Email: agajiajafar@gmail.com 
Tel: +2348033120112/ +2347051432724


The concept of administration in Islam is quite different from that of the Western perception, this is because Islam as a complete way of life encompass all human endeavours and considers life as a constant struggle to overcome Satanic propensities running in human blood. Islam strictly expounds that an administrator should keep a strict watch over his thoughts and actions. It emphasizes inner purity of soul so as to provide social harmony in the society/community and engenders self-discipline. It is in line with the above that this paper examines the Islamic Leadership Ethics as it relates to the development of our societies/communities. The paper recommends among other things that it is only when Islamic administrative ethics are applied then we can ever attain sustainable development in out societies/communities world-wide.

Keywords: Islam, Administration, Ethic, Development


The concept of administration in Islam is quite different from that of Western perception in that Islam as a complete way of life encompasses all human endeavours be it spiritual, social, political or economic and consider life as a constant struggle to over-come Satanic propensities summing in human blood. Islam explains in detail that an administrator should keep a strict watch over his thoughts and actions. It also emphasizes on inner purity of soul so as to provide social harmony in the society / community and engenders self-discipline. This is in line with the prophetic tradition thus:

…There is indeed a lump of flesh in the body, if it is sound the whole body is sound as well and if it decays, the whole body decays as well- it is indeed the heart. (Imam Bukhari and Muslim transmitted)

Infact, Islam laid down the foundation of a sound system of administration which emphasizes some certain intrinsic qualities which an administrator must possess and are regarded as cohesive features which it has put forward for a perfect and excellent administrative system. First and foremost among the cohesive features is “honesty” a moral quality which influences the individuals to refrain from inflicting injuries on others by cheating. Dishonesty breeds aversion, pollutes social life, degenerates politics and corrupts administration. The impact of dishonesty is ruinous particularly if a dishonest person occupies a position of authority. The next concept is that of justice which denotes placing things in their rightful ways or places others include trustworthiness and accountability which are all pre-requisite for any meaningful social development (khattak, 2009).

In Islamic administration therefore, all the key public functionaries ought to be people of high caliber, just and must possess the qualities of a head. That was why the fourth Caliph, Ali (R.A.) aptly said “They key public functionaries should have the qualities of refinement, experience, alertness, power of comprehending problems, secrecy, freedom from greed and lust”. A careful analysis of principles of administration and qualities of an administrator from Islamic perspective would therefore show that man’s personal character is the key to good leadership and governance (Junejo, 2015).

Muslim leaders should therefore base their behaviours upon the behaviour of prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and emulates him as the Glorious Qur’an confirmed him as one who has the best moral. The Glorious Qur’an stresses:

And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality (al-Qalam, 68:4)

In another chapter it expounds thus:

Certainly you have in the Apostle of Allah an excellent example for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much (al-Ahdhab, 33:21).

Indeed, according to the principles of Islamic administration, the two primary roles of a leader use servant-leader and guardian-leader. He is to seek their welfare and guide them towards good. Thus, the idea of leader as a servant has been part of Islam since its beginning. That is why the prophet (S.A.W) reported to have said:

The leader of a community is but their servant (Muslim, 2000).  

The above tradition has recently been developed by Robert Greenleaf as enunciated by Beekuns and al-Badawi (1999) as thus:

The servant – leader is servant first…It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. The best test and the most difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons?

The religion of Islam therefore, emphasizes a second major role of a leader; to protect his community against tyranny and oppression, to encourage God-consciousness and to promote justice. In Islam, a leader is a shield for the masses; whether as a servant or guardian he should make use of certain bases of power curiously to be effective. Hence, Islam recognizes the existence of power, however, it suggests etiquettes for its usage.

Conceptual Definition of Terms


Islam is not only a religion but also a system which covers the whole of man’s aspects of life, be it religious, social, economic or political. Islam is an institution of justice and moderation. It is a straight path and the Muslim fraternity is the nation which practice moderation and justice (Agaji, 2017).

Further to the above, Islam has essentially been defined as the perfect way of life in total submission, obedience and adherence to the dictates, teachings and will of Almighty Allah, the supreme. It denotes that whoever qualities to be described as an adherent to Islam is constantly in peace or encapsulated with utmost serenity (Aderinoye, 2016).


The word administration has variously been defined by different people in different ways. To Hornby (2015), it is the activities that are done in order to plan, organize and run a business, school or other institution. It also refers to the process or act of organizing the way that something is done. It also connotes the people who plan, organize and run a business, an institution, etc. Collins (2019) elaborates that administration is the range of activities connected with organizing and supervising the way that an organization or institution functions.

Based on the above definitions it could simply be deduced that administration refers to the group of individuals who are in charge of creating and enforcing rules and regulations, or those in leadership positions who complete important tasks. However, the concept and practice of the Islamic administration are based on certain principles which are the backbone of any administrative behaviour and activities in Islamic administration which are directly attached to and strongly –based on the fear of Allah (S.W.A).   



The word ethics according to Lahiji (2003) is the internal power and innate goodness that are observable by the heart. He further explains that ethics are human traits which makes the personality influencing the deeds, conducts, thoughts and speech of man as a result of either hereditary or environmental factors. In this regard, ethics implies those traits that constantly manifest and occur on habitual status. Odunewu (2000) upholds that the word ethics is the criteria by which decisions about right and wrong are made. Similarly, Abdullah (1999) postulates that in Islam, ethics are those universal standards of right and wrong prescribed by Allah (S.W.T) in the Glorious Qur’an and exemplified by the noble Prophet (S.A.W).

The above definition suggests that the best moral and ethical standard a man could have is that which comes from the Creator-Allah, who is well acquainted with the knowledge of ability of man and the values expected from him. Man brings a week and egocentric in nature cannot provide a perfect moral standard for the good living of people in the society. In this regard, Ayantayo (2009:11) sheds more light on this assertion as thus:

These is need for a standard because experience has shown that every man by nature or by choice is egocentric and always tends to consider himself important and others – unimportant…it a leader is allowed, he would like to ride this followers like a horse in order to Satisfy himself.

In view of the above therefore, the best ethical standards are set by the Glorious Qur’an and the Sunnah of the noble Prophet (S.A.W).


The term development is a complex term. It is complex partly because it connotes different things to different people depending on their social, economic and political situations. However, whenever the word development is mentioned, our minds imagine the existence of some positive phenomenon advancement in human life or progress in human endeavours (Oloyede, 2017). This is exactly the same point made by Vilanilam (1979) when he contended that the conception of development varies according to the changes occurring in the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, scientific and technological values of a given society.

While economists considered developments mainly as increase in production, GDP and per capital income. Political scientists see the concept as improvement in resources through which – power and resources are equitably distributed. Sociologists consider it as a process achieved through structural differentiation, order and social progress. While to many people, development is all about improvement or charge from a state to a better situation or condition (Oloyede, 2015).

Earlier, Inayatullahi (1967) had described development as the ability of an individual to have greater control over his environment and increased realization of the values of the society, its political destiny and self-discipline. While Rogers (1976) conceived it as “a widely participatory process of social change and materials advancement (including greater equality, freedom and other valued qualities) for the majority of the people through their gaining control over their environment”.

In its key standards, development is seen as a vision, as a historical process and as action. Development as a vision is description of what a society is, whereas development as a historical process entails social change that takes place over a period of time due to inevitable processes. Development is seen as an action, on the other hands, refers to deliberate efforts to change things for better (Thomas, 2000). In this regard, development manifests basically as economic growth, as modernization and as distributive justice.

There are three (3) major objectives of development as identified and enumerated by Oloyede (2017):

Raising people’s living standards. These may include food consumption, access to medical services and education.

Creating conditions that are conducive to the growth of people’s self-esteem through the establishment of social and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignity and respect. This I have referred to above as central to the idea of social justice.

Increasing people’s freedom to choose by enlarging the range of their choice variables, e.g. varieties of food and services.

In contemporary scholarship in the field, the idea of development has become a very big net. It has been and is now applied to almost all fields of human endeavour. Thus, you could talk of economic development, social development, political development, education development, cultural development, agricultural development, physical development, infrastructural development, academic development, national development, international development and human development.

Principles of Administration in Islam

The concept and practice of administration (in Islam) are based on certain principles which serve as the foundation of any administrative behaviour and activities. These principles include:

God Consciousness (al-Taqwa)

Islam lays great emphasis on piety being consciousness of Allah’s presence at all times not only for the leader but for every believer. God consciousness is the only criterion by which people are judged in Islam as for a leader. It is even more important because, without fear of Allah, the power and authority he acquires can easily make him arrogant, corrupt and extravagant. Therefore, a leader should be God-conscious. That is why Suleiman (2014) once said:

God fearing and personal character of the ruler leads a nation to correct direction and abandonment of which demolishes the very foundation of the state.

Honesty (al-Sidq)

Honesty is a key to bridging the gap between leaders and the masses. In this regard, honesty refers to the saying of the truth; act on the truth in all matters and under all conditions (Muhammad, 2017). He further stresses that honesty suggests satisfying someone’s trust either implicitly or explicitly, in content and soul.

In this context, the Glorious Qur’an buttresses:

And do not mix up the truth with falsehood, nor hide the truth while you know (it) (al-Baqarah, 2:42).

In another chapter, it further expounds:

…And avoid false words (al-Haji, 22:30).

In the words of the Noble Prophet (S.A.W) he reported to have said:

When honesty is lost, then wait for the hour (last day).

In Islam therefore, to be honest is very important not only for a leader but for all. Thus, in the past, Allah (S.A.W) dealt with people who were dishonest and did not honour their trusts. The people of Midian had developed unfair and corrupt business practices and prophet Shu’aib (A.S) was instructed to warn them of God’s displeasure.

Trustworthiness (al-Amanah)

Trustworthiness is a dimension of honesty and it is known as “Amanah” in Arabic language. It is something or someone left to someone to protect or keep. Betrayal or treason is its opposite. This simply means, to fail to keep trust in the way the person who left it expected or wanted (Muslim Academy, 2017).

The concept of trust stresses the idea of responsibility towards organizational stakeholders, and holds it whether those entrusting something to Muslim are themselves non-Muslims. In this regard, the Glorious Qur’an states:

O you who believe! Be not unfaithful to Allah and the Apostle, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know (al-Anfal, 8-27).

Trust is therefore, an important aspect of Islamic leadership, trust is a psychological contract between the leader and his followers in which the former will try his best to guide, protect and to treat the later with justice. Thus, a leader must enjoy this trust with highest degree of responsibility. Consequently, the Glorious Qur’an reiterates:

Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners and that when you judge between people you judge with justice; Surely Allah admonished you with what is excellent; Surely Allah is Seeing, Hearing (al-Nisa’, 4:58).

This trust by Allah (S.W.T) is an all comprehensive one and must be maintained with all sincerity. The leadership under whatever name it is called, the same principle of trust be applied and pre-served by all types and scopes of leadership (Junaid, 2004). It was with this trust in mind that Prophet Yusuf (A.S) requested Pharaoh to entrust him with the store-houses. In relation to this, the Glorious Qur’an stresses:

He (Yusuf) said, “place me (in authority) over the treasurers of the land, surely I am a good keeper, knowing well (Yusuf, 12:55).

Commenting on the above verse, Aliyu (1998) explained that:

Yusuf had been given plenary authority by the king. He could have enjoyed his dignity, drawn his emoluments, put the hard and perhaps unpopular work on the shoulders of others, and kept to himself the glitter and the kudos. But that was not his way, nor can it indeed be the way of anyone who wants to do real service. He undertook the hardest and most unpopular task himself. Such a task was that of organizing reserves in times of plenty, against the lean years to come. He deliberately asked to be put in-charge of the granaries and store houses, and the drudgery of establishing them and guarding them, for the simple reason that he understood the need better than anyone else, and was prepared to take upon himself rather than throw on to another the obloquy of restricting supplies in times of plenty.

After this trust is entrusted upon a leader, than he is expected to maintain that trust and treat everyone equitably without fear or favour (Bello, 2017).

In line with this, the Prophet (S.A.W) said:

The Sultan is the Shadow of Allah on earth (Abu-Dawud, n.d).

The leader being the shadow of Allah’s authority through the Prophets should avoid vices such as nepotism, self-aggrandizement, egocentrism, blind-materialism, etc. (Junaid, 2004). In fact, he should be as the Prophet (S.A.W) described him:

The leader of a community is but their servant (Muslim, 2000).

Justice (al-Adl)

Justice in Islam denotes placing things in their rightful place. It also means giving others equal treatment. Justice is also a moral virtual and an attribute of human personality. Justice is close to equality in the sense that it greates a state of equilibrium in the distribution of rights and duties. Thus, justice represents moral rectitude and fairness since it means things should be where they belong to.

The concept of justice in Islam is at a highest standard that no other system can compete with it. Justice according to Khan (2012) is a fundamental precept of Islam; even more so for a leader, because it is part of his responsibility to maintain a balance in the society. At the same time, justice must be tempered with compassion; an administrator must combine the two in his personality. An administrator must therefore be just in his dealings with all his subjects. He must be fair to all and sundry and in all facets of human endeavours, including the relationship to terrestrial and marine life as well as in connection with animal and plant kingdom (Bello, 2017). To sum it all, Junaidu (2004) said, “A leader must uphold justice even against himself and should not claim immunity of the rule of Shari’ah. Justice presents moral rectitude and fairness”.

Justice is there, a dynamic characteristic which every Muslim must strive to develop whether he is an administrator or a follower. In this context, the Glorious Qur’an expatiates thus:

O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as witness to fair dealing and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice, act justly, that is nearest to piety and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is aware of what you do (al-Ma’idah, 5:8).    

Thus, the need to achieve a balance and to take a middle road is quite important to an administrator, and is stressed repeatedly in the Glorious Qur’an. Allah (S.W.T) described those who will be rewarded with the highest place in the heaven as:

And they who when they spend, are neither extravagant nor parsimonious, and (keep) between these the just mean (al-Furqan, 25:67).

The Glorious Qur’an also extends justice to being a personal virtue and one of the standards of moral excellence that a believer is encouraged to attain as part of his God-consciousness. The Glorious Qur’an has this to say:

..Be just, for it is closet to God-consciousness (al-Ma’idah, 5:8).

Accountability (Mas’uliyyah)

In leadership roles, accountability is the acknowledgement and assumption of responsibility for action products, decision and policies including the administration, governance and implementation with the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report, to explain and be answerable for the resulting consequences (Wiki, 2019). Accountability in Islam means a mechanism based in which public officers are checked with a view to preventing them from misappropriating the resources put under their care. Thus, on the day of judgement all people entrusted with one responsibility or the other will be called to account for their stewardship by Allah (S.W.T) (Kelani, 2017).

The concept of accountability in Islam is very paramount, that administrators who believe in the Day of Judgment as one of the cardinal principles of faith and the concept of accountability will be conscious of their Lord in all aspects of their life knowing fully that they will be asked about their decisions and deeds. In relation to accountability the Prophet (S.A.W) reported to have said:

All of you are shepherd and for every shepherd would be ask to account on the Day of Judgment for his flocks (Imam Buhari and Muslim transmitted).

Based on the above tradition therefore, accountability is one of the cardinal principles of good governance; a Muslim administrator is not appointed as a tyrant over his people but as a guardian responsible for their welfare. He will be called to account on how he discharged that responsibility on the Day of Judgment.

Related to this, the Glorious Qur’an expresses that:

And He it is who has made you successors in the land and raised some of you above others by (various) grades, that He might try you by what He has given you; surely your Lord is quick to requite (evil), and He is most surely the forgiving, the Merciful (al-An’am, 6:165).

Accountability is therefore the hallmark of good governance. It embraces the enforcement of free and fair and the executive’s answerability to the public in a political ambience of openness and transparency. The malfunction of any of these critical operating systems will retard nation’s development and progress. Thus, if accountability unheeded neglected of dysfunctional, citizens may resort to disobedience, protests, violence, or even revolution. So accountability system can be efficient only when there is the existence of related concepts of leadership such as the rule of law and high degree of civil liberty.

Promise keeping (al-Wafa’u Bil-Ahd)

This is another important administrative ethics in Islam. Believers are urged to be promise keepers and at the same time should make promise that cannot be fulfilled. Therefore, a leader should keep a strict watch over his utterances.

Regarding this, the Glorious Qur’an elaborates:

O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? It is most hateful to Allah that you should say that which you do not do (al-Saf, 61:2-3).

In the tradition of the Prophet (S.A.W) it reads:

The signs of a hypocrite are three: if he speaks, he will tell lies, and if he promises, he will not fulfill and if he is giving trust, he betrays (Bukhari and Muslim)

Based on the above explanations from the Glorious Qur’an and the tradition of the Prophet (S.A.W); it could be deduced that keeping promise is very important as far as a leader and or administrator is concern.

Impact of Islamic Administrative Ethics to Societal/communal Development

From the foregoing discussions concerning the administrative ethics in Islam, it could be understood that Islam provides community with the means of development through its administrative ethics. Fear of Allah (S.W.T) is the basis of all the administrative qualities propagated by the religion of Islam because it makes a believer to reflect on the does and refrain from all forms of corrupt practices. Therefore, leaders in our communities / societies all over the world stand in a dare need of God – consciousness (al-Taqwa) for any community /society to move forward.

The teachings of Islam on accountability ensures that an administrator or a leader consider his administrative responsibilities as trust from Allah (S.W.T) which must be discharged by him as presented by Allah (S.W.T). A good leader therefore stands to account for his leadership not only before his subjects. Thus, Islamic administrative ethics is the hallmark for good leadership and governance which every leader needs to imbibe in his administrative roles.

As for the moral quality of trustworthiness, it is also a pre-requisite for every meaningful societal development. This high and laudable moral quality is lacking in our societies/communities nowadays, as can be observed from almost daily reports from various agencies and organizations that fight corruption worldwide. Such reports portray our communities / societies as corrupt ones; a problem that must be corrected before it can be moved forward. Nonetheless, through Islamic ethical teachings on trustworthiness, this anomaly can be put to right. Trustworthiness therefore, implies being honest as well as honouring trusts and keeping promises and commitments.

Indeed, through the Islamic moral principle of justice,  the leaders (worldwide) can help bring a just and united community/society in which every citizen will have a sense of belonging and hence, remain sincere and committed to the cause of the community. Thus, in a community where injustice of the leaders upon the subjects is very common, true commitment of the citizenry to the communal / societal ideals remain minimal. Therefore, both the leads and the leds need to be just for any development to take place, whether societal or otherwise.


It is imperative to note that; Islamic administrative ethics is a pre-requisite for the development of any society or community without which the society/community will remain stagnant or even deteriorate. It is unfortunate that many leaders nowadays do not observe the teachings of good moral conduct in their administrative endeavours. This has contributed in no small measures to backwardness in which societies / communities finds itself today. Therefore, for the attainment of good administration, leadership, good governance as well as development of any society or community worldwide; administrators or leaders are obliged to imbibe and apply the Islamic administrative ethics in the process their administration.


Putting the role administrative ethics of Islam plays in the dispensation of justice and good governance, for our societies / communities to be out of the problem under-development; the following recommendations will help to curb the situation:

Meaningful development, progress and prosperity are only obtained where a society or community, establishes social justice. Human societies and communities in history have consistently been destroyed and even eliminated by the evils of different dimensions of social justice. This is the essential factor that explains the centrality of justice and equity in the realms of Allah’s revealed massages and guidance to which have been finalized by the Glorious Qur’an.

Leaders should leave by the Islamic administrative ethics, so as to tap its advantages for the development of our societies / communities worldwide

It is necessary to set up a viable system of social justice so long as societies/communities want to live peace, harmony and tranquility as a developed one. This is because a society which is built on a definite scale of social justice is the one that enjoys social, economic and political stability.

Revitalization and overhauling the legal and judicial structures, institutions and even the personals, to ensure supremacy and equality before the law. This would guarantee the protection of the rights of the weak, groups, in the society.

A brief Biography of the Author

Dr. Ja’afar Agaji Abdullahi was born on 12th January, 1966 in the ancient city of Zaria of Zaria Local Government Area Kaduna State. He had his primary Education at L.E.A Primary School Refin-Albasa, Zaria from 1976-1982. He attended Zaria Teachers’ College, Zaria, from 1982-1987. The chronicle of his tertiary education reflects that he attended Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, for his N.C.E, B.Ed, M.Ed and Ph.D (Islamic Studies) from 1989-1992, 1995-1997, 2006 – 2008 and 2009-2014 respectively. He taught at many schools from primary to secondary school. Dr. Agaji is a chief lecturer in the Department of Islamic Studies, FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja, Nigeria. He edited seven books and published scores of articles both at National and International Journals. Dr. Agaji held several position of responsibilities and currently the chairman, Academic Programme Advising Committee, School of Arts and Social Sciences, FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja – Nigeria. Dr. Ja’afar Agaji Abdullahi is happily married to two wives and blessed with eleven children.


Abdullahi, H.Z. (1999). Ethics from an Islamic Perspective in America Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. America; International Institute of Islamic Thought.

Abu-Dawnd, S.B.A.S (1971) Sunan Abu-Dawud, Bei-rut-Lebanon; Dar al-Ilmiyyah

Aderinoye, R. (2016). Islamic, Peace and Security, and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. A key note Address presented at the 1st International Conference organize by the Development of Islamic Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State.

Agaji, J.A (2017). Islamic Social Justice: A panacea for sustainable Development in Nigeria. a paper presented at the 2nd International Conference Organized by the Department of Islamic Studies, Nasarawa State University Kaffi Nasaraw State.

Ali, Y.A. (1998). The Holy Qur'an: Text, translat6ion and commentary. Lebanon; Manar international Corporation.

Ayantanyo, J.K (2009). Fundamental of Religious Ethics, Ibadan; Time Publishing House.

Beekun, R. and Batawi, J. (1999). The Leadership process in Islam. www.google.com/retrieved 4th Aprial, 2019.

Bello, U.I. (2017). The Concept and Principle of leadership in Islam. A paper presented in the 2nd International Conference Organized by the Department of Islamic Studies, Nasarawa State Univeersity, Keffi Nasarawa State.

Bukhari, M.B.I (1997). Sahil al-Bukhari, Arabic - English (trans) by Muslim, M.K, Saudi-Arabia: Darussalam.

Collins, S. (2010). Colins English Dictionary. Copyright(c) harper Colins Publishers. www.collinsdictionary.com, retrieved 1st April, 2019.

Hornby, A.S. (2015). Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of current English. Oxford, University press.

Junaid, S.W. (2004). The Islamic concept of leadership and its implication in the Sakwat Caliphate. A paper presented at the Conference of 'Ulama Organized to commemorate the 200 years of Sokoto Caliphate, held between 23rd - 25th July, 2004 at Attahiru Dalhatu Bafarwa Institute of Qur'anic and General Studies, Sokoto.

Junejo, F.D. (2015). Public Administration and Governance in Islam. www.google.com: retrieved 3rd April, 2019.

Kelani, F.A. (2017). Application of Islamic Concept of Accountability in Leadership towards A Sustainable Development in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference Organized by the Department of Islamic Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi Nasarawa State.

Khan, S.A. (2012). Islamic Leadership Principles: A success Model for everyone and all times. www.irfi.org, Malaysia; M.M.I. Retrieved 3rd April, 2019.

Khattak, K.K (2009). The Islamic Concept of Administration http://youth-blogspot.com: Retrived 3rd  April, 2019

Lahiji, Z.A (2003). Iman Ali’s First Treatise on the Islamic Ethics and Education, Farrowhpery, D. (trans), Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran, Ansariyan Publication.

Muhammad, H. (2017). Islamic Administrative Ethics as a Panacea for Development of Nigeria. A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference Organized by the Department of Islamic Studies  Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State.

Muslim, H.I. (2000). Sahih Muslim: Authentic Prophetic Traditions as complied by Imam Muslim, Vol.2,8,7/874, al-Mundhiri, Z.A. (trans), Riyadah, Saudi-Arabia; Darussalam.

Muslim Academy (2017). Justice in Islam. www.Islamreligion.com: retrieved 3rd April, 2017.

Odunewu, A. (2000). Ethics and professionalism, in Arogun dade, L. and Etiokpath, B. (ed). Media in Democracy. Lagos; International Press Centre.

Oloyede, I.O. (2017). Islamic Social Justice and sustainable Development in Nigeria. A Keynote Address Delivered at the 2nd Annual International Conference organized by the Department of Islamic Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi Nasarawa State.

Rogers, P. (1976). Social Justice and Legal justice, 75 Central Law Journal 455.

Suleiman, I. (2014). Good Governance as a Panacea for National Integration and Security: Islamic Perspective (ed) in language and Literature in Multilingual society for National Integration and security.

Thomas, A. (2000). Meanings and View of Development, in Allen and Thomas (ed) poverty and Development in the 21st Century. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Wiki, P. (2017). Concept of Accountability. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/accountability: Retrieved 3rd April, 2019. 


Post a Comment