Gudunmuwar Wasannin Barkwanci Ga Samar Da Zaman Lafiya Da Sasantawa A K’asar Hausa

Amsoshi

 


Daga


 


 


Musa Shehu


Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya


Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato


msyauri@yahoo.com


07031319454


 


 



1.0   Gabatarwa


Kowace al’umma ta duniya tana da dabarun tunkarar matsalolin da ke yi mata barazana tun ba su kutso kai ba. Yin ko oho da matsaloli wata alama ce ta nuna kasawar al’ummar da ke cikin matsalolin. Rayuwar Hausawa ta kasance cike da ka-ce-na-ce da tashin-tashina da k’urar yak’e-yak’e da k’angin bauta. Bayan an yi kare jini biri jini, aka rabu da dutsi a hannun riga, sai tunanin a share jini a koma wasa  ya had’u da tunanin fad’an da ya fi k’arfinka mayar da shi wasa, aka ham’bare gwamnatin kar-ta-san-kar, aka kafa sabuwar daular zaman lafiya ya fi zama d’an sarki.[i] Yadda Bahaushe ya yi amfani da wasannin barkwanci wajen kashe wutar gaba da k’iyayya da yak’e-yak’en jahiliyya suka haifar abin a zo gani a yi nazari ne. Babban burina ga wannan takarda shi ne, yin nazarin yadda wasannin barkwancin Hausawa suke taimakawa wajen samar da zaman lafiya da sasantawa domin ci gaba da ba su muhimmanci musamman yadda zaman lafiya ke k’ok’arin ta’bar’barewa a k’asar Hausa da ma Nijeriya baki d’aya a yau.

2.0   Mene ne Wasan Barkwanci


            A farko kalmar wasa shi ne, abin da akan yi don raha ko nishad’i ko don motsa jiki.[ii] Bunza 2015 cewa ya yi, wasa kan d’auki ma’anoni da dama irin su:

▪ Wasa da ga’b’ban jiki domin samar da raha da wartsakewa.

▪ Maganganun raha na motsar da annashuwa da tuna baya.

▪ Wasu ayyukan al’ada na burgewa da samar da raha.

▪ Wasannin gargajiya da al’ada ta katangace da sunan “wasa”.

▪ Yunk’urin yin wani abu, ba hak’ik’aninsa ba, ko ba da gaske ba.

▪ K’irk’irarrun labarai, k’agaggu na kunne ya girmi kaka.

▪ Dabarun fitar da kai cikin tukunya idan ruwa sun ci gwani.

A ‘bangaren barkwanci kuwa, K’amusun Hausa (2006) an bayyana ma’anar barkwanci da cewa, raha ko wasa na fatar baki don ban dariya. ‘Dangambo 1984 cewa ya yi, “Barkwanci shi ne zantuttuka na raha da wasu mutane wad’anda Allah ya hore wa iya raha da magana ta ban dariya ga jama’a”. ‘Dalha (2016) yana cewa, “Barkwanci wasa ne na raha da nishad’i da ke wakana tsakanin al’ummomi daban-daban da nufin k’ulla zumunci da kyautata zamantakewa da samar da zaman lafiya da ci gaban k’asa da kuma yin luguden tarihin wasu muhimman abubuwa da suka faru a baya”.[iii] Abubuwa da dama ne sukan haifar da barkwanci: Akwai yak’i da bauta da zumuntar jini da auratayya da addini da tattalin arziki da zamantakewa da sauransu. A kan haka ana iya cewa, wasan barkwanci wasa ne da Hausawa suke gudanarwa tsakaninsu ko tsakaninsu da wasu k’abilu domin samar da raha da kore zogin zuci da manta baya idan wata matsala ta ta’ba shiga tsakani domin samar da zaman lafiya mai d’orewa.

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/11/01/sharhi-a-kan-littafi-mai-suna-jarumin-jarumai/

3.0   Mene ne Zaman Lafiya


Zaman lafiya a Bahaushen tunani shi ne, zama cikin natsuwa, da sakewa da rashin fargaba da tashin-tashina ta kowace fuska. Zama ne da ba ka cuta ba, ba a cuce ka ba. Zama ne na aminci ga k’asa da wad’anda ke cikinta, da wad’anda za su ziyarce ta, da wad’anda za su fice daga cikinta, da wad’anda ke mak’wabtaka da ita. Zama ne da zai bai wa duk wanda ke cikin k’asa d’an asalinta, da bak’inta na arziki, da ‘yan gudun hijirarta, da masu zaman mafakar siyasa a ciki, natsuwa da kuranye firgita a zukatansu. Zaman lafiya zama ne na d’ebe d’ammaha ga duk wata hayagaga da ru’bushi da ta da zaune tsaye da wata halitta za ta haddasa ga wanda ke cikinta, face abubuwan da babu makawa aka k’addaro gare ta daga mai k’addarawa (Allah)[iv].

A K’amusun Hausa (2006) ba a kawo ma’ana d’aya da ta shafi kalmomin biyu ba, wato ‘zama da lafiya’, sai aka kawo ma’anonin kalmomin daban-daban kowane yana cin gashin kansa. Don haka aka bayyana ma’anar zama da “kasancewa zaune”, wato kishiyar tsayuwa, lafiya kuma aka bayyana ta da “rashin tashin hankali da hargitsi a wuri.” Saboda haka, idan aka dubi ma’anonin kalmomin biyu za a ga suna bayyana ma’anar zaman lafiya da kwanciyar hankali da rashin rigingimu da fitina a cikin jama’a. Ibeanu (2006) ya kawo ma’anoni kamar guda biyar da suka shafi fannoni daban-daban na ilimi a kan zaman lafiya, ga su kamar haka:Zaman lafiya na nufin rashin wanzuwar yak’i; yak’i kuma na nufin rashin wanzuwar zaman lafiya. Don haka, a koyaushe kalmomin biyu ba sa had’uwa wuri d’aya, dole a kiyaye su da yadda suke wakana a rayuwa. A ma’ana ta ilimin falsafa kuwa (Philosophical definition), zaman lafiya na nufin rashin wanzuwar cin hanci ko rashawa a cikin al’umma kamar yadda Allah Ya tsara. Haka ma, ana iya cewa, zaman lafiya yanayi ne na kyakkyawar rayuwar al’umma a doron k’asa da bai riga ya gur’bata ba. A fannin ilimin walwalar rayuwa (Sociological definition), zaman lafiya na nufin yanayin had’in kan al’umma na rashin tashin-tashina a tsakaninsu. A wata fad’ar kuma, zama lafiya na nufin wani yanayi ne na rashin wanzuwar rikice-rikice a tsakanin d’aid’aikun mutane ko k’ungiyoyi ta yadda za su iya samun damar biyan buk’atun rayuwarsu cikin lumana. A fannin siyasa kuma (Political definition), kamar yadda Jami’ar zaman lafiya ta bayyana, zaman lafiya shi ne tsarin siyasa da ke tabbatar da wanzuwar adalci ga al’umma. Daga nan kuma marubucin ya bayyana ra’ayinsa kan ma’anar zaman lafiya yana cewa, zaman lafiya al’amari ne da ya shafi al’amurran da suka shafi bunk’asa da ci gaba kai tsaye ko a fakaice, da rage rikici a cikin wata al’umma da ma al’ummomin duniya baki d’aya.[v] Francis (2006) yana cewa, zaman lafiya na nufin rashin wanzuwar yak’i da tsoro da rikici da fargaba da wahala da ta’addanci da kuma wanzuwar lumana. Wato abu ne da ya shafi samuwa da d’orewar adalci a cikin al’umma da kuma sasanta rikici ta hanyar ruwan sanyi.[vi] A tunanina kuwa, zaman lafiya shi ne samun walwala da sakewa na rashin wanzuwar rikice-rikice ko yak’e-yak’e ko cin hanci da rashawa, da samuwar adalci tsakanin al’ummar k’asa ba tare da mayar da wasu ‘yan Bora da ‘yan Mowa ba.

3.0  Sasantawa


Sasantawa (Conflict Resolution) wani al’amari ne mai muhimmancin gaske a rayuwar kowace al’umma. A duk lokacin da wasu rikice-rikice ko yak’e-yak’e ko tashin-tashina suka wanzu a tsakanin al’umma, hanya mafi dacewa da ya kamata a yi amfani da ita domin warware su cikin ruwan sanyi da kuma dawo da zaman lafiya mai d’orewa ita ce hanyar sasantawa ko yin sulhu a tsakanin masu husuma.

A k’amusun Hausa (2006) an bayyana ma’anar sasantawa da shiga tsakanin masu husuma biyu, ko kuma sulhu.[vii] A cikin K’amusun Oxford an kawo ma’anar sasantawa da cewa, yanayi ne na warware ko daidaita matsala, jayayya, da sauransu.[viii] Idan haka ne, a nawa tunani sasantawa wata dabara ce ta  warware ko kawo k’arshen tak’addama ko husuma ko rikici ko rigingimu, ko duk wata matsala da ta shiga tsakanin wasu mutane ko k’abilu ko addinai ko k’asa da k’asa cikin ruwan sanyi ba tare da kai ruwa rana ba.

4.0   Wasan Barkwanci Tsakanin Rukunan Hausawa


            K’asar Hausa k’asa ce da ta sha d’auki-ba-dad’in yak’e-yak’e da rikice-rikice masu nasaba mabambanta tun a zamanin zamunna, kuma har ya zuwa yau matsalar na ci gaba da addabar rayuwarsu. Bayan da Hausawa suka d’and’ani azabar tashe-tashen hankular da ya mamaye rayuwarsu wanda kuma ya yi sanadiyyar salwantar rayuka da dukiyoyi masu tarin yawa, suka gamu da uwar bari, hakan ya tilasta su bin hanyoyi daban-daban wajen kawar da gabar da ta toshe zukatansu suka kasa sasantawa balle a zauna lafiya. A tarihin k’asashenmu, k’ananan yak’e-yak’en da aka sha gwabzawa sai dai abin da aka ji amma ba sa lissafuwa musamman idan aka dubi irin darzajen da Kabawa suka kai a k’ark’ashin Sarki Kanta dole a kame baki.[ix] An fafata tsakanin Gobirawa da Katsinawa. An yi d’auki-ba-dad’i tsakanin Kanawa da Katsinawa. An yi artabu tsakanin Zamfarawa da Kanawa, ga su na dai.[x] Yak’e-yak’en k’asarmu su suka karantar da mu cewa, dole a share jini a koma wasa. A tak’aice, masana al’ada na ganin yak’e-yak’en da al’ummomin k’asar Hausa suka yi da wasu k’asashe da kuma tsakaninsu, su suka haifar da wasannin da ke gudana a yau. An riga an fahimci juna, an gama jiki kowa ya san wurin da wani ya kwana. Da wanda ya yi rinjaye, da wanda aka rinjaya, kowa ya mik’a wa zaman lafiya wuya, an riga an karce majinar da ta toshe zuciya, fuskoki sun waye, an shimfid’a su ga juna sai ‘yan habaice-habaice da ke iya kai da kawo[xi]. Wasu wasannin sun faru ne sakamakon yak’in da aka gwanza, wasu sakamakon auratayya da ta shiga tsakani, wasu kuma zamatakewa da huld’a ta yau da kullum. Daga cikin wasannin barkwancin da ke gudana tsakanin rukunan na Hausawa sun had’a da:

Katsinawa da Gobirawa

 Wasan barkwanci tsakanin Katsinawa da Gobirawa ya k’ullu ne bayan da aka kwashi na ‘yan kallo musamman lokacin da Katsinawa suka rinjayi Gobirawa a wani fafatawa har Sarkin Gobir Ibrahim Babari (1737-1764) ya ce: “A mazaya a mai da iri gida” lokacin da ya ga Katsinawa na k’ok’arin k’arar da mayak’ansa. Tun a wannan lokaci kowa ya mik’a wa zaman lafiya wuya sai ‘yan abin da ba a rasa ba. A kan wannan ne wasan barkwanci ya k’ullu tsakanin Katsinawa da Gobirawa, duk inda Katsinawa suka had’u da Gobirawa sai sun yi musu wannan wasan barkwanci suna ce musu: “A mazaya a mai da iri gida”, ko su ce: “Gobirawa sun k’are har jariransu”. Su ma Gobirawa suna da wasu lafuzzan barkwanci da suke fad’a wa Katsina, sukan ce: “Katsinawa bayinsu ne” saboda su suka fara cin Katsina da yak’i. Sukan kira Katsina da “Bakatsine ‘Danbashirwa”. Duk lokacin da aka sami wannan barkwanci tsakaninsu sai a yi raha da nishad’i, an zama ‘yan’uwan juna ba maganar fad’a sai wasa, wanda hakan ya ba zaman lafiya damar baje kolinsa.

Katsinawa da Kabawa

Dano 2015 ya bayyana cewa, wasan barkwancin da ke gudana tsakanin Katsinawa da Kabawa ba ta yak’i ba ce, ta auratayya ce. wato Katsinawa suka ba Kabawa aure. An ce Sarkin Katsina Tsaga-Rana 1751-1764 ya ba Sarkin Kabi Kanta auren ‘yarsa wadda ta haifi ‘ya’ya masu yawan gaske. Wannan dangantaka ce ta k’ara dank’on zumunci tsakaninsu da kuma tabbatar da d’orewar zaman lafiya har zuwa yau. Wannan ya nuna aure na da rawar da yake takawa wajen wanzar da zaman lafiya da kuranye gaba idan ta d’arsu a zukatan mutane.

Kanawa da Daurawa

Wasan barkwancin da ke tsakanin wad’annan al’umma ya faru ne bayan an gwada k’warin k’ashi an d’and’ani zafin juna. Wasu kuma cewa suka yi alak’ar jini ta haddasa wasar, wato Kanawa ‘ya’yan Bagauda ne, Daurawa kuma ‘ya’yan Garori ne. A kan wannan dangantaka ne aka ce wasan jika da kaka ke tsakaninsu.[xii] Sauran wasannin na barkwanci sun had’a da tsakanin Kanawa da Ningawa wadda ita ma ta faru ne sakamakon fafatawar da aka yi da juna. Sai kuma tsakanin Kanawa da Zazzagawa, da kuma tsakanin Kanawa da Zamfarawa wad’anda aka tabbatar cewa, wasannin barkwancin da ke gudana tsakaninsu a yau ya biyo ne bayan da aka yi taho mu gama, daga bisani aka bai wa zuciya ruwan sanyi aka shimfid’a tabarmar zaman lafiya kowa ya kishingid’a.

Sauran wasannin barkwancin da ke gudana tsakanin rukunan Hausawa sun had’a da tsakanin Kanawa da Daurawa, da Had’ejawa da Katagumawa, da Kanawa da Zazzagawa, da Kanawa da Zamfarawa, da sauransu.

5.0   Wasan Barkwanci Tsakanin Hausawa da Wasu K’abilu


            Tarihi ya nuna cewa, yak’e-yak’en da Hausawa suka gwabza bai tsaya tsakaninsu kawai ba, akwai wasu artabun da aka kwasa tsakaninsu da wasu k’abilu musamman Nufawa da Barebari da kuma Fulani. Bayan kwantawar k’urar yak’i ne, zuciya ta yi sanyi, idanu sun bud’e daga yanar gabar da ta lullu’be su, sai aka share filin gaba ya koma filin wasa. Daga cikin k’abilun da wasannin barkwanci ke gudana tsakaninsu da Hausawa sun had’a da;

Katsinawa da Nufawa

 Wasan barkwanci tsakanin Katsinawa da Nufawa ya k’ullu ne bayan artabun da aka kwasa Nufawa suka fatattaki Katsinawa har suka kusan rinjayarsu. To sai dai kafin a kai ga kama su a matsayin ganimar yak’i, sai Katsinawa suka yi dabarar amfani da fitilar hannu suka rik’a haska wa Nufawa suna kashe musu ido da dare. Wannan ya sa Nufawa suka tsorata suka ranta cikin na kare.[xiii] Daga wannan lokaci Katsinawa suka ci gaba da yi wa Nufawa barkwanci da cewa, raggaye ne kuma matsorata.

Katsinawa da Barebari

 A tarihance an nuna cewa, Barebari sun fatattaki Katsinawa, inda daga bisani aka yi sulhun zaman lafiya wanda ya tanadi cewa, Katsinawa su rik’a kai wa Borno wasu kayayyaki da kuma bayi domin neman fansa.[xiv] Wannan ne ya haifar da wasan barkwanci da ke gudana tsakaninsu a yau domin manta baya da d’orewar zaman lafiya.

Hausawa da Kambari

Kambari wata k’abila ce da ke cikin k’asar Yauri ta jihar Kebbi da wasu yankuna na jihar Neja. Akwai kyakkyawar dangantaka da fahimta tsakanin wannan k’abila da Hausawan Yauri duk da kasancewar Hausawa sun mamaye su da kuma mulkarsu a cikin k’asarsu. Domin d’orewar kyakkyawar zamantakewar da ke tsakaninsu da kuma d’aure wa zaman lafiya gindi aka samar da wasan barkwanci, inda duk lokacin da aka had’u sai an yi raha sa’annan kowa ya kama gabansa. A duk lokacin da Hausawa suka had’u da Kambari sukan rik’a yi musu wani kirari da cewa, “Kambarin dawa d’an zaki, ga gidanka ga na maciji”. Su kuma sukan ce wa Hausawa “Agana d’an kura”[xv]

Gobirawa da Yarbawa

 Akwai wasan barkwanci da ke gudana tsakanin Gobirawa da Yarbawa a duk lokacin da aka had’u. Wannan barkwanci ya k’ullu ne sakamakon auratayya da aka ce ya gudana tsakaninsu. A wani ra’ayi cewa aka yi Gobirawa suka ba Yarbawa aure lokacin da suka iso Gobir don neman mafaka. Yarbawa kan ce Gobirawa bayinsu ne suka gudo, Gobirawa su ce su tafi su nemi bayinsu tun dare bai yi musu ba. Haka ma, Gobirawa na tsarguwar Yarbawa da raki da k’azanta da tsoro. Akan yi wasa sosai a yi raha kowa ya samu nishad’i kafin a rabu kowa ya kama gabansa.

Hausawa da Buzaye

 Tarihi bai nuna an yi artabu tsakanin Hausawa da Buzaye ba. Dalilin wasan barkwanci tsakanin Hausawa da Buzaye bai wuce yadda Hausawa ke kallon Buzaye da tsabagen wauta da rashin hankalin da suke nunawa lokacin gudanar da ma’amalarsu da Hausawa. Saboda haka, duk lokacin da aka had’u wuri d’aya sai an yi barkwanci tsakanin Hausawa da Buzaye kowa ya yi nishad’i kafin a rabu.

6.0   Wasan Barkwanci Tsakanin Tobasai na Jini


Da farko dai kalmar taubassaka ta samo asali ne daga kalmar taubashi wadda ke nufin d’an mace da d’an namiji, wato d’an wa da d’an d’auna, ko d’an ya da d’an k’ane (K’amusun Hausa 2006:423). Akwai wasan barkwanci na musamman da ke gudana tsakanin wad’annan mutane a kusan duk lokacin da aka had’u da juna kamar wurin taron bukin suna ko aure, ko lokacin da d’aya ya kai wa d’aya ziyarar zumunci. Bayan wannan ma, akwai lokaci na musamman da aka ke’be a farkon kowace shekarar Musulunci, wato watan Muharram, inda d’an mace ke kai wa d’an namiji ziyarar kar’bar dukiyar shara. A nan ma akan yi wasan barkwanci sosai kowa ya fad’i albarkacin bakinsa. Irin wannan wasa yana da tasiri k’warai wajen tabbatar da zama lafiya da k’arfafa zumuntar ‘yan’uwa na jini da ma sauran al’umma.

7.0   Wasan Barkwanci Tsakanin Masu Sana'a


            Akwai sana’o’in Hausawa da dama musamman na gargajiya wad’anda ke da alak’a da juna ta fuskar amfani ko yNanayin gudanarwa ko sarrafawa. Wasu sana’o’in sun dogara ne ga wasu wajen samar masu kayan gudanar da sana’ar tasu, wasu kuma kamar kishiyoyin juna ne. Irin wannan yanayi na zamantakewa yakan haifar da kishi da kuma gaba tsakanin juna, wanda kuma ka iya haddasa fitina a cikin al’umma. A maimakon ci gaba da irin wannan k’azamin zama, sai Hausawa suka yi k’ok’arin k’irk’ira wasannin barkwanci wanda zai kawar da tunanin kishi da gaba domin a zauna lafiya. A dalilin haka, aka sami wasannin raha tsakanin masu sana’o’i daban-daban da suka had’a da:

Masunta da Mahauta

 A duk lokacin da mahauta da masunta suka had’u akan yi wasan barkwanci kowa ya yi nishad’i har da sauran mutanen da ke kusa. Daga cikin kalaman barkwancin da suke gaya wa juna shi ne, mahauta kan ce wa masunta “ga kud’insu a ba su fata da kayan ciki”, ko su ce “masunta kuna kayan gawa, ina mahautarku take?”. Su kuma masunta kan mayar da martani su ce, “mahautarmu tana ga Allah, turun bashi”.

Mak’era da Wanzamai

 Wannan wasan barkwanci tsakanin mak’era da wanzamai ya k’ullu ne sakamakon dangatakar da ke akwai tsakanin sana’o’in biyu. Mak’era na ganin su ne masu gidan wanzamai, domin kuwa su ke samar masu muhimmin kayan da suke amfani da shi a sana’ar tasu. Ba ma wanzamai kawi ba, mak’era na ganin su ne iyayen gidan mahauta da manoma da kuma masassak’a. Don haka, a duk inda aka had’u akan ta’ba wasan barkwanci kafin a rabu. Mak’era kan yi wa Wanzamai barkwanci su ce musu “Wanzan ba ka so a jikinka”. Wanzamai kan mayar da martani su ce wa Mak’era “Mak’eri sai ka d’and’ana kud’arka”. Irin wannan wasa ya k’arfafa zumunci sosai tsakaninsu, da kuma kawar da duk wani zogin zuci da ka iya d’arsuwa a zukata.

Akwai wani wasan barkwanci tsakanin Mak’era da Masassak’a, inda mak’era ke ganin su ne masu gidan masassak’a domin su ke samar musu da k’arfen da suke sassak’a da shi. Wasan da ke gudana tsakaninsu idan aka had’u shi ne, mak’era kan ce wa masassak’a “Sakke gwanin kashin icce ba na raya icce ba”. Su kuma masassak’a su ce wa mak’era “Mak’eri abokin wuta, ko can tare kuke”.

Mahauta da Majema

 Akwai wasannin barkwanci da ke wakana tsakanin wad’annan al’umma. Wannan wasa yana da nasaba da k’arfafa zumuncin sana’arsu. Mahauta suna ganin su ne masu gidan majema tun da sai sun yanka dabba sun cire fatarta sa’annan majema su sami fatar da za su sarrafa. Don haka ne ma majema ke kar’bar dukiyar shara ga mahauta idan lokaci ya yi. Mahauta kan yi wa Majema barkwanci suna ce musu “ A ci k’azanta, a kwana cikin k’azanta, a yi ado da k’azanta sai Majema”. Su kuma Majema suka ce wa Mahauta “Talle ba ta yi wa Audi gori, jikan maci bashi”. Haka ma duk lokacin da aka had’u akan yi raha kafin a rabu.

Masu Goro da masu Gishiri

 Wasannin barkwancin da ke gudana tsakanin wad’annan masu sana’a wasa ce ta kyautata zamantakewa saboda dangantakar da suke da ita na zama kamar kishiyoyin juna. Mai sana’ar goro a koyaushe cikin ban ruwa goronsa yake, shi kuma mai gishiri babu abin da ya fi tsana ya ta’ba sana’arsa kamar ruwa. Don haka, a duk lokacin da mai goro ya had’u da mai gishiri sai wasan barkwanci ya kaure, mai goro na fad’in Allah ya kawo ruwan sama, shi kuma mai gishiri ya ce ba amin ba.[xvi]

Masu Rak’uma da masu Jakai

 Wannan rahar da ke tsakanin wad’annan mutane wasa ce ta k’ara dank’on zumunci da zaman lafiya mai d’orewa. Asalin wasansu kishi ne da nuna fifiko kan juna. Masu rak’umai na kishin masu jakai domin ganin sun tare masu wuri kasancewar sana’arsu kusan iri d’aya ce, har ma suna cewa su ne masu gidan masu jakai. Duk lokacin da suka had’u, masu rak’umai na tak’alar masu jakai da cewa, “mai jaki munafukin matatai”, shi kuma mai jaki ya ce: “mai rak’umi ‘barawon keso, matarka ba ta shanyar ragga”.[xvii]

Direbobin Mota da masu Rak’uma

 Dano 2015 ya bayyana cewa, alak’ar da ke tsakanin mai rak’umi da mai jaki, irin ta ke tsakanin direbobin mota da masu rak’uma. Wannan wasa tana faruwa ne domin masu rak’uma na ganin su ne asalin sana’ar direbanci, don su ke d’aukar kaya da ma masu kayan zuwa wurare daban-daban tun kafin samuwar mota. Don haka suke ganin su ne masu gidan direbobin mota. Irin wasar barkwancin da ke gudana tsakaninsu shi ne, idan direban mota ya had’u da mai rak’umi sai ka ji yana ce masa “mai rak’umi ka yi faci” ko ya ce, “da rak’umin da mai rak’umin da kayan da suka d’auko duk su zo a sa su cikin mota”. Duk lokacin da irin wannan wasa ya gudana akan yi raha da nishad’i sannan kowa ya kama gabansa.

Kammalawa


Hausawa na cewa “Zaman lafiya ya fi zama d’an Sarki”. Al’adar Hausawa ba ta bar komai a bayan fage na kyautata rayuwarsu ba. Zaman lafiya ya samu d’aurin gindi na tanadar masa garkuwa ga barazanar duk wani abu da ke son kawo masa cikas ga tabbatuwarsa. Wannan ya haifar da k’irk’iran wasan barkwanci don kawar da tashin-tashina da rigingimun da suka dabaibaye rayuwar Hausawa. Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata, za a iya gamsuwa da cewa, wasan barkwanci hanya ce ta k’ulla/k’ara dank’on zumunci da had’in kai da k’aunar juna da inganta zamantakewa tsakanin Hausawa ko tsakanin Hausawa da wasu k’abilu mak’wabta, wanda kan sa raha da nishad’i da manta zogin zuci idan ya ta’ba d’arsuwa. Zumunci da had’in kai da manta baya na artabun da aka kwasa kuwa, su ne ke had’uwa su samar da zaman lafiya mai d’orewa tsakanin al’umma.

MANAZARTA


Adamu, M.  (1975)  The  Hausa  Factor  in West  African History. Zaria: Northen Nigerian

Publishing Company.

Alhassan, H. da wasu (1980) Zaman Hausawa. Zaria: Langman Publishing Company.

Atuwo, A.A. (2013) “Relevance of Hausa Folklore in Conflict Resolution” A paper presented

at the International Conference on Folklore and National Integration and Development

organised by Centre for for the Study of Nigerian Languages Bayero University, Kano.

Bunza, D.B. (2015) “Taubasan Bahaushe: Wani Mashigi na Tantance Asalinsa da Zuriyarsa”

Takardar da aka gabatar a taron k’ara wa juna sani na k’asa da k’asa a Jami’ar Kaduna.

Bunza, A.M.  (2015)  “Labarin Zuciya a Tambayi Fuska: Sak’on  Dariya  ga  Sasanta  Tsaro  a

Farfajiyar  Karatun  Hausa”. Takardar  da  aka  gabatar  a Makarantar Harsuna, Sashen

Hausa na  Kwalejin  Ilimi  ta  Adamu Augie, Argungu.

Bunza, A.M. (2015) “Zaman Lafiya da Tsaro a Daular Musulunci ta Sakkwato: Abin Koyi ga

Shugabannin  Zamaninmu”.  Takardar da  aka  gabatar a taron yini d’aya da Centre for

Intellectual Services on Sokoto Caliphate ta shirya na fad’akarwa a kan muhimmancin

Tsaro da zaman lafiya a k’ark’ashin koyarwar Daular Musulunci ta Sakkwato.

‘Dalha, I. (2016) “Barkwanci a Matsayin Kafar Samar da Zaman Lafiya a Tsakanin Al’ummu:

Nazari daga Wasannin Barkwancin Katsinawa da Gobirawa” Takardar da aka gabatar

a taron k’ara wa juna sani na k’asa da Tsangayar Fasaha da Nazarin Addinin Musulunci

ya gudanar a Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

Francis, D.J. (2006) “Peace and Conflict Studies: An African Overview of Basic Concepts” in

Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.

Ingawa, I.L. (1990) Katsina ‘Dakin Kara. Katsina: Arewa Printers Limited.

Ibeanu, O.  (2006)  “Conceptualising Peace” in  Introduction to  Peace and Conflict Studies in

            West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

K’amusun Hausa (2006) Wallafar Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano.

Muri, A.M.  (2003)  “The  Defence  Policy of  the Sokoto Caliphate 1804-1903”  PhD Thesis,

Department of History, Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

Sanyinnawal,  S. I.  (2012)  “Cud’ed’eniyar  Sana’o’in  Gargajiya a  Adabin  Bakan  Bahaushe”

Kundin digiri na biyu, Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.

 

[i]Bunza, A.M. 2015 “Labarin Zuciya a Tambayi Fuska: Sak’on Dariya ga Sasanta Tsaro a Farfajiyar Karatun Hausa” Takardar da aka gabatar  a Makarantar Harsuna, Sashen Hausa Kwalejin Ilimi ta Adamu Augi, Argungu, a Bukin Makon Hausa da Bukin k’addamar da littafin Dariyar Darara da malam Yakubu Liman ya wallafa.

[ii] K’amusun Hausa 2006:470,  Wallafar Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano.

[iii] ‘Dalha, I. 2016, “Barkwanci a Matsayin Kafar Samar da Zaman Lafiya Tsakanin Al’ummu: Nazari daga Wasannin Barkwancin Katsinawa da Gobirawa” Takardar da aka gabatar a taron k’ara wa juna sani na k’asa wanda Tsangayar Fasaha da Nazarin Addinin Musulunci Jami’ar Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo, Sakkwato ta gudanar.

[iv] Bunza, A.M. 2015. “Zaman Lafiya da Tsaro a Daular Musulunci ta Sakkwato: Abin Koyi ga Shugabannin Zamaninmu.” Takardar da aka gabatar a taron yini d’aya da Centre for Intellectual Services on Sokoto Caliphate ta shirya na fad’akarwa a kan muhimmancin tsaro da zaman lafiya a k’ark’ashin koyarwar shugabannin Daular Musulunci ta Sakkwato.

[v]  Ibeanu, O. 2006 “Conceptualising Peace” in Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa.

[vi] Francis, D.J. 2006 “Peace and conflict studies: An African overview of basic concepts” a cikin Introduction to peace and conflict  studies in West Africa.

[vii]  K’amusun Hausa Wallafar Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano, shafi na 393.

[viii]  Oxford Advanced Leaners’ Dictionary Seventh Edition, shafi na 1244.

[ix]  Dubi lamba ta 4 don k’arin bayani.

[x] Muri, A.M. 2003, “The Defence Policy of the Sokoto Caliphate 1804-1903”  PhD Thesis, Department of History, Usmanu ‘Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.

[xi]  Dubi lamba ta 4 don k’arin bayani.

[xii] Bunza, D.B. 2015, “Taubasan Bahaushe: Wani Mashigi na Tantance Asalinsa da Zuriyarsa” Takardar da aka gabatar a taron k’ara wa juna sani na k’asa da k’asa a Jami’ar Jihar Kaduna.

[xiii]  Dubi lamba ta 12  don k’arin bayani.

[xiv]  Dubi lamba ta 12 don  k’arin bayani.

[xv]Atuwo, A.A. 2013, “Relevance of Hausa Folklore in Conflict Resolution” A paper presented at the International Confrence on Folklore and National Integration and Development Organised by Centre for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University, Kano.

[xvi]  Dubi lamba ta 12 don k’arin bayani.

[xvii]  Dubi lamba ta 21 don k’arin bayani.

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