yanke ƙauna tsakaninsu da marowata, wato su nuna cewa sun fita batun duk wani arzikin da keg a mutum in dai mai rowa ne.
Har kuma ya nuna bai damu da shi ba.
            Alhaji Ibrahim Narambaɗa a waƙarsa cewa ya yi:
                          Gindin waƙar: Manyan maza na Jatau, Sule Ginjimin Alhaji;
                           Jagora:        In ba ka ni doki
                         ‘Yan amshi: Wani ba ni doki yakai
                          Jagora:        Ba kyauta ba ko ruwan gulbi sai wuri – wuri
                         ‘Yan amshi: Ballanta ruwan ƙorama
                                  ( Alhaji Ibrahim Narambaɗa: Sule Ginjimin Alhaji)
            Wani mawaƙi kuwa yana cewa a cikin waƙarsa:
                           Jagora:        Zaman ɗaki ko yana ruwa
                                               Ma’azu ai ya ɗara wuri
                          ‘Yan amshi:  Ko da Sarkin yaƙi na yi ma rowa
                                               Ka bar biyaw wani.
                                                (Alhaji Sa’idu Faru: Gwauron Giwa)
                            A nan ana iya cewa mawaƙak sun yanke ƙauna ne tsakanin su da marowaci don ko kula da shi ba su yi a cewarsu, su dai mai alheri ya fi masu marowaci.

3.5 Fatan Alheri Ga mai Kyauta
            Mawaƙan Hausa kan yi wa mai kyauta fatan alheri a cikin waƙoƙinsu saboda wannan halin nasa da ya nuna masu, wani lokaci hard a addu’o’I na cewa Allah ya taimake shi ya biya masa buƙatunsa har ya buɗe masa hanyoyi da zai sami abin da zai cigaba da kyauta da shi.

                       A cikin bakandamiyar Shata yana cewa:

                             Jagora:       Kai mai nufin ka yi alheri,
                                               Allah baka abin alherin,
                                               Ka yi alherin mu ji daɗi.

                                               Kuma kai mai nufin kai mana rowa,
                                               Allah baka abin yin rowar,
                                               In kai rowar mu ji zafi,
                                               Iyakar ta dai mutum yai rowar,
                                               Baya hana ni shiga aljanna.
                          ‘Yan amshi: Ala – ala maiganga sun gode.
                                               Yaran Maiganga sun gode.
                                                    ( Alhaji Mamman Shata: Bakandamiya)        
 
Kammalawa
            Mawaƙan Hausa tare da sauran jama’a ba su son rowa saboda ɓata zuciyar da ke cikinta, saboda haka ne sukan yi gobarar zuci ta hanyar mayar da martini tare da nuna rashin jin daɗinsu. Wannan takarda ta kalli irin martanin da mawaƙan suke yi a cikin waƙoƙinsu, a sakamakon rowar da wasu mutane ke yi masu. An tattauna munanan abubuwan da rowa take haifarwa tsakanin jama’a. tare da kuma irin hanyoyin da mawaƙan ke bayyanar da rowar a cikin waƙoƙinsu. Muna fatar Allah maɗaukakin sarki ya amfanar damu da wannan aikin, amin.
Manazarta


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