Bambanci Da Kamanci Tsakanin Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci Da Katsinanci (4)

 

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NAZIRU MUHAMMAD ALKALI


 


KUDIN KAMMALA KARATUN DIGIRI NA FARKO (B.A HAUSA) DA AKA GABATAR A SASHEN HARSUNAN NIJERIYA, JAMI’AR USMANU ‘DANFODIYO, SAKKWATO


 

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BABI NA UKU


JUMLOLI A  KARIN HARSHEN SAKKWATANCI   


3.0    SHIMFI’DA


Wannan babi shi ne babin da ya ke d’auke da nazari kan karin harshen Sakkwatanci, kuma a cikin sa ne za a ga ire-iren kalmomi da jumlolin da karin harshen Sakkwatanci yake da su. Wad’anda suka had’a da azuzuwan kalmomi da Sassauk’ar jumla a karin harshen Sakkwatanci, da kuma jumlar tambaya da ta umarni, tare da jumlar korewa duk  a  cikin karin harshen Sakkwatanci. Za a kawo su ne kamar yadda aka kawo na daidaitacciyar Hausa a babi na biyu. Kafin a yi duk wad’annan bayanan sai an waiwayi abin da masana suka ce game da karin harshen Sakkwatanci.

 

 

3.1    KARIN HARSHEN  SAKKWATANCI


Idan ana maganar karin harshen Sakkwatanci za a ga cewa karin harshe ne mai babban kaso wanda ya k’unshi karuruwan harsunan yammacin k’asar Hausa. Idan aka yi la’akari da ra’ayoyin wasu daga cikin masana wad’anda ke ganin cewa, karin harshe ya kasu kashi biyu wato Karin harshen gabas wanda ya k’unshi Kananci, Zazzaganci, Katsinanci da makamantansu, sai kuma karin harshen yamma wanda ya k’unshi Sakkwatanci, Kabanci, Zamfaranci, Arewanci, da sauran kare-karen harshen yamma. Saboda kasancewar garin Sakkwato a matsayin babbar mahad’a ga sauran karuruwan harsunan yamma. Saboda haka sai masana ilimin kimiyyar nazarin harshe suka za’bi karin harshen Sakkwatanci ya zama jagora ga sauran karuruwan harshen Hausa da suke da alak’a da juna ta fuskar furuci da tsarin sauti da yanayin gini jumla da ma’ana. Akan samu dangantaka ta fagen karin harshe da al’adu da auratayya, addini da kuma kasuwanci. Wasu kad’an daga cikin masanan da suka tofa albarkacin bakinsu game da karin harshen Sakkwatanci su ne:

Hamma'ali, (1985), ya nuna cewa "Sakkwatanci Karin harshe ne na Sakkwato. An samo kalmar Sakkwatanci ne daga sunan garin Sakkwato. Sakkwatanci karin harshe ne na mutanen Sakkwato. Sai dai kuma ba ana nufin Jihar Sakkwato gaba d’aya ba. Wasu na ganin tsagwaron Sakkwatawa su ne, wad’anda ke garuruwan da ke kusa da Sakkwato, wato Zamfarawa, Kabawa da Arawa, musamman wad’anda aka kafa ko ciyar da su gaba, bayan jihadi.

Wasu masana na ganin cewa, Sakkwatanci karin harshe ne na mulki. Dalilin da ya sa suke ganin Sakkwatanci a matsayin karin harshe na mulki shi ne, saboda kasancewar Sakkwato cibiyar daular Usmaniyya. Wadda bayan k’are jihadi ita ce ke fad’a a ji a k’asar Hausa, har zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka. Bisa la’akari da ra’ayin wannan manazarci ana iya cewa karin harshen Sakkwatanci ya samo asali ne daga ginuwar garin Sakkwato a zamanin jihadin Shehu ‘Danfodiyo, inda aka za’bi garin Sakkwato don ya zama babbar fadar mulki ta masu jihadi. Wannan za’ben da aka yi wa Sakkwato sai ya samar da dama ga mutanen garin Sakkwato na mallakar kalmomi da k’wayoyin sautukan sauran kare-karen harshen da suke mak’wabtaka da garin Sakkwaton wajen ginin kalma da samar da jumla zuwa fahimtar ma’ana da take k’unshe cikin zantukan yau da kullum.

3.2 KALMOMIN KARIN HARSHEN SAKKWATANCI


Wad’annan kalmomi da za a gabatar a nan kalmomi ne, da ake tattaunawa a kan su cikin shirin zauren Sakkwatanci na gidan rediyo vision F.M. wad’annan kalmomin za a adana su ne don gudun salwantar su nan gaba. Ga jerin kalmomin:

 

 

 Kalmomin Sakkwatanci Ma’ana a Daidaitacciyar Hausa

Al’amurra                                                              al’amura

Agalemi                                                                buzu

Akaihwa                                                               farce

Alkwato                                                      dodonkod’I Alloba                                                         annoba

Anka                                                                    aka

Arbik’i                                                        unguwarzoma

Assibit                                                                  asabar

Awo                                                                     Ee

Batu                                                                      magana

Basilla                                                                   allura

Bid’a                                                                    nema

Burgu                                                                   gafiya

Bugu                                                                    duka

Rwarwaka                                                             raraka

Hwara                                                                   fara

Wanga                                                                  wannan

Wargi                                                                   wasa

Shigihwa                                                              d’aki

Bid’a                                                                    nema

Ragaita                                                                 shiririta

3.2.1 KALMOMI MASU BAMBANCIN FURUCI AMMA MA’ANA ‘DAYA


Bargery (1934) shi ne ya yi k’ok’arin kawo wad’annan kalmomin na Sakkwatanci tare da kwatanta su da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Saboda haka, ga wasu kad’an daga cikin su bisa tsarin gidan rediyon Vision F.M. tare da ma’anar su cikin daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga misalin su:

Karin Harshen Sakkwatanci                    Katsinanci

Agalemi                                                                buuzuu

Alkwatoo                                                              Kod’i

Akaihwa                                                               Farcee

Arbiik’ii                                                      Unguwarzoma

Badaraa                                                                 Tsuntsu

Bagajaa                                                       Kwatamii

Bundii                                                         Wutsiyaa

‘bartakee                                                     Abaawaa

‘baaci                                                                    Zaagi

‘baace-’baace                                                        zage-zage

Hwarcee                                                                Yaatsaa

Gambuu                                                               k’yaure

Gulbii                                                                   Koogii

Gujjiyaa                                                                Gyad’a

Guroo                                                          Ku’beewaa

Gidan bisa                                                             Beenee

Habd’ii                                                                 Tookaa

3.2.2  KALMOMI MASU MA’ANA ‘DAYA, AMMA SAUTI BAMBAN


A nan k’asa, in an za a ga Sakkwatatun kalmomi wad’anda ma’anarsu d’aya da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa, amma sautin su ya bambanta da na Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga misalan kad’an daga cikin su:

Sakkwatanci                                        Daidaitacciyar Hausa    

Allooba                                             Annooba

Al’amurraa                                        Al’amura

Attanin                                              Litinin

Anguwaa                                           Unguwaa

Assibit                                               Asabar

Bahwaadee                                        Bafaade

Busshiyaa                                          Bishiya

Bukii                                                 Bikii

Ciyyoo                                              Ciiwoo

Jibjii                                                  Juujii

Laahiyaa                                            Laafiyaa

Lak’yas                                             Lak’was

Lallai                                                 Lalle

Mussai                                               Mushee

Sabkaa                                               Saukaa

Saashee                                              Saashi

Shibkaa                                             Shuukaa

Shidda                                               Shida

Sihilii                                                Sifirii

Suuraa                                               Suumaa

Swa’baanii                                         Saa’baanii

Swaahwaa                                         Saafaa

Sakkwatanci yakan yi amfani da wad’ansu kalmomi wad’anda shi kad’ai ya ke’banta da su, sai wasu daga cikin kare-karen harshen yammaci wato ‘yan dangin Sakkwatanci, wad’anda su ma ba kowace kalma ce daga cikin kalmomin suke amfani da ita ba. Amma wannan ba ya haddasa bambancin ma’ana a kan ire-iren wad’annan kalmomi da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa ke amfani da su.

Wannan na nufin idan Sakkwatanci ya yi amfani da wata kalma, to akwai irinta a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa sai dai akan sami bambancin k’wayoyin sautuka a tsakanin su. Sannan kalmar ba ta da bambancin ma’ana da takwarar ta, da ke samu a cikin sauran kare-karen harshen Hausa ko a Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Alal misali, Sakkwatanci yakan yi amfani da kalmar ‘katattara’ wato wani sashe na k’afar mutum mai tattare da nama, wanda ya taso daga guiwa zuwa d’uwawu). Amma a Daidaitacciyar Hausa da wasu kare-karen harshen Hausa sukan yi amfani da kalmar ‘cinya’ a maimakon katattara. A nan, ma’anar katattara da cinya ba bambanci. Akan iya a sami bambancin tsarin kalmomin, amma ma’anarsu d’aya. Ko kuma bambancin furuci, amma ma’ana d’aya tsakanin Sakkwatanci da Daidaitacciyar Hausa ko ma da sauran kare-karen harshen gabashi.

3.3 JUMLOLIN KARIN HARSHEN SAKKWATANCI


A babi na biyu an kawo nau’o’in jumlar daidaitacciyar Hausa, tare da misalan su, har nazarin ya fitar da tsarin azuzuwan kalmomin da kowace jumla ta k’unsa. A wannan babin an kawo jerin wasu daga cikin kalmomi mallakar karin harshen Sakkatanci tare da tak’aitaccen bayani dangane da karin harshen Sakkwatancin kansa. Sannan an waiwayi yadda tsarin nau’o’in ginin jumlolin karin harshen Sakkwatanci tare da nazartar su daki-daki. Ga yadda nazarin ya gudana:

3.3.1 SASSAUK’AR JUMLA A  KARIN HARSHEN SAKKWATANCI


Kamar yadda Sassauk’ar Jumlar daidaitacciyyar Hausa ta k’unshi yankin Suna da kuma abin da aka fad’i a game da suna; haka ma Sassauk’ar jumlar Sakkwatanci ta k’unshi yankin suna da kuma yankin abin da aka fad’i a game da suna. Misali wasu daga cikin jumlolin Sakkwatanci.

a-       Bala            ya      c         canye         abinci.

Sn aik             maf     lokt           Aik                       Sn k’b

                S                                                              A                               K

 

 

b-      Musa na      ya      s        sha              ruwa

                Sn aik                      maf    lokt                Aik                          Snk’b

S                                                              A                               K

c-       Musa           ya      k     kaama     Zaki

Sn aik                        maf     lokt             Aik          Sn k’b

S                                                              A                 K

 

d-      Ali              ya      k     kashe    Kare

Sn aik                        maf     lokt             Aik          Sn k’b

                S                                                              A                K

 

3.2.2 JUMLAR  TAMBAYA


Jumlar tambaya ita ce jumlar da ake yi domin tambaya. Saboda haka Sakkwatanci yakan canja wasu daga cikin kalmomin na tambaya, amma kuma wasu basu canjawa, kamar yadda daidaitacciyar Hausa take fad’insu haka Sakkwatanci shi ma yake fad’insu. Ga wasu daga cikinsu.

  • Shi ina Maryam tat tahi ?


klm tmb                                          almtmb

  • Shin waa aŋ   ka   aika ?


klm tmb                                                   almtmb

  • Shin yaushee na za  a  dawo  wa aiki ?


klm tmb                                                                                   almtmb

  • Shin k’ak’aa za  a  yi  ?


klm tmb                                   almtmb

  • Yayaa Audu   yah  hwad’i  jarabawa ?


klm tmb                                                                                   almtmb

  • Mii Ali  yas  saye ?


klm tmb                                   almtmb

  • Wa suŋka  zo  d’azu ?


klm tmb                                   almtmb

3.2.3 JUMLAR  UMARNI


Jumlar umurni kamar sauran jumloli ita ma jumlar umurni ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci daidai take da jumlar umurni ta daidaitacciyar Hausa. Haka ma takan zo da kalma d’aya rak, a matsayin jumla, kuma ta ba da ma'ana cikakkiya, kalmar da take zuwa da ita, itace kalmar aikatau. Ga kad’an daga cikin misalan jumlar umurni a karin harshen Sakkwatanci.

  1. Ali tashi !

  2. Kabiru rubuta !

  3. Musa Karanta !


Haka jumlar ya kamata ta kasance amma saboda wasu dalilai sai ta koma kamar haka:

Misali:

Tashi !

Rubuta !

Karanta !

 

 

3.2.4 JUMLAR  KOREWA


Jumlar korewa ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci ita ma daidai take da jumlar korewa ta Daidaitacciyar Hausa. Sai dai kuma ita wannan jumlar ta korewa ta d’an bambanta da ta daidaitacciyar Hausa a wasu bak’ak’en haruffa na Sakkatanci da suka sa’ba da na daidaitacciyar Hausa. Ga wasu daga cikin su:

  1. Baa Ali     yas     sayee ba.

  2. Rabi ba      ta       tahi    makaranta    ba.

  3. Baa kud’d’i                 banki.

  4. Agwagwa ba      ta       tashi   sama  sosai.

  5. Baabu ruwa            a        randa.

  6. bai dace   a        hana  bara   ba.

  7. Kaada kaa    tahi/kar        ka a    tahi.


 

  1. 3 NA’DEWA


Wannan babi wato babi na uku inda aka bayyana karin harshen Sakkwatanci a bisa ra’ayoyin masana da kuma ire-iren jumlar Hausa karin harshen Sakkwatanci, tare kuma da kawo wasu misalai daga ciki. A sassauk’ar jumlar Hausa ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci an yi bayani cewa ita ma jumlar ta k’umshi yanki biyu wato yankin suna da kuma yankin abin da aka fad’i a game da suna, haka ita ma jumlar karin harshen Sakkwatanci tana bias tsarin S.A.K, kamar haka sassauk’ar jumlar daidaitacciyar Hausa. Jumlar tambaya ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci ita ma kamar jumlar tambaya take ta daidaitacciyar Hausa, jumla ce da ake yi domin tambaya. Jumlar umurni ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci, ita ma kamar jumlar umurni take ta daidaitacciyar Hausa, ana gina ta ne akan umurni. Jumlar korewa ta karin harshen Sakkwatanci, ita ma kamar jumlar korewa take ta daidaitacciyar Hausa, ana gina ta ne a kan korewa sai dai ta bambanta da ta daidaitacciyar Hausa kad’an.

 

 

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