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Effects of Insecurity on Student’s Enrolment and Academic Performance in Some Selected Secondary Schools, Niger State

This article is published in the FUGUS Journal of Public Administration and Management, Volume 2, Number 1, October 2023. FUJPAM is a peer-reviewed journal of the Department of Public Administration, Federal University Gusau, Nigeria. You can check below to download a full PDF of the article or visit the journal website at https://www.fujpam.com.

EFFECTS OF INSECURITY ON STUDENT’S ENROLMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS, NIGER STATE.

by

Muktar Auna Ahmad
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Administration
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
E-Mail: ahmadmuktar8390@gmail.com 

Prof. Musa Idris
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Administration
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

&

Dr. Habib M. Ahmad
Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Administration
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
E-Mail: Habib.ahmed26@gmail.

Abstract

The paper Examine effects of Insecurity on Students Enrolments and Academic performance of Secondary Schools in Niger state. Schools are under violent attack that range from kidnapping of both students and teachers to outright destruction of live and property by unknown gunmen has become complex over time. The study tries to assess the effects of insecurity on secondary schools’ enrolments and academic performance. Data for the study were generated from primary and secondary source. Questionnaire and interview are the instruments used for primary data. The secondary data used in the study were the Niger state ministry of education school enrolments and school’s external examination record. Four staff of secondary education board, principals, teachers, and traditional rulers were purposively selected for an interview. The population of the study was2545a and sample size is 333 respondents drew from researcher advisers table 2006. The paper adopted both stratified random sampling for quantitative and purposive sampling for qualitative data. Both inferential statistics were used in testing and analyzing the data obtained. Simple linear regression was used in testing hypothesis using SPSS computer package (version 23.0). Structural functionalisms theory was adopted as a theoretical frame work. The study found that insecurity has significant negative effects on enrolments and academic performance of selected secondary school in Niger state. The study recommends among others that government should set up a committee responsible for evacuating and relocating of the affected students from insecurity prone arrears to a more secure environments or schools in other to reduce the declining rate of enrolments.

Key words: Insecurity, Kidnapping, Academic Performance, School Enrolments

1.1 Introduction

No nation developed when there is high level of insecurity in the society. The far-reaching effects of insecurity are evident in most communities in Nigeria. They are less developed and backward. Insecurity is frustrating the developments of education in Nigeria. Educational institution has been to a field of kidnapping for bandits and insurgents. The Nigerian school system in recent time have come under violent attack ranging from kidnapping of students and teachers to outright suicide bombing which usually claim lives and destroy property. According to 2015 global education monitoring report it is very unfortunate that percentage of "out of school children" in nations experiencing war has increased since 2000, Children of refugees are five times more likely to miss school than children of non-refugees. A severe issue with education exists in conflict-torn regions of the globe, depriving children of their fundamental right to an education and raising concerns about the possibility of them becoming a burden on society

Even though Nigeria hosted the fourth international conference on the Safe School Declaration (SSD) in October 2021, UNICEF (2022) reports that 10.5 million children are out of school. There are concerns that this number may even be higher due to bandit attacks that are becoming more frequent. The group reports that 25 assaults occurred on schools in 2021. During the year, 1440 children were kidnapped by bandits, and 16 school children were killed in attacks (UNICEF, 2022). Amnesty International reports that more than 61 children are being held captive months after being abducted in large numbers by bandits.

         

One of the objectives of education at all level of education in Nigeria is to achieve hundred percent enrolment, the problem of insecurity in the Northern Nigeria have affected the enrolment of students’ program. This problem is hindering the realisation of the educational goal in the region. Also at least one million school children among more than 37 schools’ children in Nigeria are afraid to return to schools as school resume, September. UNICEF (2021). The fear by the students to return to schools, the agency said, was as a result of insecurity in the country, especially abduction that have taken in schools so far.

          

Academic activities are disrupted intermittently as a result of sporadic attacks on educational facilities. The attacks on schools by bandit and boko haram also culminate in poor student ‘s academic performance because learning is characterized by threat in the school environment of the north, whereas it is an accomplished fact that learning thrives mostly in an environment devoid of threat. Oftentimes schools in crises areas hardly run full semester programmed. (Ojukwu 2017).

          

Significant insecurity in Niger state has posed a danger to the state's education. According to the International Centre for Investigation Report (ICIR), terrorists attacked several towns in the state over 50 times in the first two weeks of 2021, killing over 300 people and kidnapping over 200 more (ICIR, 2021) .this made parents to remove their children from state-run schools and send them to safer regions of the country, the worsening insecurity in  Niger state has had a severe negative impact on the state's educational system

          

Insecurity in Niger state has led to disruption of school administration (Kolo & Ogunode 2021). The activities of bandit and insurgents have caused disruption of school and in the entire activities in the education sector due to safety and security concerns. Students and pupils in the boarding school have constitute their soft target in other to get money from the governments. The government science college students in kagaraand the Salihu Tanko Islamiyyah Schools in Kagara are examples of this challenges. (Tribune, 2022)

 

Statement of the Research Problem

Nigeria has been struggling with insecurity problems like Boko Haram, banditry, abduction, and kidnapping among others. State of emergency declarations, discussions, and a large-scale force deployment are just a few of the actions that both the federal and state governments have taken to address this. The economy of the country has been severely damaged by security authorities' failure to contain this threat. Insecurity has plagued the relative peace in the North-East, banditry and cattle rustling have dominated the Northwest and some parts of the North-central, rape cases are on the rise everywhere but more so in the Western part, and kidnapping for ransom in the North Western and Central parts (Alfakoro, 2021).

           

Regarding the Niger State, which has been plagued by insecurity and under siege from robbers for over a decade Hundreds of children have been forced out of differents schools in banditry- ravaged community in Rafi, Shiroro, Munya, Mariga, among other local government area in Niger state. A figure from the universal Basic education commission in 2018 showed that 550,906 primary pupils and secondary school students were out of school in the state. These trends, according to an investigation by Daily Trust Saturday, has worsened as both the parents and children have nearly lost hope of returning home anytime soon. (Daily Trust, 2022). This was evident with the abduction of over 200 Islamc School children and kidnapping of over 27 students from Government Science College Kagara in Niger State.

          

Report from Niger state ministry of education has shown that, the enrolment rate has been declining over the years. This is attributed to the rampant attack on secondary schools by bandits in the state. For instance, in Rafi and Shiroro Local Governments Area of Niger State, the enrolment of SS1 in 2018 stood at 4132, 3765 in 2019, 2493 in 2020, 1794 in 2021 and 1685 in 2022. (Niger State Ministry of Education, 2022). Kamal and Hamza (2022) has argued that, in addition to the existing high rate out of school children in the state, kidnaping and other related crimes has caused low-level of student’s enrolment and retention in most secondary school in Niger state.

          

The increasing rate of attacks and student abduction in the state has a detrimental effect on academic performance of in the state. The statistical data on secondary school’s academic performance in the state indicated that in 2018 only 2,100 students representing 6% out 40,250 students passed the external examination with five credit and above in Niger state on account of insecurity especially kidnapping in the state. In 2019 however, the performance level was 20% and drop to 17% in 2020 the percentage also drop to 11% in 2021 and also decrease to 9% in 2022(NSME, 2022).

         

Thus, worried by this development the Niger state government decided to embark on a number of measures aimed at addressing the security challenges particularly attack on schools and mass abductions of school children in the state. These effort among others include going in to peace deal with bandit, also the government took steps with purchase of 200 security vehicles to security agencies to support their operations, the government also provided joint security operations control room, which is been controlled and managed by all security outfit in the state and also the government has made several move among which are building effective inter agency collaboration to solicit the commitment of the organization toward eradicating the menace.

         

However, despite these measures taking by government the insurgent have continue to attack many communities in the state indicating the failure of this measures in the fight against insecurity especially the kidnapping of school students is still worsening in the state, especially with the report were all public, private secondary and tertiary institutions in Wushishi Local Government Area, Niger State, have been ordered to close due to a planned bandit attack. (Sahara Reporters, December 20, 2021). Against the backdrop of the upsurge in incidences of insecurity in recent times, this paper examined insecurity as it affects school enrolment and academic performance of secondary school students in Niger state

 

Objective of the paper.

The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of insecurity on school enrolments and academic performance.

 

1.3       Research Questions

For the purpose of this research, the following research questions has been generated to guide the investigation:

1.   How has insecurity affected student’s enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state?

2.   How has insecurity affected students’ academic performance of selected secondary schools in Niger state?

1.3 Hypothesis

i.H01 insecurity has no significant effect on student enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

ii.H02 Insecurity has no significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

2.0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

This study reviewed relevant literatures on insecurity, student’s enrolment and academic performance.

 

Concept of Insecurity

The concept of insecurity is a worldwide phenomenon that draw the attention of scholars and practitioners. It is the antithesis of security, because of the very many ways in which insecurity affect human life and existence, the concept of insecurity has usually been ascribed different interpretation in association with the various ways which it affects individuals. Some of the common descriptors of insecurity include: want of safety; danger; hazard; uncertainty; want of confidence; doubtful; inadequately guarded or protected; lacking stability; trouble; lack of protection; and unsafe to mention few these different descriptors however, run in to a common reference to a state of vulnerability to harm and loss of life, property or livelihood. Therefore, insecurity is a serious threat or obstacles to the economic, social and political development of any society. Ewatan (2013) posit that insecurity is a breach of peaceful existence and security weather historical, religious, ethno regional, civil social, economic and political that contribute to recurring conflict and leads to wanton destruction of life and property. Therefore, insecurity can emanate from situation where suffer deprivation, poverty, lack of access to essential necessities of life however, Beland (2005) sees insecurity as state of fear or anxiety due to absence of protection.

           

According to Nwagboso (2012) insecurity is danger that entrepreneur and executive of business organization exercise by relocating their business venture from an insecure environment to a more secure one. This view is applicable to Yoruba and Igbo business men who relocate their business to their respective state of origin in the wake of Boko haram insurgency. This view is applicable to many industries who relocate from north east Nigeria geo political zone of Nigeria to other part of the country as a result of high level of insecurity occasioned by the boko haram insurgency. (Ajodo, Adebanjo, &Okone 2014). The issue of insecurity after postwar-era began to increase within countries, most especially in developing countries. The recent phenomenon of non-violent conflict within the least developed countries has prompted scholars to perceived insecurity as threat to human life (Saliu, Luqman, and Abdullahi 2017).

 

Kidnapping

Kidnapping is one of the common major social problems that negatively affect the free movement of people and socio-economic development of many countries. Kidnapping is perceived as taking person of value hostage, and who could be rescued by love ones. In most cases victims are often release after payments of ransom. (Nwagama, 2014.) Kidnapping is a universal phenomenon that is as old as the creation itself. It is a serious criminal offence. It is an act of seizing, taking away and keeping a person in custody either by force or fraud. Kidnapping, for ransom, is a common occurrence in various parts of the world today. In fact, the geographical spread of kidnapping is global, while certain world cities are notorious in the incidence.

 

Kidnapping as presently carried out in Nigeria, cut across demographic and geographic boundaries of States. It is no longer a peculiar feature of either urban or rural setting. in Nigeria the spate of kidnapping that attracted national attention On April 14, 2014, Boko Haram militants kidnapped more than 276 schoolgirls from Government Girls Secondary School, Chibok in Nigeria’s north-eastern Borno State, this attracted outcry from local, national and the international communities, social media and civil society (Human Rights Watch, 2014). However, in Nigeria education as we generally know is best legacy one can give to his or her children because it guides attitude, lead to good activities and help the entire society live cordially with one another. Education sector has been the engine room for all other sector but of recent it suffers setback caused by debilitating, and incessant kidnapping carried by bandits. The must worldly attracted incident was the mass abduction of over 200 students of government girl’s secondary school Chibok in Borno state. From that time, academic activities especially in secondary school are carried out in phobia and uncertainties of where will be the next target. Parent in rural areas that were force to enroll children in to school are using student’s abduction as an excuse for preventing them going. Increase in students kidnapping has become a threat to the future of students. Because illiterate are consider like body without life. The Guardian (2021) report that the minister of women affairs, Mrs. Pauline Taline, during her press briefing in commemoration of 2021 international women’s day. She says that 1,157 students were kidnapped in seven years.

 

Academic performance

Education is one of the imperative aspects of that not only increase the essentials skills, ability and knowledge among the individual, but also lead to overall growth and progress of the individual and nation as a whole. Lamas, (2015) sees academic performance as a measure of the indicative and responsive abilities that express, in an estimated way, what a person has learnt as a result of a process of education and training.  Therefore, academic performance entails that student are required to maintain a satisfactory academic and met the obligation of the course they are enrolled (Ojukwu & Nwamma 2015). Academic performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a Student’s achieved the educational goal (Ojukwu, 2017).

The determinants of academic performance of the students include class participation, class assignments, homework assignment, test, examination and participation in competition or other events (Kapur, 2018). Good or bad academic performance can make or mar the goal of the student’s life as well as national goal of development. A good academic will bring about the motivation and enthusiasm the students need to attain a high academic standing when compare with his/her mates it brings about resilience and make the students success oriented. (Morgan, 2002). Students‟ academic performance as observed by Ayodele, (2015) is one of the acceptable yardsticks for measuring the success or otherwise of any educational setting including secondary schools because it shows how students deal with their studies and how they accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. The teacher according to him therefore determines to a large extent the success or failure of the students and educational enterprise as a whole. A well-trained and highly motivated teacher is significantly related to positive academic performance of students in examinations.

Concept of Enrolment

The concept of enrolment may be referred to as the act of enrolling, the state of being enrolled or the number of persons enrolled as for a course or in school” (ditctionary.com, nd). A positive school enrolment creates an optimal setting of high enrolments. The school is a stabilizing force for young people both emotionally and academically particularly when they are experiencing transition or crises. According UNESCO (2017) school enrolment refers to as number of students enrolled in a giving level of education, regardless of age, express as percentage of the official school age population corresponding to the same level of education.  Thus, based on the context of this study, enrolment is a process or an act of registering or enlisting someone in a school for the purpose of an academic study.

 

Student’s enrollment varies across country owing to the availability of infrastructure and required man-power. Although, UNESCO prescribed a bench-mark upon which countries operation to enhance quality knowledge base on system for all citizen. Education enrollment refers to the prescribe age and number of number of students enrolled in primary secondary and tertiary schools. Onyena (2000) state that in any institution, the basic focus is on school plan and administration of facilities because effective and efficient running of the system, proper maintenance and use of structural unit and facility are quite accurate and imperative. A well design functional school building provides effective delivery of the school’s curriculum and is positively related to enrolment of the students (Li &Qiu, 2018).

Empirical Studies

There are other empirical literature that are important for the study. Mohammed (2015) examined the effects of insurgency on girl’s education in north eastern Nigeria. The findings reveal that the insurgency has affected girls-child education negatively in north eastern Nigeria, because the school have been hurt in the present other students during attack in their school, as such female students were afraid from going to school.

 

The major gap establish in this study is the inability of researcher to take in to consideration the effects the insurgency has on the academic performance of girl’s child education as the study focus more on only school attendance. Also, study uses only secondary data as the methodology of collecting. Were as primary data is highly required to ascertain the damage insurgency has on girl’s child education.

 

Other studies by Umar and Terhemba (2018) examined the effects of insecurity on primary school attendance in Damaturu. Multistage sampling technique was use to select 225 parent and teachers in 10 primary schools in damaturu. The result indicated the effect of insecurity has reduce the level of primary school attendance in damaturu.  The study recommends among others that government should provide adequate and effective security personnel in all the institution of learning in Damaturu metropolis.

         

The major gap identified in the study is that the study is too narrow as it on focus on primary school attendance in Damaturu metropolis only with focus on primary school and no secondary data employed as part of methodology. Hence there is need for further study to examine the effects insecurity has on secondary schools’ enrolments as they constitute the major target of the insurgence.

         

Furthermore, Ojukwu (2017) investigated the effect of insecurity of school environments on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state. The study uses primary sources of data as methodology. The major findings of this study include insecurity of school environments significantly affect the academic performance of secondary school students. While student’s gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity in the school environments. The study recommend among others owners of the school and other state holders in education should take a bold step to fence and protect school environment from intruders to ensure safety of the students.

          

The major gap in this study is that it focuses more on insecurity happening within the school environments such as drug abuse and smoking etc, and study employ only primary source of data as methodology. As such there is need for further study to be carried out on how insecurity such banditry, kidnapping affects students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

 

Theoretical Framework

Structural Functionalism Theory

Structural functionalism theory comes from variety of authors Wallace and Wolf trace the development of the theory to Comte, Herbert Spencer, and Durkheim. The structural functional approach was developed from the 1930s through the 1960s in the United State. All of these were sociologist who were from United State and spent most of their academic life there.

           

The functionalists are of the view that responsibilities are shared according to social structures or values. This is in a bid to maintain the survival of various parts that make up the entire society. In this case, what happens to any part affects other parts of the entire body. Central to this paradigm is that within human society, the following structures exist: political, economy, religion, education, industry, technology, social control or social order and work together in an interrelated and interdependent manner to promote solidarity and stability.

          

Hence, any flux in one part of the society causes flux in another part.That is to say this theory also sees society as a social institution like family, education, economy, religion, politics, health, law etc. Each has a task or role to play to make the society lively and functional (Osat&Ikechukwu, 2021).

 

Application of the Theory to the Study

This theory is appropriate and relevant for this study since education (primary, secondary or tertiary) is one of the structures that makes up the society as well as security of the state. In this case, whatever happens to security will certainly affect the education sector and the entire society; and to sustain the society entails that government should strategize in order to maintain high level of security. If no attention is given to address the issue of insecurity in the nation, it means no meaningful development will take place in education sector. To arrest insecurity is to encourage education sector to develop and make meaningful contributions towards the development of the nation.  Therefore, education at every stage i.e. primary, secondary or tertiary cannot function properly in the midst of insecurity. In this case, all depend on government to fight insecurity in order to achieve qualitative education and overall growth and development.

 Methodology

 The current study is a survey research study with a mixed method. The primary and secondary sources of data was used for this study to obtain data from participants. A total of 333 samples were drawn from the population of is 2544 using Research Advisors sample size determination table, (2006) formula. The study employed purposive sampling for qualitative data and stratified random sampling techniques for quantitative data. The reason for this option is that the findings may be generalized, it saves time, and it is reasonably inexpensive. Using the aforesaid technique, 333respondents were picked. However, the study increased the sample size by 10%, as suggested by Isreal (2013) bringing the total sample size to 366. Data   was   collected   from   students, teachers, and officials of secondary education board, principals, vigilante members and traditional rulers. A total of 342 out of 366 survey questionnaires were returned and   found   valid   for   analysis. The study employed simple linear regression for data analysis. 

TABLE 3.1 SHOWING POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE FOR THE QUESTIONNAIRE

S/N

POPULATION TARGET

SIZE OF THE POPULATION

SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION

1

Students

2418

2418/2545X333=316

2

Teachers

127

127/2545X333=17

 

TOTAL

2545

333

Researchers’ survey 2023

 

TABLE 3.2 SHOWING INTERVIEW RESPONDENTS

POSITION

NUMBER OF INTERVIEWEES

Principal

4

Secondary education board officials

4

Traditional rulers

2

Vigilante members

2

 

Result and discussion.

Test of Hypothesis 1

H01 insecurity does not have significant effect on school enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

 

Summary of Regression Results

Variables

Coefficient

t-statistics

p-value

Constant

11.103

17.497

0.000

Enrolment

-4.077

11.431

0.000

R-Squared

0.438

 

 

Adjusted R-Squared

0.405

 

 

F-Statistics

2.047

 

0.000b

Source: SPSS version 23

 

The empirical findings above revealed that the F-statistics stood at 2.047 with a p-value of .000, indicating that the model is fit for the study at 99% level of confidence. The coefficient of determination R2 stoodat 0.438, indicating that about 44% of the total variation in students’ enrolment can be explained by the activities of insecurity while the remaining 56% can be explained by other variables.

          

The coefficient of enrolment stood at -4.077 which is negative. This implies that increase in insecurity would decrease student’s enrolment in the affected areas of Niger State. The t-statistics of enrolment stood at 11.431 with a p-value of 0.000. The p-value is lesser than 0.05, indicating that the relationship depicted in the model is significant at 95% confidence level. This implies that the study has enough statistical evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

          

Based on the analysis above, we reject the null hypothesis which states that insecurity does not have significant effect on school enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state, and accept the alternate which states that insecurity has significant effect on school enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

 

Test of Hypothesis 2

H02 insecurity does not have significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

 

Table 5.23 Summary of Regression Results

Variables

Coefficient

t-statistics

p-value

Constant

12.625

23.273

0.000

Academic Performance

-3.32

5.864

0.001

R-Squared

0.656

 

 

Adjusted R-Squared

0.608

 

 

F-Statistics

34.621

 

0.000b

Source: SPSS version 23

 

The empirical findings above revealed that the F-statistics stood at 34.621 with a p-value of .000, indicating that the model is fit for the study at 99% level of confidence. The coefficient of determination R2 stood at 0.656, indicating that about 66% of the total variation in students’ academic performance can be explained by the activities of insecurity while the remaining 34% can be explained by other variables.

           

The coefficient of academic performance stood at -3.32 which is negative. This implies that increase in insecurity would decrease student’s academic performance in the affected areas of Niger State. The t-statistics of academic performance stood at 5.864 with a p-value of 0.001.  The p-value is lesser than 0.05, indicating that the relationship depicted in the model is significant at 95% confidence level. This implies that the study has enough statistical evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

           

Based on the analysis above, we reject the null hypothesis which states that insecurity does not have significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state, and accept the alternate which states that insecurity has significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state.

 

Discussion

The study assessed the effect of insecurity on school enrolment, and academic performance of secondary school students in Niger state. From the analyses of data, several findings were arrived at which are discussed below:

          

The study revealed that insecurity has significant negative effect on school enrolment in selected secondary schools in Niger state.  Data from Niger state Ministry of Education Shows that the rate of enrolments has continued to drop in Rafi and Shiroro local governments area of the state, the enrolments of SS1 in 2018 stood at 4132, 3765 in 2019, 2493, in 2020 1794 in 2021 and 1685 1n 2022. This is depicted in table 5.21 which shows that insecurity has negative and significant effect on student’s enrolment in Niger state. The interview conducted also revealed that insecurity has absolutely decreased the enrolment rate and reduce the percentage of pupil’s attendance to school in both rural and semi urban areas. This is line with the finding of Abdullah and Atsua (2016) whose study revealed that the level of school attendance under the crisis situation in Maiduguri metropolis has been low. Also, the effect of insecurity on school enrolments were found to be significant, this situation if left unchecked, will lead permanent dropout of many children not only in Damaturu metropolis but in the entire Northern Nigeria at large by making them available for use as political thugs and exposing them to other economic and social vices. Abama and Gyang (2018) who reported that due to insecurity, schools experience distorted pattern of enrolment based on religious segregation.

         

Also, the study found out that insecurity has significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state. This is depicted in table 5.23 which shows that insecurity has negative and significant effect on students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in Niger state. Griff (1999) maintain that a sense of competency often emerges in a society that is fair and consistent which will in turn provide appropriate academic support and expectation. Therefore, improving students’ academic performance will generally require a very secure environments free of all form of security challenges. This is in line with the findings of Ojukwu (2017), whose findings revealed that insecurity of school environments significantly affect the academic performance of secondary school students.

This finding and other interview responses suggest that as a result of insecurity students become afraid of school as they feel insecure and hence, they skip school, miss lesson which eventually affects them during examination. Beside they lose interest in school and academic activities which eventually lead to truancy and boys leaving schools to take trading, while girl’s dropout and settle for marriage.  And the study by Ochigo, Bala and Zalakoro (2021) who found out that the factors that constitute insecurity in Benue state influence academic performance. It was also revealing the insecurity situation affect largely schools located in the rural and semi urban areas which are largely the most targeted places for banditry and kidnapping activities in Niger state, which in turn have significant effect on the academic performance of secondary school students particularly in the affected areas of the state. This is also in line with finding of Nwakpa (2015) on the effects of insecurity on quality tertiary education in Nigeria which also report on the effects of insecurity on schools.

 

Conclusion

The importance of education in every nation cannot be overemphasized, as it remains a major weapon in fighting vices and crime especially among the youths.  This study assessed the effect of insecurity on enrolment and academic performance of secondary school students in Niger state. The result of the tested hypotheses revealed that insecurity has negative effect on the education of secondary school students in Niger state. The study therefore concludes that insecurity has negative and significant effect on student’s enrolment and that insecurity has negative and significant effect on students’ academic performance in Niger state. Insecurity problem need quick response, due to its significant effects on growth and developments of our educational sector. It is incumbent on the government to provide adequate and effective security personnel to all institutions of learning in the insecurity prone areas of Niger state, to stop the abduction, kidnapping and destructions around educational institutions.

 

 

Recommendations

i.   Government should be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through modern methods of intelligence gathering, intelligence sharing, and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges. This will go a long in way increasing the rate of enrolments. Government should setup a committee responsible for evacuating and relocating of the affected students from the insecurity prone areas to a more secure environments or schools in other to reduce the declining rate of enrolments in the affected areas. 

ii. Government should provide more security personnel for schools in the rural areas, especially boarding schools, by engaging security joint task force to provide more hands and improve local intelligence to as to reduce psychological fear in other improve student’s academic performance. 

iii  Students enrolment, and academic performance are key indicators of progress in education. Traditional rulers should encourage members of their communities to enroll their wards in schools and endeavor to complete their education with good academic performance to become leaders of tomorrow.

 

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