A Study of Social Media’s Role In Influencing Anger Expression and Management Among Young People

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University of Delta, Agbor


The focus of this paper is on the impact that social media platforms have had on how young people in Nigeria express and control their anger. This article discussed the cultural viewpoints, traditional methods, and one-of-a-kind issues that Nigerian teenagers confront when it comes to expressing and regulating their anger in online spaces. The discussion also dived into the subject of the exaggeration of feelings, as well as cyberbullying, echo chambers, and the effect that locally tailored Nigerian social media platforms have on the dynamics of fury. In addition to this, it explored how cultural subtleties and socioeconomic considerations play a role in the expression and control of anger, as well as the capacity of conventional conflict resolution procedures to deal with rage expressed on social media. This discussion underlined the necessity of encouraging digital literacy, emotional intelligence, empathy, and courteous online interactions among younger generations in Nigeria. It highlighted the need of developing tactics that equip users with the ability to navigate social media responsibly and participate in constructive discussion. It is recommended that to address these challenges, Nigeria has to build a social media environment that is healthier and which encourages empathy, understanding, and constructive dialogue among its younger population.

Keywords: Social media, anger expression, Nigerian society, anger management   


In this day and age, social media has developed into an essential component of our everyday lives, influencing how we interact with others, communicate with them, and express ourselves(Lucero, 2017). It has ushered in a whole new age of human contact, one in which feelings may be stoked and fanned into flame with the press of a button. Anger stands out as a potent force among the myriad of feelings that find expression on social media platforms. Anger is capable of igniting discussions, stoking disputes, and moulding narratives. In the setting of Nigeria, a nation renowned for the richness and vibrancy of its cultural variety, social media has emerged as an important platform for younger Nigerians to express their views, lobby for policy shifts, and interact with their country's other residents. When it comes to the expression of anger and the management of that anger among young people in Nigeria, social media poses a set of unique issues. ( Keating, Hendy, & Can 2016, ). This is in addition to the tremendous possibilities for connection and cooperation that it offers.

How young people express and control their anger is significantly impacted by the role that social media plays. When it comes to maintaining emotional control and expressing rage, social media platforms provide several obstacles, although they offer a variety of advantages. The fast and global reach of social media has the potential to heighten a variety of emotions, including rage. Interactions that take place online may rapidly become heated, which can result in rash and emotionally charged replies (Rasmussen et al, 2020). People may be more likely to exhibit their anger in ways that they would not do in face-to-face situations when they have the chance to hide behind computers and there are no nonverbal signs present. Its algorithms often serve to reinforce the users' preexisting opinions and preferences, so creating echo chambers in which people who have similar perspectives may engage. People who interact with information and other people who share and support their furious feelings might find that this leads to a reinforcement of their anger and hatred, which can have negative consequences. This impact of the echo chamber may lead to a heightened sensation of wrath, as well as a lower possibility of helpful dialogues. ( Fahmi, Ananta, &Octilia, 2022 Wang &Qian, 2021,  Ge et al 2020) 

Platforms for social media may easily develop into fertile ground for acts of cyberbullying and harassment, both of which can have a substantial negative influence on the mental health of young people (Bozyigit, Utku&Nasibov 2021). Being on the receiving end of or seeing online abuse and hostility may elicit feelings of rage and frustration, which can then lead to other upsetting emotional experiences. Its social media platforms often include portrayals of people's lives that have been meticulously manicured to seem as if they are perfect in every way. Constant exposure to the ideal lives of others may cause emotions of inadequacy, dissatisfaction, and jealousy, all of which can contribute to rage and other undesirable emotional states. ( Martiny, &Nikitin, 2019).

The development of appropriate coping skills for controlling anger outside of the context of social media might be hindered by an unhealthy dependence on these platforms as a primary means of social connection. Instead of learning constructive strategies to confront and control their emotions in real-world settings, young people may develop a habit of venting their rage via digital means. This may prevent them from developing these skills. In addition to this, it has the potential to generate a feeling of anonymity and disinhibition, which may result in more impulsive and violent outbursts of fury. Because of the relative anonymity of the internet, some people may feel that they are less responsible for their behaviour, which may lead to more severe and unfiltered expressions of rage. It is very uncommon for social media sites to be replete with material that's controversial and inflammatory, and this may play a role in the proliferation of rage among young people. ( Shabir, Hameed,  &Safdar, G2014 It is possible for viral material to swiftly acquire momentum and impact the broader emotional environment on social media if it is designed to evoke strong emotional responses, including rage.

Nigeria is a varied nation that is home to many different sets of cultural conventions and beliefs. It is necessary to investigate how these cultural elements interact with the usage of social media and impact the expression and control of anger. This research has the potential to dive into how cultural ideas, such as respect for authority or conventions around emotional expression, connect with online contacts and affect the dynamics of rage among young Nigerians. There are several popular locally-based platforms in Nigeria, such as Nairaland and Eskimi. This is in addition to the widespread usage of international platforms like Facebook and Twitter.  There is a long history of dispute-resolution procedures in Nigeria, including religious teachings and traditional ways. Nigeria has a rich past. A better understanding of how young Nigerians navigate between conventional or offline tactics for anger management and their interaction with social media platforms might shed insight into the complicated nature of anger dynamics in the digital realm. Access to technology, online experiences, and possibilities for anger expression and control may all be influenced by Nigeria's enormous socioeconomic differences, which can also affect the country's population(Bolton,  et al 2013). An investigation of how socioeconomic issues interact with the usage of social media and the dynamics of anger among young people would give invaluable insights for reducing inequality and fostering healthy online environments.

This discussion will help fill some potential gaps in the influence of social media on the expression and management of anger among young people in Nigeria. Some of these gaps include limited research on social media and anger in the context of Nigeria Although there is a growing body of literature on the impact of social media on emotions, including anger, there is limited research specifically focused on young people in Nigeria

Understanding Anger Expression and Management

Perspectives on Rage from Nigeria's many cultural traditions

Anger is a multifaceted emotion that is formed by the cultural norms, values, and beliefs of a society. The display of anger and how it is managed are both impacted by the cultural norms and practices that are prevalent in Nigeria. Exploring these cultural viewpoints has the potential to give very helpful insights into how anger is understood and managed in Nigerian culture. In most Nigerian cultures, respect is shown to elders, leaders, and parents as well as other positions of authority such as teachers and children's careers. Showing anger towards those in charge may be seen as disrespectful or disobedient. As a consequence of this, there may be social conventions that prevent direct expressions of fury directed against those who hold positions of authority. The standards of culture in Nigeria often encourage emotional restraint as well as self-control. It is possible that showing anger in front of other people will be seen as a sign of weakness or a lack of self-discipline. As a result, people may be taught to stifle or control their anger, preserve composure and resolve problems in a way that is calm and under control. Confrontation and public outbursts of wrath are frowned upon in many Nigerian cultural traditions. Instead, anger may be communicated covertly via non-verbal signs, body language, or through the use of sarcasm, proverbs, and metaphors in one's speech. Individuals can voice their discontent or disapproval while still preserving social peace via the use of this indirect form of communication.

Mediation, arbitration, and other forms of family and community involvement are only some of the dispute resolution methods that have a long history of use in Nigeria. ( Ele, 2020) These more conventional approaches often emphasize things like forgiveness and the mending of broken relationships. They provide frameworks for anger management as well as dispute resolution within the community.

The expression and control of anger in Nigerian culture may be affected by gender roles and expectations around such roles. (Alordiah, et al 2022) Different gender standards traditionally dictate different expectations for how men and women should behave when they are angry. For instance, it may be more acceptable for males to show their anger in a more forthright manner, while it may be more typical for people to expect women to express their anger with more restraint.

Methods of Anger Management from Religious and Traditional Practices in Nigerian Society

Anger management strategies in Nigerian society are heavily influenced by both traditional and religious practices, which play an important part in the culture of the country (Asadzandi, &Ar, 2018). These cultural frameworks provide people instruction on how they should comprehend and express their anger, as well as how they should handle it. Nigerian cultural traditions often emphasize preserving societal harmony and reconciling differences via peaceful means. Mechanisms of traditional conflict resolution, such as mediation and arbitration, have as their primary emphasis the restoration of relationships and the promotion of reconciliation, rather than the exclusive concentration on the expression of individual anger. These approaches emphasized the need for communication, empathy, and forgiveness as important components of anger management and conflict resolution.

Christianity, Islam, and indigenous beliefs are all significant in Nigeria, where religion is held in very high esteem due to its enormous significance. Religious teachings often provide instruction on how to better regulate one's emotions and deal with one's anger. When it comes to addressing feelings of rage, for instance, both Christianity and Islam place a strong emphasis on the virtues of patience, forgiveness, and self-control. These teachings inspire people to seek out spiritual and moral guidance so that they may properly regulate their feelings and emotions.  Traditional and religious practices in Nigeria may integrate certain rituals, prayers, or rites that are intended at reducing anger and requesting divine intervention for emotional well-being. These rituals and practices may be incorporated into religious ceremonies. Individuals get a feeling of control over their anger management and receive support from these routines and practices, which function as coping strategies and assist them.

Considerations and Obstacles Particular to the Nigerian Youth Population Concerning the Expression and Management of Anger

Even though young people in Nigeria use social media platforms as a means of communicating and expressing themselves, there are several obstacles and specific factors to take into account in terms of how anger is expressed and managed. These aspects have an impact on how young Nigerians manage their feelings on these platforms: A disinhibition effect may occur when people use social media platforms because of the anonymity and perceived distance that these platforms give (Perbawani, Rahayu,&Anshari. 2018). This impact allows people to feel freer to vent their anger without fearing immediate repercussions. When compared to encounters that take place in person, this might result in a more intense or forceful display of rage. Young people in Nigeria are heavily influenced in their behaviour on social media by the contacts they have with their peers and the social dynamics of their communities. A person's ability to express and control their anger may be influenced by their need to conform, obtain social acceptance, or join specific online groups. ( Xie&Xie 2019). Adolescents’ online anger and aggressive behaviour: Moderating effect of seeking social support. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal. The demand for social acceptability and the influence of peers may both play a role in the decision-making process surrounding the display of rage online.

The many social media platforms in Nigeria are not immune to disagreements, contentious discussions, or negative energy. Young people in Nigeria may come across information that is intentionally offensive, rhetoric that promotes hatred, or cyberbullying, all of which may cause rage. When navigating such circumstances, one has a one-of-a-kind set of obstacles when it comes to controlling anger and preserving emotional well-being. The implementation of conventional and religious methods of anger management, which give frameworks for anger control, may need modification in order to be used effectively in the digital domain. It is possible that young people in Nigeria do not have access to specialized instruction on how to properly manage their anger in the setting of social media, where interactions take place in real-time and often lack the face-to-face communication signals that would otherwise be there.

Overview of the Current Situation Regarding Social Media in Nigeria

In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of time spent on social media by Nigerians thanks to the country's large population and expanding internet access. ( Bolat,  2019, Emerald Expert Briefings. 2018) There are millions of people living in Nigeria who are actively participating in different social media platforms, making Nigeria one of the countries in Africa with the highest internet populations.

The use of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube, as well as other prominent worldwide social media platforms, has skyrocketed in popularity in Nigeria in recent years and is now an ingrained aspect of the country's culture (Udenze&Aduba, 2020). These platforms make it possible to communicate with one another, express oneself, and exchange information and ideas with others. In addition, Nigeria has seen the birth of locally adapted social media platforms that are specifically designed to cater to the one-of-a-kind requirements and preferences of the country's populace. The use of social media has fundamentally altered how people in Nigeria communicate with one another, express themselves, and interact with information. It has made the quick broadcast of news possible, aided in the organization of social and political engagement, and served as a forum for creative endeavours and business ventures. It is impossible to overestimate the significance of social media in the Nigerian setting, both as a tool for connecting people and for expressing themselves.

However, in addition to the many advantages, using social media in Nigeria has given birth to several problems, some of which include the proliferation of false news, the online harassment of users, and the exaggeration of negative emotions. ( Alakali, Faga, &Mbursa, 2017).  When taken along with the inherent complications of expressing and managing anger, these issues offer an environment that is unique for gaining an understanding of how young Nigerians navigate their emotions while using digital platforms. It is essential, given the growing significance of social media in the lives of young people in Nigeria, to investigate how its use impacts the expression and control of anger in the context of this particular setting.

The use of social media platforms in Nigeria, especially among the country's young population, has seen a substantial uptick in recent years. It is very necessary, considering the pervasive impact that these platforms have on the lives of young Nigerians, to have an understanding of how anger is expressed and handled by them.  When it is not properly expressed or channelled, anger may have a detrimental influence on one's mental health as well as their general well-being. Young people in Nigeria are not immune to the dangers posed by cyberbullying and other forms of internet abuse.

 Social Media Impact on the Expression of Anger in Nigeria

The many social media platforms in Nigeria have evolved into potent amplification mechanisms for a range of emotions, including rage. The nature of these platforms, which is characterized by real-time interactions, vast reach, and the capability to share material quickly, adds to the amplification of emotions. Content that is likely to incite anger, such as remarks that are provocative or offensive, inflammatory postings, or news that is controversial, may now swiftly circulate and reach a large audience thanks to social media. The viral nature of material transmission on platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram may amplify users' feelings and lead to feelings of rage among those who use these platforms in Nigeria.

The platforms of social media have the potential to turn into echo chambers, in which users are predominantly exposed to material and viewpoints that are congruent with their already-held beliefs and points of view. (Gorodnichenko, Pham &Talavera  2018)This may lead to the reinforcement of narratives that are known to incite anger as well as the establishment of online groups that are polarised. It is possible that being constantly exposed to opposing viewpoints and stuff that's controversial may increase rage expression and keep heated conversations going. Users can conceal their identities behind usernames and accounts on social media platforms, which may result in less responsibility for the things they say and do. This anonymity may give people the confidence to behave in ways that they would not otherwise in face-to-face contact, such as engaging in aggressive behaviour or participating in online conflicts that they would otherwise avoid.( Wang,  Pang, &Pavlou 2018).  Anger may be expressed more strongly when there are no immediate repercussions or social signals to guide behaviour.

The many types of instantaneous feedback that are made available via social media platforms include likes, shares, comments, and retweets. This immediate affirmation or disagreement may strengthen and exacerbate expressions of wrath. Users who are looking for support or validation for their anger might find it within their online networks, which can lead to the maintenance of furious feelings and subsequent amplification of emotions. Regularly, Nigerian social media platforms are witnesses to the emergence of hot topics and online movements that are tied to societal and political concerns. As people actively engage in disputes, vent complaints, or advocate for causes, these conversations have the potential to elicit significant feelings, including wrath, in those who participate. The communal aspect of these conversations has the potential to magnify users' expressions of rage and to spread their feelings to other users, causing emotional contagion.

Cyberbullying and other forms of Internet harassment

The Nigerian social media environment now faces substantial issues in the form of the emergence of cyberbullying and online harassment. These destructive behaviours have a direct influence on how anger is expressed and managed among young people in Nigeria. (Nguyen. et al 2020).  Young people in Nigeria are not immune to the worldwide trend of aggressive behaviour shown online. Individuals who use social media platforms might be emboldened to participate in cyberbullying and online harassment because these platforms give a sense of anonymity and apparent impunity (Kircaburun, et al 2018. These behaviours include the intentional targeting of people with messages that are unpleasant or threatening, the sharing of private information without authorization, the spreading of rumours, and participating in public shaming activities online. The negative effects of cyberbullying and other forms of online harassment on the mental health of young people in Nigeria are significant. (Nguyen, et al 2020).   Frequently, victims suffer heightened degrees of wrath, irritation, anxiety, and despair after becoming a victim of crime. It might be difficult for young people in Nigeria to properly regulate their anger when confronted with hard circumstances because of the persistent exposure to unpleasant online interactions, which can lead to a cycle of rage and emotional anguish.

The dynamics of cyberbullying and online harassment in Nigeria are influenced in part by cultural variables. The intensity and character of these behaviours may be influenced by power differentials such as age, gender, social standing, or educational background.  (López-Castro &Priegue, 2019). Cultural norms involving respect for authority people or compliance with society's standards may lead to the exacerbation of power imbalances and the expression of anger via cyberbullying. Cyberbullying and other forms of online abuse may put a strain on young people's social ties in Nigeria. Self-censorship or complete retreat from social media platforms may result when an individual is concerned about being harassed or embarrassed online. ( Lu& Zhao 2018).  Because of their isolation, young Nigerians may find it difficult to constructively vent their displeasure or to reach out for assistance from their online networks.

Due to gaps in legislative frameworks and insufficient enforcement, Nigeria confronts difficulty in successfully combating cyberbullying and online harassment. These problems are caused by the Internet. It is difficult to hold perpetrators of these behaviours responsible since there is no comprehensive regulation that expressly targets these behaviours. The absence of efficient reporting channels and support services adds another layer of complexity to the difficulties that victims must navigate.

The Influence of Echo Chambers and Polarisation on the Dynamics of Rage

Echo chambers and polarisation in the social media landscape of Nigeria have important ramifications for the dynamics of anger expression and control. These implications are considerable. These factors lead to the intensity and continuance of anger among members of online forums and communities. Echo chamber means the virtual areas on the internet in which users are predominantly exposed to material and ideas that are congruent with their prior beliefs and points of view. ( Bright,  et al 020) This further reinforcement of ideas may lead to an increased feeling of legitimacy and righteousness, which drives anger when facing opposing viewpoints or dissident opinions. Anger is heightened inside echo chambers because people participate in groupthink and develop a worldview of "us versus them."( Wollebæk, et al 2019)

Information bubbles are created by echo chambers, which isolate people from a variety of opinions and different perspectives. Because of this restricted exposure, productive conversation and critical thinking are stifled, which helps create an atmosphere in which resentment is focused towards those who do not participate in the echo chamber. One's ability to empathise and comprehend others is hindered when they are not exposed to a variety of perspectives, which contributes to the dynamics of increased rage. The polarisation of opinions expressed on various social media platforms in Nigeria might lead to encounters that are becoming more aggressive. As a result of echo chambers reinforcing extreme opinions and stifling discussions of more complex topics, anger has become the primary feeling that drives online dialogue(Roh, 2017). Polarisation of viewpoints may produce an "echo chamber effect," in which anger is magnified and spreads swiftly, making it more difficult to have productive discourse and raising the likelihood of confrontation.

Anger has the potential to become contagious among members of the same group, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion, which may occur in echo chambers. ( Zheng,  et al,2020).  This collective rage may rapidly increase, which can lead to the adoption of increasingly combative and hostile tones in online encounters. This buildup of anger is made worse by the echo chamber effect, which makes it more difficult for people to successfully moderate their anger and participate in useful debates. Echo chambers and polarisation both contribute to the social disintegration that is occurring in Nigeria(Nguyen & Vu,2019). When animosity is ratcheted up and allowed to fester inside some online groups, it makes it more difficult to identify common ground, promote togetherness, and work towards finding collective solutions. The divides that are created as a consequence might obstruct social development and intensify social tensions.

Challenges in Anger Management on Nigerian Social Media

The cultural subtleties that play a role in the management of rage online in Nigeria

On Nigerian social media sites, anger management presents a unique set of issues that are heavily affected by cultural peculiarities (Ramos-Cejudo, et al (2017). It is essential to get an understanding of these cultural aspects in order to successfully handle rage dynamics. Respect for those in positions of authority, such as elders, religious figures, and political or religious leaders, is highly valued in Nigerian society. Because of this cultural norm, people may be reluctant to publicly criticise or challenge those in positions of power online. This may affect how rage is expressed and controlled on these platforms. This may result in the repression or redirection of anger, which in turn may affect how it is conveyed online. The culture of Nigerian society may be described as collectivist, with an emphasis on the importance of community peace and social cohesiveness. rage management may be affected by the cultural backdrop of the internet, as users may place a higher priority on preserving group cohesion than expressing their rage. (Unuabonah& Gut 2018).  This may take the form of indirect or covert displays of rage in order to avoid damaging social connections or inciting conflict within online groups. Manifestations of this kind can take many forms.

The culture of Nigeria lays a strong emphasis on manners, especially when it comes to communication. People's interactions online may reflect this cultural norm via the way they communicate their rage using cryptic language, euphemisms, or other forms of indirect communication. This form of indirect communication may make it difficult to recognise and comprehend anger that is conveyed online since it may be concealed or communicated in a manner that requires knowledge of the context.

Age, gender, and one's social standing all play a role in determining one's place in Nigerian society, which demonstrates hierarchical structures and power dynamics. These dynamics may affect how anger is expressed and controlled online, as people may be reluctant to express their anger against others who are regarded to be higher in the social hierarchy. The dynamics of online debates may be influenced by power differentials, which can then shape the way rage is expressed and received.

The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on the Expression of Anger and Its Management on Social Media

There are a variety of socioeconomic elements that have a role in both the expression and control of rage on different social media platforms in Nigeria. These aspects add to the complexity of the dynamics of rage online and impact how people manage their emotions. Disparities in education and digital literacy among people of different socioeconomic backgrounds may affect how people express and manage their anger on social media. It may be difficult for people who have limited access to high-quality education or digital tools to properly articulate their feelings, which may result in less productive expressions of rage. In addition, persons with greater levels of education and internet literacy may use anger control tactics that are more complex.

Individuals in Nigeria may experience sentiments of irritation and anger as a result of the country's considerable wealth disparity, which is a contributing factor. ( .Increased levels of rage expressed online are a direct result of economic difficulties, restricted prospects, and unequal distribution of income. The dynamics of anger within the online community may be amplified when users use social media platforms as avenues to vent their complaints and frustrations, which can be seen as a negative development. Access to technology and accessibility to the internet in Nigeria is impacted by a variety of socioeconomic variables (Galperin,2017)  It may be difficult for people to participate on social media platforms if they do not have ready access to mobile devices, laptops, and dependable internet connections. Because of this restricted access, their capacity to properly express and regulate their anger may be hindered, as they may have limited interaction or experience connection challenges during critical talks. This might make it more difficult for them to effectively manage their anger.

In Nigeria, frequent socioeconomic difficulties include stress brought on by one's place of employment as well as job uncertainty. It is very uncommon for people to vent their frustrations about their jobs or their financial situations on various social media sites. People can utilise social media as an outlet for their frustrations, which may increase the expression of rage online.

Influence of Nigerian-Specific Social Media Platforms on the Evolution of Angry Behaviour in Nigeria

Localised social media platforms are often strongly ingrained in the culture of Nigeria, and they provide material that is meaningful to the people who live there. ( Asemah, Ekhareafo&Olaniran 2013).  This cultural relevance affects how anger is expressed and handled, as people may feel more at ease expressing their feelings in a setting that is reflective of their cultural experiences and beliefs. Niche communities that encourage particular hobbies, philosophies, or demographic groupings might emerge as a result of the proliferation of localised platforms. These groups have the potential to turn into echo chambers, which may amplify the dynamics of rage and reinforce specific points of view. As a result of the interaction that takes place inside these communities, the expression and receipt of anger are shaped, which in turn leads to an increase in the intensity of feelings within the localised social media ecosystem.

A forum is provided by localised platforms for the amplification of local concerns, complaints, and social injustices. This amplifying effect may lead to larger expressions of rage among people when they band together in support of similar causes or participate in online activism. Because of the platforms' decentralised character, concentrated conversations and the collective mobilisation of rage may take place on them, which in turn influences the larger social discourse. The content producers and influencers featured on localised social media platforms have a great amount of sway over their respective communities. This is because the material that they influence the dynamics of rage through what they generate and disseminate,

Approaches to the Constructive Expression and Administration of Anger

One of the most important things that can be done to encourage healthy expressions of anger and healthy ways to deal with it on social media platforms is to increase digital literacy and emotional intelligence among young people. Young people can traverse online environments more efficiently and participate in constructive discussions if they are provided with the skills and information required to do so.  The empowerment of young people in Nigeria to become responsible and discerning users of social media may be achieved via the implementation of digital literacy instruction in schools and community programmes.( Tsaniyah& Juliana 2019) This involves the instruction of skills such as critical thinking, information verification procedures, and appropriate behaviour when using the internet. Young people can make educated decisions about how they will express their anger and interact with others if they are aware of the possible consequences that might result from their words and actions while using the internet.

Training in emotional intelligence should be included in the school curriculum in Nigeria in order to assist young people in developing self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, and the ability to communicate effectively. Individuals who possess high levels of emotional intelligence are better able to comprehend and control their feelings, as well as empathise with and understand those of others. The capacity of young people to critically analyse and evaluate the material found online may be improved by the implementation of media literacy programmes that focus primarily on social media platforms. ( Tsaniyah& Juliana 2019.) This involves having an awareness of the methods utilised in digital media, being able to recognise bias and inaccurate information, and being able to recognise possible rage triggers. Media literacy programmes may provide young people in Nigeria with the tools they need to interact with social media responsibly and to make educated decisions about how they want to express their displeasure. (Idongesit, 2014).

It is possible to provide young people in Nigeria with the tools necessary to regulate their anger and participate in constructive discourse if they are taught techniques for conflict resolution and good communication. Teaching skills like active listening, assertive communication, and bargaining may facilitate the healthy expression of rage while also reducing antagonism and conflict. These talents have the potential to contribute to the creation of an online environment that is more courteous and understanding. It is possible to empower young people in Nigeria to vent their anger in a supportive and non-judgmental setting by creating safe spaces inside social media platforms or online groups. These venues need to have moderators to keep the conversation civil and give tools for anger management as well as help to those who need it. Young people may learn healthy methods to regulate their anger and learn to seek help when they need it if they are provided with outlets for expression as well as support.

Fostering Online Interactions that are Characterised by Empathy, Understanding, and Respect

One of the most important things that can be done to foster healthy expressions of anger and healthy methods of anger management is for social media users to communicate with one another in a way that is empathic, understanding, and courteous. Individuals can participate in more productive conversations and experience a decrease in the severity of anger dynamics when a culture of empathy and respect is fostered: Empathy and understanding may be strengthened in people by encouraging them to actively listen to the experiences and ideas of others. Users of social media may build greater awareness of other ideas by closely interacting with the thoughts and experiences of others, which can lead to interactions that are more courteous and empathic. It is very necessary, in order to keep a productive discourse going, to encourage users of social media to vent their displeasure courteously. By emphasizing the need of using polite language, avoiding personal attacks, and participating in respectful arguments, it is possible to create an atmosphere in which anger may be communicated in a way that leads to increased understanding rather than an escalation of existing issues.

In addition to encouraging empathy and understanding, leveraging conventional conflict resolution methods may be an effective technique for managing anger on social media. Nigeria is one of the countries in which social media has become a significant platform for political discourse. These processes, which draw on cultural customs and practises that have been utilised for countless generations to successfully handle disputes and give useful insights and answers, may be very helpful. Facilitating mediation and negotiation procedures on social media platforms may assist in reducing the intensity of confrontations and finding areas of agreement. Mediators with the appropriate training may assist foster communication, leading conversations, and working towards finding mutually acceptable resolutions. It is possible to build a feeling of communal responsibility and ownership by engaging a larger portion of the online community in the process of resolving problems connected to rage. The practices of restorative justice emphasize mending hurt feelings and mending broken relationships. Persons who are engaged in disputes may have the opportunity to vent their emotions, comprehend the effect that their acts have had, and strive towards reconciliation if the concepts of restorative justice are implemented on social media platforms. When using traditional methods for resolving conflicts, it is essential to ensure that cultural sensitivity is maintained and that all parties involved are included. It is vital to take into account and respect the many cultural practices and customs that are held by Nigeria's many distinct ethnic groups.


This paper has discussed the impact that social media has on how young people in Nigeria express and control their anger. In addition, this work discussed the difficulties associated with anger management on Nigerian social media, concentrating on the cultural subtleties that play a role in the management of rage in cyberspace. It examined the relevance of socioeconomic variables in determining anger expression and control, as well as the function of localised Nigerian social media platforms in creating anger dynamics. Methods for encouraging healthy expressions of anger as well as healthy methods of anger management were explained.


The following suggestions are made based on the discourse in this paper:

·         The government should institute comprehensive digital literacy programmes inside educational institutions. These programmes should include an emphasis on critical thinking, media literacy, and internet safety in order to provide people with the ability to discriminate and constructively manage their anger.

·         Training in emotional intelligence should be included in the school curriculum in order to increase self-awareness, self-regulation, and knowledge of empathy among young people in Nigeria. Individuals may better regulate their anger, participate in polite online interactions, and contribute to a more peaceful digital environment if they develop their emotional intelligence abilities. These skills can be developed via the practice of emotional intelligence.

·         The establishment of online support networks, helplines, and resources with the express purpose of addressing cyberbullying, online harassment, and anger-related disputes on social media platforms should be encouraged by the relevant stakeholders

·         Fostering a culture on social media platforms that prioritises empathy, understanding, and courteous dialogue as the norm

·         Conventional methods for conflict resolution should be incorporated into the digital sphere to facilitate reconciliation and harmony among users.

·         The Government should develop and enforce regulations along with social media platforms to combat cyberbullying, hate speech, and the dissemination of harmful material; this will need collaboration with social media platforms.


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