Wednesday, 26 July 2017

Kamanci Da Bambancin Yadda Galadanci Da Zarruk Suke Fed’e Jumla

Mustapha Bello
Ummu Attahiru Usman
Amiru Yusuf Muhammad
Mubarakatu Yahaya Sakanau



Gabatarwa


Kafin mu tsunduma cikin gundarin aikin sai mun fara sanin ko mene ne ma’anar kalmar (jumla) a nahawun Hausa. Daga baya kuma mu duba yiwuwar yadda Galadanci da Zaruk suka feďe jumla.
Ita dai wannan kalma ta jumla ta na nufin suna da kuma abin da aka faďi game da suna. Haka kuma masana da manazarta sun yi kai kawo wajen fito da ma’anar wannan kalma ta jumla. Ga kaďan daga cikin ra’ayoyin masana dangane da ma’anar wannan kalma ta jumla kamar haka:
M. A. Z. Sani (1999) ya ce jumla magana ce cikakkiya mai ma’ana wadda aka gina bisa wasu Ƙa’idojin harshe na musamman.
Sakkwato (2012) shi kuma ya ce “jumla wasu gungun kalmomi ne da ake tsarawa, Ƙunshe da aikatau da makarƂa wanda ke ba da cikakkiyar ma’ana”.
Jumla magana ce dunƘulalliya mai cikakkiyar ma’ana, wadda ta Ƙunshi jerin kalmomi daban-daban bisa Ƙa’idojin harshe.
Jumla ita ce haďuwar kalmomi a jere don isar da bayani ko tambaya ko umarni, wanda ke ďauke da suna da abin da aka faďa game da suna.

Yadda Zaruk da Galadanci Suka Feďe Jumla


Zaruk ya ce “jumla na nufin magana wadatacciya wadda ba ta buƘatar ciko ko Ƙari. Sannan jumla magana ce wadda duk inda ta Ƃulla, za a ji ta gaba ďaya ne ba tare da canji ba; wato dunƘulalliyar magana ce wadda ake iya maimaitawa”.
Sannan ya raba jumlolin Hausa zuwa nau’i biyu:
i. Nau’i ďaya mai aikatau
ii. Sauran huďun kuwa ba su da aikatau kamar haka:
Nau’in jumla yawanda
i. Mai akatau 73.56%
ii. Mai wanzuwar N 13.00%
iii. Mai wanzuwar G 4.50%
iv. Mai direwa 6.00%
v. Tsirarun jumloli 2.80%
Jumla da ta Ƙunshi Kalmar aikatau, wato Kalmar mai nuna aikatawa ko aukuwa ko wakana, ita ce jumlar aiki ko jumla mai aikatau. Misali,
Ma’aikata sun gode
A wannan misali reshen da ke ďauke da Kalmar ma’aikata ana Ƙiransa yankin suna wato ‘ysn’. Reshen sun gode kuwa yankin aikatau ‘ya’. Kalmar wakilin suna kuwa ta na Ƙunshe da lamirai guda biyu, na farko ‘su’ ana kiran sa lamirin suna ‘LS’. Harafin ‘na’ kuwa shi ne ke gwada lokacin da aikatau ya wakana. Ana kiran sa lamirin lokaci ‘LL’ saboda haka wajibabbun rassan wannan jumla a bishiyar li’irabi, sune kamar haka:

J

Ysn Y.A

Sn G.A

L.S LL A

Ma’aikata su - n - goodee
A nan ‘J’ tana nufin jumla, ‘G.A’ gidan aiki, ‘su’ suna, sannan ‘A’ aikatau.

Kuu kuka yarda
J

Ysn Y.A

wsn G.A

L.S LL A

kuu ku - -ka yarda
Shi kuwa Galadanci ya yi nasa aikin ne a cikin yaren turanci, inda ya feďe tasa jumlar da turanci kamar haka;
Sentences are made up of from indiƂidual units. One unit in a sentence may not necessarily contain only one word.
Considering the Hausa sentences, we can clearly see that each sentence is made up of two distinct segments:
i. The segment which may temporarily call the subject segment.
ii. The remaining part of the sentence, which we may temporarily be call the Ƃerbal segment.

The verbal segment
Each Verbal segment in the Hausa sentence consists of two distinct grammatical units:
a. The pronoun; ya, ta, sun, etc, this particular type of pronoun is called preƂerbal pronoun (PP).
b. The actual verb e.g sayi, fi, aiki, etc these are called main Ƃerb (V). The unit as a whole, comprising the PP and the Ƃ, is called the verbal compleď (VC).
ii. The unit which consists of an NP eďactly comparable to that which appears in the subject segment. The Ƃerbal segment as a whole, that is the Ƃerbal compleď together with its following NP, is called the Ƃerbal phase, (VP). Thus the representation of the Verbal phrase is as follows:
VP VC + NP
In conclusion, let us take a few Hausa sentences and analyze them in the light of what we haƂe discussed so far in this chapter.
i. Fitila ta kama
Sentence NP + ƂP
VP VC + Ƃ
NC PP + Ƃ
PN N
PP ta
N kama
N Fitila
This can be shown in a tree diagram as follows:
Sentence

NP VP

N VC

PP V

Fitila ta kama
2. Magani ra riga mahori
S NP + VP
VP ƂC + NP
VC PP + V
NP Unit AdjectiVe
PP ya
V riga
Unit adjectiVe magani, mahori
The tree diagram will then look as follows:
S

NP ƂP

Unit AdjectVƂe

VC NP

PP V Unit AdjectiƂe

Magani ya riga mahori
3. Riga-kafi ya fi magani
S NP1 + VP
ƂP ƂC + NP2
ƂC PP + V
NP1 CPD
NP2 N
PP ya
Vfi
Cpd. N Riga-kafi
N Magani

The tree diagram is the built up as follows:
S

NP1 ƂP

Cpd. N

ƂC NP2

PP V N

Riga-kafi ya fi magani
Kamanci da banbancin yadda Galadanci da Zaruk suka Feďe Jumla
Zaruk da Galadanci sun yi kamanceceniya wajen raba nau’o’in jumla, inda kowannensu ya amince da jumla mai aikatau da marar aikatau kuma dukkaninsu sun yi bayani iri ďaya tare da feďe bishiyar li’irabi iri ďaya.

Banbanci Galadanci Zaruk


1. Ya yi bayani da Turanci Ya yi bayani da Hausa
2. Ya yi amfani da tsohon tsari Yana amfani da sabon tsari
3. Yankin suna da yankin aikatau misali Yana amfani da yankin suna da
NP ƂP abinda aka faďa kan suna
Ali Ya ci abinci Ali ya ci abinci
yankin suna abinda aka faďa kan suna
Galadanci
Ali ya ci abinci
S NP + VP
VP VC + NP
VC PP + V
NP Cpd
N Ali
PP ya
Ƃ ci
N abinci

S

NP ƂP

VP

VC NP

PP N unit adjectiƂe

Ali ya ci abinci
Zaruk
Ali ya ci abinci
J ysn + yAfgsn
yAfgsn KN + YA
YA Aik, ysn
KN maf, lokat
ysn siii
sn Ali
maf ya
lokat -a
aikatau ci
sn abinci
J

NP1 yAfgsn

KN YA
Sn
maf lokat Aik sn

Ali ya a ci abinci

Kammalawa


Muna kammala wannan jingar tamu da yadda masana Galadanci da Zaruk suka fayyace yadda ake feďe jumla, tare da ba da misalai ta yadda kowannensu ya gudanar da aikinsa na feďe jumla, amma a fannin nahawu, feďe jumla na nufin fayyace kalmomi da aka gina jumla a kansu. Masana da manazarta a fannin nahawu sun yi fama wajen aiwatar da ayyuka a kan yadda ake feďe jumla. Amma mu mun gudanar da aikinmu a kan yadda Galadanci da Zaruk suka feďe jumla.

 

KARANTA WANI

https://www.amsoshi.com/2017/07/25/al%c6%99alami-ya-fi-takobi-nazarin-kaifin-al%c6%99alamin-malam-saadu-zungur-a-fagen-dagar-siyasar-nijeriya/

 

Manazarta


Mahmud, M. K. First Published (1976). Reprinted (1999). “An Introduction to Hausa Grammer”. Longman Nig. Ltd

Zaruk, R. M, Senior Lecturer Institute of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 1998, 2001. “Bishiyar Li’irabi a Nazarin Jumlar Hausa”.

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