Friday, 11 January 2019

Makamin Dimokraɗiyya A Falsafar Al’ada



Gudunmuwar al’ada ga haɓaka dimokraɗiyya daji ne ba ka da gambu. Don haka, na zaɓi in yi masa gambu:[1] “Makamin Dimokraɗiyya a Falfasar Al’ada”. Muradina shi ne, sai na harari makaman da ke a hannu. Mu ga irin kaifinsu, da rawar da suka taka ta gara jiya da yau. Daga nan, mu ɗan linƙayi matsalolin da dimokraɗiyya take ciki a yau, da irin barazanar da masu hangen nesa ke ganin za a fuskanta. Idan shimfiɗarmu ta daidaitu, sai mu yi karan gwajin dahi da ma’aunin al’ada ɗaya da muke ganin, zai yi wa matsalolin, da barazanar, walki daidai da kwankwasonsu. Ƙunshiyar kayan cikin wannan takarda, ba za su yi muna susa gurbin ƙaiƙayi ba, sai mun yi fashin baƙin fitilun kalmominta, domin karen da ya yi cizo da gashin da ake magani.
Makamin Dimokraɗiyya A Falsafar Al’ada

Aliyu Muhammadu Bunza
Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato.
Waya: 0803 431 6508

Takardar da aka gabatar a matsayin JAGORA ga takardun Al’ada a taron ƙara wa juna sani na ƙasa na farko a kan Harshe da Adabi da Al’adun Hausawa a Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, daga ranar Litinin 14 Janairu zuwa Laraba 16, 2013


Gabatarwa:
Gudunmuwar al’ada ga haɓaka dimokraɗiyya daji ne ba ka da gambu. Don haka, na zaɓi in yi masa gambu:[2] “Makamin Dimokraɗiyya a Falfasar Al’ada”. Muradina shi ne, sai na harari makaman da ke a hannu. Mu ga irin kaifinsu, da rawar da suka taka ta gara jiya da yau. Daga nan, mu ɗan linƙayi matsalolin da dimokraɗiyya take ciki a yau, da irin barazanar da masu hangen nesa ke ganin za  a fuskanta. Idan shimfiɗarmu ta daidaitu, sai mu yi karan gwajin dahi da ma’aunin al’ada ɗaya da muke ganin, zai yi wa matsalolin, da barazanar, walki daidai da kwankwasonsu. Ƙunshiyar kayan cikin wannan takarda, ba za su yi muna susa gurbin ƙaiƙayi ba, sai mun yi fashin baƙin fitilun kalmominta, domin karen da ya yi cizo da gashin da ake magani.

Fashin Baƙin Matashiya:
Ga alama, matashiyarmu tana buƙatar taƙaitacciyar ɗauraya ga kalmomin da suka haɗa ta gabanin a doki garwa balbelu su san inda dare ya yi musu. Kalmomi huɗu na matashiya da ke son bita su ne: Makami da Dimokraɗiyya da Falfasa da Al’ada. Idan aka farke layar waɗannan fitilun kalmomi, sauran bayanan da za su biyo baya, cikon suna ne makaho da waiwaye.
Makami kalma ce mai harshen damo.[3] Asalin kalmar a Hausa, ‘suna’ ce, kuma tilo. Kalmar na ɗaukar ma’anar makamar wani abu idan ya rikice, ko ya buwaya, ko ana buƙatar a daidaita shi, ko a tabbatar da shi, ko a sarrafa shi. A wata ma’ana, makami kan ɗauki wasu abubuwan sarrafawa na itace, ko ƙarafa, a fagen faɗa, ko yaƙi, ko kare kai.[4] Makami kan ɗaukar ma’anar makaman haƙo irin na kama kifi ko namun daji.[5] A wata fassara, yakan ɗauki ma’anar wani asiri ko magani ko siddabaru na tunkarar wani abu. Fassarorin ƙamusun Hausa[6] da Turanci[7] da Larabci[8] duk sun kakkamo ire-iren waɗannan ma’anoni na kalmar “Makami”. A wannan tattaunawar, kalmar makami da nake son in sarrafa ta haɗe ma’anonin biyu duka ta harshe (Luga) da ta haƙiƙa. Don haka nake kallon makami a matsayin:
Wata dabara ko salo ko asiri da za a sarrafa, ko aikata, ko ɗabbaƙa, domin kai ga wani buri na rayuwa. Idan don yaƙi, ko faɗa, ko haƙo, aka yi shi, muradinsa tunkarar abin gadan-gadan har zuwa ga nasara. Idan makamin na aƙida ne da ya shafi imanin mai shi, muradinsa tabbatar da manufar makamin da aka yi garkuwa da shi.

Tsarin Dimokraɗiyya na da makamai daban-daban na jawo hankalin jama’a da neman yardarsu, da ba da haɗin kansu zuwa ga kafa ta. A ganin wannan takarda, dabarun da aka bi aka sarrafa makaman Dimokraɗiyyar Nijeriya, ba su ce komai ba an raki baƙo ya dawo. Ganin haka, nake son a jarrabawa gawurtaccen makamin al’ada ɗaya a ga irin ƙoƙarinsa. Gabanin haka, ya kyatu mu auna nauyin dimokraɗiyya mu ga ko makamin na yi mata warki daidai da kwankwasonta.

Mece Ce Dimokraɗiyya?
Tsaftataccen aro wata babbar alama ce ta bunƙasar harshe, da irin tozonsa, cikin bunƙasassun harsunan ƙarninsa.[9] Kalmar “Dimokraɗiyya” asali ba Bahaushiya ba ce. Hausawa sun aro ta daga Larabawa.[10] Larabawa suna da salon da suke Larabtar da kalmomi musamman sunaye, ta farkonsu, ko ƙarshensu.[11] Haƙiƙa, su ma Larabawa daga Turawa suka aro ta wato daga “Democracy.”[12] Ga alama, su ma Turawa daga tsohon harshen Girkawa suka aro ta.[13] A maƙurar bincikena, Bagirkiyar kalma ce, ta rikiɗa zuwa Baturiya, ta birkita kwanci zuwa Balarabiya ta sake siddabarun zama Bahaushiya. Waɗannan sauye-sauyen mazaunin bai dubultar da ma’anarta ta asali ba.[14]
A fassara,”Dimokraɗiya”ita ce tsarin gudanar shugabancin mutane,ta hanyar ba mutane cikakkiyar damar zaɓen wanda zai jagorance su.[15] Wasu masana siyasa,cewa suka yi,tsari ne da tarsashin gurabun muƙamai na gwamnati ga hannun mutane yake na gaba ɗaya gamin-gambiza.[16] Waɗannan dalilan ke sa ana yi mata kirari da, gwannanti ce da aka kafa bisa yardar mutane, tare da mutane, a kan shugabancin mutane.[17] Wataƙila, ire-iren waɗannan hasashe-hasashe ne ya sa Ƙamusun Hausa ya fassara ta da:
Tafarkin mulki da mutanen ƙasa ke zaɓar shugabansu ta hanyar jefa ƙuri’a.[18]

A al’adance, ƙuri’ar da ake nufi a tsarin Dimokraɗiyya ba sai ta kati kawai ba. Haka kuma, ba sai an kafa wani fati ko ƙungiyar takara ba. Haka kuma, ba dole sai da wata hukumar zaɓe ba. Haka kuma, ba dole sai kowane ɗan ƙasa, ala tilas ya sa hannunsa ba. Babbar buƙata ita ce, a samu mutanen da za a gudanar da gwannati da su. A samu amintarsu, a kan tsarin da za a shugabance su. A samu yardarsu, ga wanda za ya ja akalarsu, ta kowace fuska al’adarsu ta tanada musu. Bugu da ƙari, a samu sa hannunsu ga tafiyar da tsarin da suka yi imani da shi ba tare da wariya ko tilasatawa ba.[19] Haƙiƙa, yunƙurin tafiyar da irin wannan tsari ba tare da limantar da al’adar mutanen ƙasa ba, shi ake cewa, gaba kallo baya da mamaki. Duk wani irin makami da aka ƙera, ko aka saya, ko aka ara, sai an tabbata, bisimillahi ba ta yankan kura, sai an gama da wayyo Allah! Gabanin mu zage makamin a kube ga hotonsa.

Mece Ce Al’ada?
Asalin kalmar “al’ada” daga Larabci take Hausawa suka Hausantar da ita suka faɗaɗa mata ma’ana.[20] A Hausa kwatankwaciyar ta ita ce “gado” ko “gargajiya” ko “saaboo”. Abin da aka taras kaka da kakanni ya zama “gado”. Abin da aka gada kaka da kakanni shi ne “gargajiya”. Idan ya zama wa mutane jiki, ya nashe a tafarkin rayuwarsu, gaɓɓansu za su saba da su, ya zama “sabo” gare su. Abubuwan da suka shiga a rayuwa ta haka, su ne al’ada, a al’adance, a gejeruwar fassara.
A idon manazarta, mutane ke da al’ada. Al’adar ta mutane wadda ta ƙunshi rayuwarsu, da ibadojinsu, da fasahohinsu. Fahintarsu, iliminsu, dokokinsu, falsafarsu, da tarbiyarsu duk suna cikin al’adunsu.[21] Labudda babu wata al’umma da ba ta da al’adun da ke tafiyar da rayuwar mutanenta, bisa ga saninta, ta yadda al’adar za ta yi amo gare ta tun haihuwar su har zuwa kabarinsu. A Tsarin Dokokin Al’adu na Nijeriya an ce, al’ada ita ce:
Tarsashin hanyoyin rayuwar mutane na yunƙure-yunƙurensu wajen tunkarar abubuwan da ke yi wa rayuwarsu barazana wanda zai fassara rayuwar jin daɗinsu siyasarsu zamantakewarsu, tattalin arzikinsu, sha’awarsu, da addininsu, da ɗabi’u/halayensu, tsare-tsarensu, da shirye-shiryensu, waɗanda za su bambanta su da wasu ba su ba.[22]

Fassarar da Ma’aikatar Wayar da kai da Kula Al’adu ta Tarayya ta bayar ya faɗaɗa ma’anar Al’ada zuwa:
Al’ada ita ce, waiwaye adon tafiya ga rayuwar magabata. Ta ƙunshi ɗabi’un mutane zuwa ga makomar nagartattun al’adunsu na gado tare da fuskantar buƙatocin kimiyyar zamani wadda take wani babban makami na ci gaba da bunƙasa.[23]

A Bahaushen hasashe, Ƙamusoshin Hausa fitattu sun ba da irin tasu ma’ana ta al’ada a idon Bahaushe. Ganin kasawarsu ga kai ga ƙololuwar ma’anar al’ada a mizanin nazari ya sa na wadatu da taron dangin da Hukumomin Ƙasa suka yi wa ma’anar al’ada. Haƙiƙa, bisa ga yalwatacciyar ma’anar al’adar, babu wani mahaluƙi da zai iya tunani wajen al’adarsa ko ya zarce al’adarsa. Kowane ɗan Adam cikin al’adarsa yake rayuwa, a ciki yake lelawa, a ciki burace-buracensa suke. Ashe, babu dabara ko makamin kama mutum a ci moriyarsa idan ba a bi fuskar al’adarsa ba. Tunanin haka nake ganin al’adar mutane ta fi cancanta ta jagorance su, ba al’adar wasu ba. A cikin kowane iƙirari, ko aiki, ko aƙida ta al’ada, ba sa rasa hikima a ciki ba. Hikimar da sirrin da ke ciki su ne “falsafa”.

Mene Ne Falsafa?
Irin yadda kalmar “Dimokraɗiyya” ta shigo Hausa duk haka nan “falsafa” ta shigo. Bahaushe ya aro ta ne daga Larabawa, su kuwa sun aro ta daga Turawa, su ko Turawa daga Latin suka aro ta.[24] Ma’anarta daga asali bai sauya ba. A wajen Larabawa falfasa wani babban gida ne na azanci, da fasaha, da hangen nesa, da tunani, irin na hankalin tuwo. A wajen Turawa da Latinawa, haka abin yake. Falsafa wata makaranta ce ta bitar karatu, tare da taliyon haƙiƙance yadda akalar karatu ke sarrafuwa ga rayuwa ta zahiri. Falsafa wata hanya ce ta ƙololuwar sha’awar ilmi da hikimar da ke ƙunshe da shi.[25] A kowane al’amari falsafa na kallon mafari ko sanadinsa da dalilin samuwarsa tare da hujjojin da za su tabbatar da hasashen.[26] A fagen nazari, falsafa kimiyyar kanta ce.[27] Hangen falsafar Bahaushe, bai saɓa ga ta Bature da Balarabe da Bagirke ko Balatine ba. Tattatare da sanin Ƙamusoshin Hausa ba su kula da kalmar ba a hangensu, za mu iya cewa:
A wajen Bahaushe, falsafa ita ce, ƙololuwar basirar ƙyallaro dalilan faruwar abubuwa da hasashen fassarorinsu na kusa da nesa, bisa ga dalilan hankalin tuwo domin su yi canjaras da al’adun mutanensu. Falsafa kimiyyar hasashe ce, mai tafiya da al’adun mai hasashe, da al’adar rayuwa da aka saba da ita. Falsafa karatun mutanen jiya ne, da ya gagari mutanen yau saukewa, ya zama maganaɗisun rayuwar matanen gobe.[28]

Idan za a yi hasashen falsafar Bahaushe, dole a dubi adabinsa na baka, da camfe-camfensa, da taje-tajensa, da nau’o’in bautarsa, da warkarwarsa, da tattalin arzikinsa, da tsarin siyasar zamantakewarsa. Sanin cewa, rayuwarsa ta gargajiya gaba ɗaya a kan falsafarsa yake tafiyar da su, na ga ya dace in yi garkuwa da falsafa ɗaya, in tunkari muradina, gudun ka da a yi kwasan karan mahaukaciya.

Makaman Dimukraɗiyya:
Masu yekuwar su ne iyayen gijin Dimokraɗiyya a duniyarmu ta yau, suna da makamai na musamman da suke sarrafawa wajen kafa ta. Babban makaminta shi ne, jama’a masu rinjaye na haƙiƙa ko akasin haka.[29] Da waɗannan jama’a za a laɓe ƙarƙashin ƙungiya ɗaya, da sunan ita ce ƙungiyar jama’a masu rinjaye. Cikin wannan rugumutsi, za a yi amfani da ƙarfin mulkin da aka tarar, ko tsarin da aka tarar, a yi makami da shi, a yi wa talaka da moro barazana.[30] Daga nan, makaman ƙabilanci da ɓangaranci da yanki su yi katutu.[31] Makamin addini wani gawurtacce ne a wurin da aka ga yana da ƙima ga jama’a.[32] Bugu da ƙari, amfani da kuɗi da ƙazafi da yaudara da su za a yi garkuwa ga yaƙin neman zaɓe.[33] Idan aka ga hasashen da aka yi ɗuri da su, za su ƙare, sai a fito da banga ta duka, da kisa, da ɗauri, da sa gudun hijira, da tawaye, da zanga-zanga, da nau’o’in ta’addanci daban-daban.[34] Za a yi tsayin daka a kafa gwannanti harantacciya a ƙa’idance, da sunan halastacciya, a maguɗance. Da wanda aka ɗora a kan karaga, da waɗanda suka ce ya ci, suka ɗora shi, da ‘yan ƙungiya/ fatin da ake ƙarƙashinsa, da ‘yan goyon baya, duk an san ƙuddaranci da aka yi aka kai ga mulki.[35] Makaman da aka sarrafa aka hau karaga, za su ci gaba da aiki na bi-ta-da-ƙulli, irin na ƙaiƙayi ya koma kan masheƙiya.[36] Bisa ga waɗannan hasashe-hasashe, nake ganin, makaman sun kasa biyan buƙatar tsarin. Bayan kwalliya ba ta biya sabunu ba, sai baya ta haihu, da matsaloli barkatai.

Matsalolin Makaman Dimokraɗiyya:
Haɗarin yaƙi da makamai masu guba, ko an ci nasara, bi-ta-da-ƙullin da zai biyo baya na gubar makaman da aka sarrafa wani sabon artabu ne. Na farko, ƙarfin mulkin da aka yi amfani da shi, zai haifar da rashawa da cin hanci da handama da babakere ga gwannatin da aka kafa.[37] Waɗanda suka kafa ta adashi aka yi da su, dole a bari su kwashe kashinsu.[38] Abin da zai biyo baya, taɓarɓarewar shugabanci.[39] Ana cikin haka, za a fara wofintar da ilmi da ƙwarewa sai ma’aikatun gwannati su durƙusa. Wannan zai haifar da masassara ga dokokin ƙasa zazzaɓi ya rufe ma’aikatun shari’a, sai tsaro ya buwayi ma’aikatun tsaro gaba ta koma baya, fargabar makomar ƙasa da mutanen da ke cikinta, ya zama kulli yaumin abin farfaganda a kafafen yaɗa labarai.

Barazanar Bi-Ta-Da-Ƙullin Makaman Ƙare Dangi:
Dimokraɗiyya da aka kafa da makaman ƙare dangi irin waɗanda muka lisafa, bi-ta-da-ƙullinsu zai haifar da barazana ga ƙasa da jama’arta. Barazana ta farko ita ce, ɗar-ɗar na yiwuwar dogewar ƙasar ko ɓarkewarta kowane allazi ya ja nasa amanu. Abin da ke haifar da wannan tsoro shi ne, za a kasance koyaushe cikin zubar da jini da sunan addini da ƙabilanci da ɓangaranci da siyasa.[40] Masu jefa ƙuri’a na rage yawa, masu neman kujera na ƙara yawa.[41] A irin wannan hali, za a samu juyin mulki maras tsari da zai iya haifar da yaƙin basasa,[42] ko juyin-juya hali na marasa ilmin siyasa da shugabanci.[43] Narambaɗa ya taɓa hasashen irin wannan matsalar ga masarautar Isa yana cewa:
Jagora:        Dankali a ciki ka a kushe na Moyi
:Gando kaka ran da kah hwashe
Yara:           Ran nan sai ka iske kowa na dawara
:Ruwa sun cika karkara
Gindi:          Na rabu da ganin Amali
:Yau na zaka in ganai
:Daɗin Tudu ya kamata
:Daɗin Tudu hanƙuri

Makaman Al’ada:
Kure ne babba ga masu ganin wai ba mu da tsarin dimokraɗiyya a tsarin siyasar ƙasashenmu sai da Turawa suka shigo da ita.[44] Idan za a yi wa al’ada adalci, su kansu Turawan Biritaniya ai aro ta suka yi daga Girkawa. To! Gabanin su aro ta da me suke amfani? Mu da ake kuwwar an kawo muna tsarin, da wane tsari aka tarar da mu? Da ba a tarar da mu a kan wani tsari da ya cancance mu ba, da sakaɗa muna wani sabon tsari a ci nasara a kanmu, yana da wuya ainun.[45] Idan aka dubi tarihin fitattun daulolinmu da irin gwagwamaryar da suka yi da junansu, da magabatansu, na ciki, da waje, tilas a yarda da zancen Gambo mai ɓarayi da ke cewa:
Jagora:        Dole nakiya ta yi zaƙi Sanda Ummaru
                   :Don da zuma aka fara yin ta

Babu shakka, idan aka waiwayi tarihim aka dubi irin shimfiɗar da Gobirawa suka yi wa daularsu.[46] Da irin tsaron da ke ga daular Kabi.[47] Da yadda aka sama wa Zamfara farfajiyar zama.[48] Da yadda Zazzau ta jure wa hare-haren ciki da waje.[49] Da irin ficen da daular Katsina ta yi.[50] Da kasancewar Kano gambun Hausa.[51] Yadda Ɗanbaskore da Tsaga Rana suka shugabanci Maraɗi Ɗankulodo ya gaje su.[52] Da kirarin da ake yi wa Daura na tushen Hausa.[53] Masana tarihi da siyasa tuni suka aminta da kasancewarsu gwannatoci masu cin gashin kansu bisa ga tsarin dimokraɗiyya irin tasu.[54]
Idan ba a shafa da ma’anar Dimokraɗiyya da muka gabatar ba, za a ga tsarin sarautun ƙasar Hausa bisa hanya suke. Sarautun ƙasar Hausa taron dangi ne.[55] bayan uban ƙasa, kowane gari da sarkinsa. Kowace unguwa da shugabanta, kowace sana’a da shugabanta. Kowace albarka ta ƙasa da shugabanta. Mata na da shugaba, samari na da nasu, gwauraye na da nasu, baƙi na da nasu, masu laifi da nasu, kuma duk ba babban sarki ke da iko a kan zaɓensu ba. Zaɓar su jama’arsu za su yi, su kai wa sarki, ya tabbatar da zaɓensu, ya sa albarka, ya yi naɗi.[56] Da wannan Dimokraɗiyya aka tarar da ƙasar Hausa tun gabanin saduwarta da kowace ƙabila, ko al’umma, da ke jin, tana da wani wayewa a kanta.
A tsarin tafiyar da tsarin siyasar shugabanci a ƙasar Hausa, bisa ga al’adar Bahaushe, akwai tsare-tsaren da al’ada ta tanada. Tsare-tsaren da al’ada ta tanada su ne makamanta, irin makaman da dimokraɗiyya ke tinƙaho da su. Daga cikin makaman ana son shugaba ya zan: Baligi, mai hankali, mai lafiyayyun gaɓɓai, masani ƙasar da mutanenta, jarumi, sananne, mai haƙuri, ɗan gado, mai aure, mai wayo, kuɓutaccen da keta haddi al’ada, uwa uba, dole ya kasance mai gaskiya abin gaskatawa. Duk wani sharaɗi na zama sarki, ko shugaba, na kowace irin sarauta ƙasar Hausa, “gaskiya” ita ce makamin al’ada na farko da za a duba. Idan aka rasa ta, komai ya lalace, ba ta da sauran gyara mai neman beli ya mari uwar alƙali. A wajen Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce makamin kowane irin yaƙi. Ita ce maganaɗison kowace sarauta. Ita ce jagorar kowace irin al’umma. Mayaƙi duk ya rasa makamin gaskiya cikin makamansa, an gama cin sa yaƙi, domin Bahaushe cewa ya yi, gaskiya ka faɗa ba sanda. Don haka, ita ce makamin da nake son gwada tsawo da dimokraɗiyya a ga wanda zai cira wani tsawo.

Gurbin Gaskiya A Gabacin Bahaushe:
Idan Bahaushe ya ce “gabaci” yana nufin shugabanci na kowane iri. Shugabancin na shekaru ne, ko sani, ko fasaha, ko sarauta da dai sauransu. A tsarin shugabancin Bahaushe, babu makamin da ya kai “gaskiya” tsawo, da tagomashi, da inganci, da faɗi, da cika ido, da nagarta, da dogewa, da kai ga buri ba tare da jin kunyar kowa ba. Gabanin mu fito da irin ƙarfin wannan makamin ya kamata mu fayyace sunansa sarai.


Ma’anar Gaskiya:
Sunan da gaskiya ta yi, ya sa ba ta neman wani ƙarin bayani, da an ambace ta. Wataƙila wannan ce ta sa, idan an ce wa Bahaushe mece ce gaskiya? za a ji ya ce: “Gaskiya sunanta gaskiya”, wai a tunaninsa kowa ya san ta, sanin abinci. A wajen Larabawa sunanta “alhaƙƙu”, da wannan suna Allah Ya kira littafinsa Al’ƙur’ani.[57] A wajen Turawa sunanta “truth” duk wani abu na haƙiƙa, na asali, na tabbas, na daidai, na ya kamata, yana ciki.[58] A iya bincikena, babu harshen da ba ya da kalmar gaskiya ta asali a harshensa.[59] A hangen Ƙamusun Hausa, gaskiya ita ce:
Nuna ko faɗar ko aikata abu a ainihin yadda yake. Gaskata amince ko yarda.[60]

Fassarar Bargery ba ta yi nisa da ta Ƙamusun Hausa ba. A fassararsa, kalmar “truth” kaɗai ya kawo a fassarar domin kasancewar ta sananniya.[61] Da za a ba da kandamemen ma’anar gaskiya a hangen Bahaushe za mu iya cewa:
Faɗar abu yadda aka ji shi ko aka san shi, ko yadda yake, ko yadda aka saba da shi, ko yadda za a gane shi. Shaidar abu, yadda aka ji samatarsa in an taɓa shi, ko shaƙa shi, ko lasa shi, ko ɗanɗana shi, ko aka zuƙe shi, ko aka sunsune shi. Ta fuskar aikatawa kuwa, ya zamo yadda aka saba aikata shi, ko yadda ya kamata a aikata shi, ko yadda aka ce, a aikata shi. Bin diddigin waɗannan hasashe-hasashe a lafazance da aikace shi ake ce wa gaskiya.[62]

Wannan ita ce gaskiya, kuma ita ce al’adar da Bahaushe ke yabo da faɗar, ba ta neman ado ko zaƙin muryar zabiya. Wanda duk ya kiyaye zancensa a kan tafarkinta. Ya tsarkake ayyukansa bisa ga yadda take, shi ne mai gaskiya abin gaskatawa a wajen Bahaushe.

Gaskiya A Dimokraɗiyya
Hausawa cewa suka yi, da tsohon zuma ake maganai. An dai tabbatar da cewa, gaskiya ta tsufa domin ta girmi duk wani mai son ta, da mai son mai faɗarta, ko aikata ta, haka ma masu faɗar ta, ko aikata ta. Tattare da irin tsufanta, da ƙurciyar dimokraɗiyya, a koyaushe, a kowace ƙasa, a kowace al’umma, a kowane tsari na dimokraɗiyya, da na kishiyar dimokraɗiyya, da gaskiya ake kirari, da ita ake tallar ɗan takara, da ita ake tallar fatinsa, da ita ake tallar manufofin fatinsa. Gaskiyar Kassu Zurmi da yake cewa:
Jagora:        Gaskiya mugunyar magana
                   :Ba a son ki sai kin tsufa.[63]
(Waƙar ‘Yan Jabanda)

Halin Bahaushe da aka sani na son gaskiya, ya sa jam’iyyun siyasar dimokraɗiyyar zamani ke amfani da sunanta domin kiran kasuwa. A zamanin Jamhuriyya ta farko ana yi wa Abubakar Tafawa Ɓalewa, kirari da: “Gaskiya nagartar namiji”, irin wannan kirarin aka sake dawowa da shi ga Marigayi Hassan Usman Katsina.[64] A taƙaice, kalmomin kirarin kowane fatin siyasar zamani, idan aka hau karagar yekuwar neman zaɓe, ita ce: “Nijeriya sai mai gaskiya.” Abin mamaki, ba za ka ji wani Janar na Soja ya hau doron ya ce, “Nijeriya sai soja.” Haka ba za ka ji wani goggagen ɗan boko ya hau, a ce: “Nijeriya sai manyan ‘yan boko.” Ba za a ɗora wani mai addini a ce: “Nijeriya sai Ustaz ko Pastor ba.” Wani ɗan kasuwa ba zai hau a ce: “Nijeriya sai mai Nera.” Ba za ka ji Nijeriya sai matasa ba ko Nijeriya sai Tsofafi, ko Nijeriya sai mata, ko sai maza ba. Don me ya sa haka? Dalili kuwa shi ne, duk ire-iren waɗannan mutane, sun riƙa an gani babu nagari ga iccen kabari. Mutane sun gane, babu abin da ke ceto su sai “gaskiya” da wanda zai limantar da ita ga tsarin tafiyar da mulkinsa. Da za a samu shugaba mai gaskiya ya hau, da dukkanin rikice-rikicen addini da ƙabilanci da siyasa sun zama tarihi.

Nauyin Gaskiya A Sikelin Dimokraɗiyya:
Tsarin dimokraɗiyya sa son mutane masu ilmi domin su yi amfani da ilminsu, su zaɓo mutumin kirki[65] mai basirar da zai ciyar da ƙasa gaba. Ana buƙatar namijin tsaye, jarumi, mai yi wa ƙasa hidima da kare ta. Ana buƙatar, gogagge da ɗawainiyar shugabanci ba za ta firgita shi ba. Ana buƙatar, mai amana da iya riƙon ta. Amana da riƙonta, ya fi jaruntaka da gogewa da ilmi nauyi a sikelin Dimokraɗiyya. Amana zafi ke gare ta, ba ta riƙuwa sai ga mai gaskiya. Ai wannan ne dalilin da ya sa, a sikelin siyasa akan sa gaskiya gaba a ce: “Ga mai gaskiya da riƙon amana.” Idan jam’iyya ta rasa gaskiya, ko zakaranta ya rasa gaskiya, ko magoya bayanta suka rasa gaskiya, batu ya lalace idan Bahaushe ake neman goyon bayansu. Nauyin da ke ga gaskiya ya sa, a ko’ina mai ita ya fito takara, bin sa Bahaushe ke yi, domin ya fi jam’iyyarsa nauyi saboda gaskiyar da ya runguma. A al’adar Bahaushe, idan kifi ya tashi lalacewa, ga kai yake ruɓewa. Idan kai bai lalace ba gangar jiki za ta ciwu. To! Haka gaskiya take ga jagora, da an samu mai ita, shi zai tsarkake al’umma, matuƙar an ba shi dama. Narambaɗa ya tabbatar muna da haka a Bakandamiyarsa da ya ce:
Jagora:        Na hore ki gaskiya bari tsoron ƙarya
:Mai ƙarya, munafuki Allah su Yaƙ ƙi
:Har yau ba mu inda an ka yi mai ƙarya ba
Jagora/Yara: Amma ita gaskiya gari da mutane tay yi
Gindi:          Gwarzon Shamaki na Malam toron giwa
:Baban Dodo ba a tamma da batun banza

Narambaɗa na tabbatar da cewa, babu wani tsari na shugabanci da zai nare, ya doge, idan gaskiya ba ta zauna cikinsa kane-kane ba. Haka kuma, a ganinsa, samun gaskiya ga shugaba ya fi tasiri ga kowane tsari.

Daidaita Dokoki Da Tabbatar Da Tsare Su:
Babbar matsalar da ke ci wa dimokraɗiyya tuwo a ƙwarya ita ce, tabbatar da bin dokokin ƙasa, da tsare su, a kan martabarsu. A al’adar gaskiya, Bahaushe na cewa, doka da gida takan fara. Abin nufi a nan shi ne, ka da mai dokar barci ya koma angaje har a ji hansarinsa. Idan dokokin ƙasa suka kasance tsumangiyar kan hanya, fyaɗe yaro, fyaɗe babba. Gaskiya za ta sa aiwatar da hukance-hukuncen ƙasa ya zamo ba sani ba sabo. Da ma kirarin alƙali shi ne, kuliya manta sabo. Gaskiyar hukunci ita ce, sabo da kaza ba ya hana yanka ta. A al’adar Bahaushe, idan aka yanke hukunci, aka daidaita a kan magana ɗaya, shugaba mai gaskiya zai tsaya sau da ƙasa, sai an bi abin da aka yi ittifaƙi a kai. Rashin samun shugaba mai yin tsaye a kan gaskiya shi ne musabbabin durƙusawar tsarin dimokraɗiyyar zamaninmu. Malamin kiɗi Narambaɗa cewa ya yi:
Jagora:        Duka sarkin da kas sani
:Basaraken da kas sani
:Amadu ya fi shi ƙane shiryayye
:Babu batun banza kuma babu sakewa
Yara:           Kuma in yai tsaye ba mai kausai
Gindi:          Na riƙa ka da girma Audu ƙanen Maidaga
:Kan da mu san kowa kai mun ka sani Sardauna

Ƙimar Gaskiya A Zukatan Hausawa:
Gaskiya wata furen kallon Bahaushe ce, wanda ya sa, hatta da wanda ba ya da ita, yana son a yi masa ita.[66] Zuciyar Bahaushe ita ke ƙunshe al’adunsa na gargajiya. A al’adar Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce mutum, da mutum ya rasa ta, ba mutum ba ne a idon Bahaushe. Mai gaskiya, a al’ada, shi ne namijin duniya, mazajen da ke raye a zamaninsa, mata ne, ko yaransa ne, idan ba su yi fice da gaskiya ba. Wani misali abin bugawa a nan shi ne, wani ɗan siyasa wanda ya yi takarar kujerar Shugaban ƙasa a Nijeriya, a shekarar 2003 da 2007 da 2011, ya je wani ƙauye yaƙin neman ƙuri’a, a jawabin da ya yi wa matan da suka tarbe shi ya ce:
Ku fito ku fake, ku tsare, ku raka. In sun ba ku kuɗi, ku karɓa, ku ci, naku ne, aka ba ku, ku kaɗa wa wanda kuka tabbatar ya cancanta ya shugabance ku.[67]

A cikin taron, sai ɗan jaridar BBC ya yi hira da wata mata yana gaya mata cewa, ke ji gaskiya, duk wanda ya ba ku kuɗi ku karɓa, ku jefa ƙuri’arku wurin da za a cece ku. Matar ta ce: “Haba! Yaya za mu karɓi kayan mutum, turame da kuɗi, kuma mu ƙi kaɗa masa? Ai mun yi rashin gaskiya, ko? Ka ga ko bai dace ba.” Irin tasirin da gaskiya ta yi a zukatan Hausawa, ya sa suke ganin, dole ne ko maras gaskiya, su yi masa gaskiya, su bar shi can da halinsa. Masu irin wannan aƙida idan sun dace da shugaban da ya dace da su, da wace ƙasa ce ba za su gwada tsawon ci gaba ba? Kaico! Allah wadaran naka ya lalace in ji ɓauna da ta ga shanun noma.

Shekarun Gaskiya:
A al’adar Bahaushe, ana gadon gaskiya, sai dai tana da shekarun da ya kamata a ce, ko ana takin saƙa da ita, da an kai su, a dawo mata. A kan yi wa yaro horo na tsawa, da buɗe ido, da sako, da Allah wadaran, idan an ji ya furta zancen da ya saɓa wa gaskiya, ko ya aikata aiki irin na marasa gaskiya. Idan yaro ya kai shekarun a yi masa aure, a je yaƙi da shi, a raba gandu da shi, a raba danga da shi, ya isa shekarun shiga cikin magabata, kuma ya cancanci a ba shi gabaci kamar dai yadda dimokraɗiyyar yau ke faɗa. Duk da haka, komai gaskiyar yaro, ana son ya shiga shekaru 45 – 50 ya shiga cikin dottiɓen matasan zamaninsa. Idan ya haura sittin, ya cancanci a saurare shi a ko’ina, domin kauce wa tafarkin gaskiya a waɗannan shekarun ya fi annoba, da ambaliya, da gobara muni ga al’umma. Da zarar ya furta magana aka musanta shi, sai kuka.[68] Idan ya ce, a yi, aka ƙi, sai hawaye. Don me? Domin al’ada ba ta kallonsa da wani ido, face na gaskiya. Da ya fanɗare mata zai rasa abokin zama, zai rasa yara, zai rasa abokan hulɗa, ba mai ba shi ajiya, bale kalihu, ko sa shi gaba a wata harakar jagorantar al’umma. A wajen Bahaushen jiya, ko ya gaji shugabanci, rashin gaskiyar da yake da ita, ta fitar da shi cikin dangi.[69]
Makaɗa Narambaɗa ya yi muna hannunka mai sanda a “Waƙar Ya Ci Maza”, ya ce:
Jagora:        Na bar ƙarya ko ina kiɗi
:Na aje ƙarya ko ina kiɗi
:Nai sittin saba’in nika hwaɗa
Yara:           Mai saba’in yai ƙarya
:Ana ta zunɗe nai
:Ko yaran da ag garai
:Dut warwatse mishi sukai
:Shina yawo shi ɗai ɓaro-ɓaro!
Gindi:          Ya ci maza yak wan shina shiri
:Uban zaka dodo na Amadu

Mu ɗora waɗannan ɗiyan waƙa a kan tsarin shugabannin da dimokraɗiyya ta ɗora muna a yau. Idan za a bi hasashen Narambaɗa, a watse wa duk wanda ya yi ƙarya, ya ƙi gaskiya, wane shugaba zai kawo kujerar mazaɓarsa? To! Yau su ne shugabanninmu, ɗaka gumi, waje sanyi, gado kazunzunmi, zani ga ƙyaya. Wayyo Allah!

Zumuntar Gaskiya Da Amana:
A Hausance gaskiya ita ce, “Amana”. Wanda duk ya rasa gaskiya, ya rasa amana. Wanda ba ya da amana, ba tare da gaskiya suke tafiya ba. A wajen Bahaushe, mai gaskiya ake ba amanar tsaron dukiya. Shi ake shugabantarwa ga shaidar bashi, da rance, da aro, da jingina, da kyauta, da musaya, da kalihu, da duk wani haƙƙin da ke jiran lokacinsa. Mai gaskiya ake ba saƙo, da ajiyar tsintuwa, a same su yadda suke, a kuma yarda da duk wani ruɓushi[70] da ya faru ga abin. Ire-iren waɗannan darajoji na mai gaskiya su ne falsafar karuruwan magana irin su: Ikon Allah kare da tallar tsire[71], da Ɗa na barin halas don kunya[72], da Mai haƙuri yakan dafa dutse[73], da dai sauransu. Buƙatarsu tabbatar da cewa, ba za a zama mai gaskiya ba, sai an nisanci son rai, da haƙurin riƙon amana a lokacin da riƙonta ke da tsananin wahala ga mariƙin da sauran jama’a. Idan jama’a suka ga wuyar abu, wanda suka tunkara ya riƙa musu, ko ya duba musu abin, sun aminta da ya fi su, ya cancanci ya jagorance su. Irin su ne ake yabo da: Ka yi an gani, mazan jiya, na dauri ba ku da raggo, a sa ku a huta, da dai makamantansu.
Kowane irin shugaba, ko basarake, ko jagora, Bahaushe zai zaɓa, sai ya gwada tsawonsa da gaskiya. Bahaushe ba zai damu da asalinsa ba, ko gidan da ya fito, ko kyawonsa, ko wata martaba tasa ta can daban,[74] matuƙar ya tabbata ko aka tabbata masa ba mai gaskiya ba ne, zai jaye jiragensa. Makamin martabarsa, ba ta ruɗa shi ba, domin mafi yawan sarautunsa na amana bayi ake ba masu amana da gaskiya, a bar ɗa maras gaskiya. Jaruntakar mutum, ba ta burge Bahasuhe in ba mai gaskiya ba ne, domin ya san, gaskiya ka faɗa ba sanda ba. Daɗin bakin jawabi ba ya ruɗa shi, domin cewa yake, gaskiya mugunyar magana, ko gaskiya mai ɗaci, abu ba daɗi kamar gaskiya.[75] A ganin Bahaushe, gaskiya ita ce magana, komai daɗin magana in babu gaskiya ciki maganar banza ce.[76] A fagen yekuwar neman jama’a, Bahaushe na ganin gaskiya ba ta neman ado ko zaƙin muryar zabiya. Da an tsayar da mai gaskiya, ba sai an yi wa Bahaushe kamfen da kiɗa, da waƙa, da hawan durum da kirari, da ɗaga hannun ɗan takara, da tallar hotonsa ba, domin yana da aƙidar cewa, gaskiya nagartar namiji.

Hoton Gaskiya A Falsafar Al’ada:
A falsafar Bahaushe, gaskiya ta riga duk wani abu da ɗan Adam ya gani a duniya. Bisa ƙaddara, ya yi mata lamirin mace, domin sanin ita ta haifi kowa, tattare da sanin ita ma haihuwarta aka yi.[77] Ya kasa ba ta wani launi, duk da yake, yana dawara tsakanin fari da baƙi.[78] A ɗanɗano, bai aminta tana da zaƙi, da garɗi, da tsami, da baushi ba, a ganinsa ɗaci gare ta ga bakin ‘yan adawa, a bakin ma’abotanta ta fi zuma zaƙi.[79] A zatinta, yana hasashen doguwa ce, domin kishiyarta ya ce raminta ƙurarrare ne.[80] Ga ɗabi’a, ya ce, ba ta tsoro da fargaba gaban kowa, domin cewa yake, ciki da gaskiya wuƙa ba ta huda shi. A fagen artabu, ita ce yaƙi, Hausawa cewa suka yi, gaskiyar faɗa harsashi.
A falsafar Bahaushe, bai sifanta gaskiya da kowace irin dabba ba. Ya san giwa bukkar daji ce, amma ganin takan kwaso karan gonan wani ta kai ma wani, ya ga ta yi aikin kinin gaskiya.[81] Ya san zaki sarkin dabbobi ne, cikin sarautar akan yi ci da ƙarfi.[82] Tsananin rashin gaskiyan kura ya sa yake cewa, a yi miki duhu yanzu abin wani ya ɓata. A fagen tsuntsaye, da shao, da shirwa, da zarɓe, da jimina duk Bahaushe bai ga sun yi kama da gaskiya ba. Haka a cikin ƙwari, babu na gari ga icen kabari. Don haka, ya bar ta a matsayinta na mata kuma ba matar kowa ba, sai mai hali irin nata. Haƙiƙa, nagartacciyar mata ce, mai koran kishiya don kirarinta shi ne, gaskiya mai Koran ƙarya. A kinaya, gaskiya kyakkyawar mata ce, mai ado mai jan hankali, kuma da kyawonta take tsufa, saboda haka, duk wata mata ba ita ba, da ta tsufa, ta rakwaɓe, don haka yake cewa kishiyoyinta, ƙarya fure take ba ta ‘ya’ya. A dimokraɗiyyar Bahaushe, ya fi da son ya zaɓi mai gaskiya, wanda ko ya mutu ya bar abin misali. Duk shugaba da Bahaushe bai yaba da gaskiya ba, yabon bai yi ba, yana da saura. Duk shugaban da yabon Bahaushe ya shaide shi da gaskiya, ya gama suna a ƙasar Hausa, da duniyar Bahaushe, har a naɗe a dangane.

Mararen Gaskiya A Dimokraɗiyya:
Kowace dimokraɗiyya, to kowace zamani, a kowace ƙasa, a kowace al’umma, so take ta kusanto da gwannati kusa ga jama’arta. Haka kuma, babban burinta shi ne, a yi dokokin da za su dace da zamanin mutanensu, a tsare dokokin bisa gaskiya. Wannan ne dalilin fito da salon ba jama’a dama su kafa jam’iyyun siyasa, su yi musu sunayen da suka dace da ƙudurorinsu. A kafa hukumar zaɓe mai cin gashin kanta. Kowa ya zaɓi ɗan takarar da ya ga zai tsare masa ƙudurorinsa na gaskiya. A fafitikar zaɓe a fito da katin jefa ƙuri’a wani lokaci a yi ‘yar tinƙe, domin tantance wanda ya ci nasara. Idan da ƙuri’a ɗaya, aka tsere abokin hamayya, cikin ƙuri’u biliyan, an rinjaye shi. Kasawar da al’adar Bahaushe ke hange a nan ita ce, an yi kuren kyawo tun ranar haihuwa. Ba a tantance gaskiyar waɗanda za a bai wa hukumar zaɓe mai cin gashin kanta ba. Ba da sunan mutum ya tabbata mai gaskiya ake ba shi shugaban jam’iyyar siyasa ba. Sunan “gaskiya” ɓaro-ɓaro ba ya daga cikin abubuwan da za a tantance ɗan takara a kansu. A ganin al’adar Bahaushe, da dai an zaɓi masu gaskiya, su nemo mafi gaskiya a cikinsu, ya shugabanci ƙasa, irin yadda sarki yake yi a zaɓen shugabanninsa na gargajiya, da batun ta-zarce, da ta-lanƙwashe, da sauya sheƙa daga wata jam’iyya zuwa wata, ba ta taso ba.
A ganin Bahaushe, gabaci na dattawa ne. Dattawa su suka fi kowa kusa da gaskiya. Idan an bai wa dattawa zaɓo dattijo cikinsu, domin a yi aikin dattako, babu sauran kukurukudu! Inyamuri ya harbe kurciya. A yau, an haɗa mashaya, da tsofaffin masu laifi, da fitattun marasa kunya, da sanannun maciya amana, da gogaggun maƙaryata, da daƙiƙan takkwallai, a ce, su zaɓo shugaba, an san ba ta mutu ba ta ɓalgace, an ce tashi bisa ƙasa koma bisa daɓe, an yi gudun gara an faɗa ragi, an yi zagege in ji Ɗanfulani, da ya faɗo kan giginya ya zarce cikin rijiya. Da an bai wa wanɗanda suka san gaskiya, zaɓen mai gaskiya, an huta da ɗirkaniya mota cikin randa. Wa ya fi gaskiya sanin gaskiya? Ai mata ta san mijinta ko daji ta gane shi, komai taron maza tana bambanta shi. Tabbas! Bahaushe cewa ya yi, daga ƙin gaskiya sai ɓata. Anya! Dimokraɗiyyarmu ba ta shiga cikin wannan hali ba?

Sakamakon Nazari:
Kafa dimokraɗiyya ta hanyar jam’iyyun siyasa bai da alamun ceto wannan ƙasa cikin halin da ta faɗa.[83] Mulkin kama karya, irin na soja, rabon faɗan sarkin Aljan ne.[84] Juyin-juya hali, irin na matasan ƙasa, na iya kai mu ga rufin kan uwar Daɗi.[85] Barin ƙasa tana ragaita tsakanin maƙabarta da asibiti ƙarshenta maƙabarta a shiga barcin da ba hansari.[86] Makirtacciyar dimokraɗiyya cikin rigar ƙabilanci da ɓangaranci buɗa ƙofar yaƙin basasa ne mai dabirta muna lisafi.[87] Aron tsarin wata al’umma da ta ɗora tsarinta kan al’adunta, da matsalolinta, da manufofinta, ba zai dace da namu al’adu da matsaloli da manufofi ba.[88] Gayyato baƙo rabon faɗan ‘yan gida da taɓarya kan mai uwa da wabi za a yi.[89] A ganina, kowace al’umma da ke a ƙasarmu yau, tana da addini, tana da al’ada. Cikin al’adunmu da addinanamu “gaskiya” ita ce ginshiƙinsu.[90] To! Me zai hana mu kai na hannu gida gabanin mu dawo mu kama na dawa? Babu ɗan Nijeriyan da za a taya wa gaskiya, ya kawar da kai, ko da kuwa ba a kanta yake ba. Da an bar mu, muka jarraba al’adunmu, da muka taso da su, aka san mu da su, suka kai mu tudun-mun-tsira jiya, ba za mu take a yau ba sai mun bi su. Da ai a gina sabuwar rijiya gara yaso, in ta yi ruwa rijiya in ba ta yi ba masai.

Naɗewa:
A dimokraɗiyya, da mulkin soja, da mulukiyyar gargajiya, da gurguzu, da jari-hujja, da mulkin mallaka, duk mutane ake yi wasu, ba dabbobi, da tsuntsaye, ko ƙwari, da kiyafun koguna ba. A ko’ina ɗan Adam yake, yana son ‘yancin magana da addini da al’adarsa. Duk wani ‘yanci da mutane za su samu ga hukumarsu, kyakkyawan tsaron rayuwarsu da dukiyoyinsu ce gaba. Samun nagartaccen tsaro ga ƙasa, da walwalar sakewa da za ta bunƙasa tattalin arziki, da zamantakewa, ita ce ƙololuwar tunanin aƙidar dimokraɗiyya. Abin ban haushi, ga ta an kafa wurare daban-daban, amma muradin ya kasa fitowa. Yaya za a yi da jiya ta kasance yau, yau ta zama cikin tarihi? A jarraba babban makamin kafa harsashen shugabanci ɗaya na al’ada a gani wato “gaskiya”. A samu shugaba ɗaya mai gaskiya, a gani. Duk wata dabara, da wani masani harshe, da adabi, da al’ada, zai so a jarraba, in ba makamin gaskiya ba ne, zance ne, domin babu irin daren da jemage bai gani ba.

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Crystal, D. 1993. An Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 3rd edition updated and enlarged, London: Blackwell.
CSNL, 2006. Ƙamusun Hausa. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.
Elias, A. E. 1986. Modern Dictionary English – Arabic. Beirut: Dar-al-jil
Eze, E. C. 2006. African Philosophy and Anthology. UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gobir, A. S. H. 1982. Kunne Ya Girmi Kaka, Ingantaccen Tarihin Hausa.
Imam, A. 1966. Ruwan Bagaja. Zariya: NNPC.
Msutapha, S. 2003. “Gurbin Gaskiya cikin Adabin Hausa”, kundin digirin MA, Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato.
Muffet, D. 1983. In Za Ka Faɗi, Faɗi Gaskiya. Zariya: Huda-huda Publishing Company.
Muhammad, I. 1986. “Gaskiya Da Raha A Cikin Littafin Ruwan Bagaja, Sharhin Cikin Da Waje.” Kundin dagirin BA, Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.
Nadama, G. 1977. “The Rise and Collapse of A Hausa State: A Social and Economic History of Zamfara”, PhD thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello Uniɓersity.
Nasidi, Y. & Igoil, I. (ed) 1997. Culture and Democracy. Zaria: ABU Press.
Skinner, N. 1971. “Realism and Fantasy in Hausa Literature”, in Africa.
Smith, M. G. 1960. Goɓernment in Zazzau 1800 – 1950. London. International African Institute.
Smith, M. G. 1978. The Affairs of Daura. Uniɓersity of California Press, Los Angeles.
Smith, M. G. 1997: Goɓernment in Kano 1350 – 1950. Westɓiew Press, A Diɓision of Harper Collins Publishers.
Usman, Y. B. 1981. The Transformation of Katsina 1400 – 1883. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello Uniɓersity, Press.
Wali, M. A., Zagga, I. M. B. & Kura, S. Y. B. (ed) 2010. Islam and Goɓernment in Nigeria. Issues and Perspectiɓes ɓol. printed in Kaduna.


[1] Taken da aka ba ni a rubuce shi ne: “The Contribution of Culture to Democracy Deɓelopment and Popular Particpation in Nigeria.” Ganin faɗin bagiren na kira shi: “Daji ba ka da gambu.” Na taƙaita shi zuwa yadda yake yanzu domin in tattara tunani wuri ɗaya.
[2] Taken da aka ba ni a rubuce shi ne: “The Contribution of Culture to Democracy Deɓelopment and Popular Particpation in Nigeria.” Ganin faɗin bagiren na kira shi: “Daji ba ka da gambu.” Na taƙaita shi zuwa yadda yake yanzu domin in tattara tunani wuri ɗaya.
[3] Harshen damo biyu ne, duk wata matsala mai rassa da yawa akan sifanta ta da harshen damo.
[4] A fassarar Ƙamusun Hausa, na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya cewa ya yi: “Abin faɗa ko yaƙi kamar bindiga ko takobi ko mashi ko sanda da makamantansu (ii) tarko, shafi na 322.
[5]A al’adar Hausawa makamai rukuni-rukuni gare su. Akwai makaman noma, makaman kamun kifi, makaman farauta, makaman yaƙi da sauransu. Dabarar da za a sarrafa a warware wata matsala makami ce ga matsalar da aka fuskanta da ita.
[6] A fassarar G. P. Bargery cikin, A Hausa- English Dictionary and English-Hausa Ɓocabulary, ya ba da ma’anar makami da jam’insu kawai ya ce: “makamai”, 1- A weapon; 2-A wound made by a metal weapon, shafi na 753.
[7] A bayanin Oɗford Mini English Dictionary. Makami shi ne: 1-A thing designed or used to inflict harm or damage; 2-a means or used gaining an adɓantage or depending oneself.
[8]A dubi Elias, A Modern Dictionary English – Arabic, ya ce, kalmar “silaahi” abin yin faɗa: ma’adaatil ƙitaali shaukati fil binaati, shafi na 828.
[9] Aro ga harshe ba kasawa ba ce, alamar bunƙasa ce, akwai aron kalma “loan words” aron kalma na gaba ɗaya. Akwai “loan blends” aron sashen ma’ana. Akwai “loan shift” aron ma’ana da sauya tsarin lafazi.  Akwai “loan translation” fassarar ƙwayoyin furucin kalmar yadda aka aro bi-da-bi. Don ƙarin bayani a dubi, Crystal, D. 1993 A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, shafi na 205.
[10] Lafazin da Bahaushe ke furta kalmar “dimokraɗiyya” Balaraben lafazi ne. a Turanci “Democracy” da harufan “cy” aka yi ɗofanen goshi, da daga nan Bahaushe ya aro ta sai ya ce “dimokrasi”. A Larabci “cy” ya koma “ɗiyya”. Daga nan Bahaushe ya aro domin Balarabe “Dimokraɗiyya” yake cewa.
[11] A nahawun tasrifin Larabci akwai harufan ƙaari huruufuz ziyaada. Akwai harufan “al” da ake gane suna da su a farkon kalma. Akwai harufan “anaitu” hamza da nuunun da ainun  da taa’un da ake rarrabe aikatau da su. A mafi yawan arrarun kalmomi Larabawa na saka “iyyun” a ƙarshensu. Bahaushe, “Hausiyyun” Ba’amurke “Amerikiyyun” da dai makamantasu.
[12] Idan aka duba aron zai faɗo ƙarƙashin “Loan shift” idan muka dubi lamba ta (8) na ƙarin bayanin da ya gabata.
[13] Don ƙarin bayani a dubi, Hendrickson, J. M. (1977) “African ideas of Democracy: A cultural legacy,” cikin Nasidi, Y. da Igoli, I. (ed) Culture and Democracy. Published by, A.B.U. Press, shafi na 21.
[14] Da harshen da aka aro ta, da harshen da ya yi aro, duk ma’anarta ta asali tana nan ba ta sauya ba.
[15] A ma’anar Riker, ya bayar cewa ya yi: “A form of goɓernment in which a substancial portion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. It is a distict from goɓernment controlled by a particular social class or by a single person.” In Kofoworola, E. O. “Culture, Democracy and Leadership: A Case Study of Some Oral traditions in Nigeria”, cikin tushen bayanin da muka ambata lamba ta 12, a riwayar (Ricker, 1980: 97).
[16]A fassarar Ƙamusun Turanci da muka ambata a lamba ta (16) cewa aka yi:1- A form of goɓernment in which the people haɓe a say in who should hold power; 2- A state goɓerned in such a way.
[17] A dubi, Ayua, I. A. (1997) “Culture, Law and Democracy” cikin tushen bayanin da muka ambata a lamba ta (12) shafi na 115, ya ce: “Goɓernment based on public assent (In this case, consent is the basis of democratic goɓernment – this is, goɓernment of the people, for the people and by the people) This means that the people should actiɓely and effectiɓely participate in their own goɓernment.
[18] A dubi Ƙamusun Hausa na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, shafi na 104.
[19] A tsari irin na Bahaushe kowa na da hannu ga tafiyar da shugabancin ƙasa. Kowane tafarki na rayuwar mutane akwai masu sarauta a ciki tare da sa hannun dukkanin jama’ar da ke da alhaki a ciki.
[20] Masana ilimin harsuna a ginin kalmomi sun ce, duk kalmar harshen Turanci da harshen Hausa da ke da harufan “al” a farkonsu na Larabawa ne aka aro. Wannan mujarrabi ne domin an yi bincike misalai sun tabbatar.
[21] Mallinowski a diddigin bayanin al’ada cewa ya yi: Culture is partly human, partly spiritual and partly materialistic. In its humanistic aspect, culture consist of ideas, ɓalues, knowledge, philosophy, laws, morals and so on. In its spiritual aspects, it consists of a system of belief and religious practices. In its materialistic aspect, it consist of artifacs and consumer goods made by man as oppesed to things found in nature. Culture is a distinguishing factor between man and man. A dubi, Nasidi, Y. da Bello, S. (1991) Culture Economy and National Deɓelopment, Nataional Council for Arts and Culture, Lagos, shafi na 21
[22] Matanin Turanci shi ne: “The totality of the way of life eɓolɓed by a people in thier attempts to meet the challenge of liɓing in their enɓironment which giɓes order and meaning to their social, political, economic , aesthetic and religious norms and nodes of organization, this distinguishing a people from their neighbour.”
[23] A Turanci ga matanin: “Culture is to merely a return to the customs of the past. It embodies the attitude of a people to the future of their traditional ɓalues faced with the demands of modern technology which is an essential factor of deɓelopment and progress.”
[24] Bahaushe sarauta yake da a gargajiyarsa. Bature kuwa “Administration” yake da. Masu satauta a wajen Larabawa su ne “Muluk” ko “Mala’u” ko a koma ga kalmar “Sayyid” ko “Ra’is” ga shugaba. Don haka, “Democracy” aro ta aka yi.
[25] A fassarar Ƙamusun The New International Webster’s Comprehensiɓe Dictionary of the Englsih Language. Ya ce: “Philosophy is the loɓe of wisdom as leading to the search for it: hence, knowledge of general principles elements, powers, or causes and laws – as eɗplaining facts and eɗistences.” Shafi na 949.
[26] A Ƙamusun Mini Oɗford Dictionary. Ya ce: “The study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and eɗistence.”
[27] A wata fassara Ƙamus na fassara shi da: “Reasoned Science, a scientific system as (formally) natural philosophy, new natural sciences.”
[28] Na yi tunanin wannan fassarar bayan da na yi dawara a kan ma’anonin kalmar daga Turanci da Larabci da yadda Bahaushe ke kallon ƙololuwarta da biyar diddigin abubuwa a tunaninsa. Ban ce wanna ita ce fassararsa ta dole ba. Na yi yunƙuri ne irin namu ɗalibai da fatar za a taya ni gyare-gyare.
[29] Tsananin maguɗin da ake tabkawa a tsarin dimokraɗiyya shi ya sa duk wanda ya iya maguɗi shi zai yi rinjaye. Haka kuma za a ja ta zuwa. Babu wani tsari da zai gusar da haka in ba masu gaskiya aka sa ba.
[30] A jamhuriyyar farko ga addini wasu ‘yan siyasa suka laɓe da sunan su ke da sarakuna da masu shari’a. Waƙar da ‘yan jam’iyyar masu rinjaye NPC ke rerawa ita ce:
Sarki da alƙali duk namu ne
Kowa ya zage mu bulaliya
Su kuwa ‘yan jam’iyyar NEPU marasa rinjaye su mayar da martani:
Allah da Manzonsa duk namu ne
Kowa ya doke mu sai hawuya.
Domin samun cikakken bayanin gwagwarmayar waɗannan jam’iyyu a jamhuriya ta farko a dubi, Birniwa, H. A. 1987. “Conserɓatism and Dissent: A Comparatiɓe Study of NPC/NPN and NEPU/PRP Hausa Polical Ɓerse from Ca 1949 – 1983, PhD thesis, Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo Uniɓersity. Haka kuma za a amfana da wannan takarda da ya gabatar:
Birniwa, H. A. 1987. “Ra’ayin Riƙau da Kawo Sauyi cikin Waƙoƙin Siyasa”, muƙala, taron ƙasa da ƙasa na CSNL, kan Harshe, Adabi da Al’adu Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.
[31] Haka ya wakana a wannan ƙasa tamu. A da, an kasa mu, Kudu da Arewa. Aka sake tsagawa zuwa kashi huɗu, gabas da yamma, kudu da Arewa. An sake farfasa ta zuwa shida a yanzu. Duk waɗannan ba don talaka da masu jefa ƙuri’a aka yi ba. An yi su ne domin ba wasu masu takaicin mulki da maitar lashe taskar baital malin wannan ƙasa. Gani ya kori ji, a yau wa ke damawa ba mayaudara da maciya amana ba? Musibar yaƙin ƙabilanci da ɓangaranci da addini ga kan talaka suka ƙare. Allah Ya isa.
[32] Da wani Habsan Soja, Marigayi Janar Azazi ya gaji da kashe-kashen da ake yi wa jama’a a Arewa, dole ya fasa ƙwai cewa, fatinsu ne BOKO HARAM. Har yau ba a daina yaudarar talaka da addini ba a siyasa. A sabon salon yanzu, Limamai da Pastoci ake kara wa mabiya a dabirta su da sunan ga Fatin Allah ga na Fir’auna. A yau, har gasar sayen jiragen sama ake yi tsakanin Manyan Padan Choci da gasar gidaje tsakanin Limaman Musulmi.
[33] Yau wanda ke da kuɗi shi ke da ƙuri’a. Wanda ba a so a yi masa ƙazafi da kushili da shan jini da maita da tsafi. Duk waɗannan abubawa akan sayo a kasuwa, a laƙaba wa wanda ba a so, ko ake tsoron gaskiyarsa za ta jawo masa jama’a.
[34] A jamhuriyyar farko an tilasta wa ‘yan adawa barin ƙasarsu zuwa Ghana da Nijar da Mali da Sudan da Borkina da dai sauran maƙwabtan ƙasashe. Wasu can suka mutu, wasu suka yi kaka-gida can, wasu suka raba ƙafa, wasu suka dawo bayan an talauta su. Da za a ba gaskiya dama ta taka rawa da duk waɗannan ba su faru ba.
[35] Marigayi, Umar Musa ‘Yar’aduwa da kansa yake gaya wa ‘yan jaridar duniya BBC, ƁOA, Faransa da sauransu a jawabin bayan rantsar da shi yake cewa: “Babu shakka, akwai kurakurai da yawa ga tsarin da aka bi aka ba mu mulki, sai dai mun yi alƙawalin gyara a kan haka.” Wannan ya tabbatar da tsarin dimokraɗiyyar da muke a yau ba na gaskiya ba ne, dole a gyara a ba gaskiya tabarma ta miƙe ƙafafunta.
[36] A jamhuriyyar da ta gabata, wata jaha daga cikin jihohin Arewa Gwanna ya kira gagarumin taro na tubar da ‘yan bangan da ya yi amfani da su a yaƙin neman zaɓe. Bayan sun kashe, sun raunana, sun lalace da shaye-shaye da zaman banza da cin zarafin bayin Allah. Dalilinsa na yin haka, ya ga alamar ƙaiƙaiyi zai koma kan masheƙiya. Wannan shi ne gyaran zama na baya ga walle.
[37] Masana na ganin matuƙar ba a haranta amfani da kuɗi ga siyasa ba, babu yadda za a rusa cin hanci, da rashawa, da handama, da babakere a Nijeriya. Talaka ya san ko ya kaɗa, ko bai kaɗa ba, sanarwa za a yi na cewa, mai kuɗi ya ci. Don haka, in ya karɓi kuɗin da aka ba shi, in bai karɓa ba, an san wanda za a ba kujera. A nan, an sa talaka cikin ta-tsaka mai wuyar sani.
[38] Alhaji Muhammadu Sambo Wali ya yi nuni ga irin wannan yaudara a waƙarsa “Gaskiya Mugunyar Magana” ya ce:
Sai injiniya da shaidun ƙarya ka ci nai,
Mun ji nufad da sun ka yo mun gane nufi nai,
Mun ji adashe na ashe ya kwashe zubinai,
Shi ɗan kwangila shina famar fid da kainai,
            Yai ta ƙara-ƙara don baitil malil ƙasag ga.
(Baiti na 25)
[39] A da, shugaaba ya ba da umurni a ƙi bi, ko ya furta magana, ta zama ta banza, ya isa ya yi murabus ga kujerarsa, mai so ya je ya hau. Yau, ƙiri-ƙiri shugaba zai furta magana, ya san ƙarya yake yi, an san ƙarya yake yi, kuma a sa wa ƙaton banza ido yana ta shara ƙarya har ƙarshen mulkinsa. Da shugaban, da mabiyan, duk gaskiya ta ƙarance su, da gaskiya ta ratsa ɓangare ɗaya sosai, dole ɓangare ɗaya ya ba da kai bori ya hau.
[40] Mutanen da suka rasa rayukansu cikin wannan jamhuriyya sun fi mutanen da Nijeriya ta yi hasara a yaƙinta na basasa. Kuma ana kai, ba a fasa ba, babu shugaban da ya yi murabus don jinin ‘yan ƙasa da ake kan zubarwa. A ba gaskiya wuri a gani, ruwa shu gugu shu.
[41] Masu jefa ƙuri’a su ne talakawa, su ne ake kisa, a ɗaure, a sa gudun hijira. Masu neman kujere da su da ‘ya’yansu su ke da cikakken tsaro, babu wanda zai taɓa su. In rikici ya tsananta, su keta hazo, su yi waje, sai ta faɗi gasassa a dawo. Haka salon yake tun jamhuriyyar ta farko har yanzu ba ta sauya zani ba.
[42] Irin juyin mulkin su Nzegu da aka gina kan ƙabilanci da bambancin addini aka karkashe shugabannin wani ɓangare da addini kawai. Juyin mulkinsu G. Okar da aka so a yi wa Janar Babangida irinsa ne. Ire-irensu za su mayar da hannun agogo baya.
[43] Matasan da muke da su yanzu, gubar zalunci, da rashin gaskiya, da babakere, da ta’addancin zamani, ta shige su. Da wuya su shirya wani sauyi da zai ciyar da mu gaba. A dai bi gaskiya sau da ƙafa a gani, domin ita gaskiya tana mai da kowa kan tafarkinta, in da so, in da ƙi.
[44] Faɗar cewa, ba mu da tsari irin na dimokraɗiyya sai bayan zuwan Turawa, mummunan zato ne, rashin sanin tarihi ne, jahiltar al’adunmu ne. Don ƙarin bayanin wannan hasashe a dubi, Osaghae, E. E. (1989) “The Passage from the past to the present in African polical thought: The ƙuestion of releɓance”, in Agbaje, A. A. B. & Ayoade, J. A. A. (ed) 1989. African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions. Centre for Black and African Arts and Ciɓilization, CBAAL, Lagos, page 58. Ya ce:
“It is bad history and bad ciɓics to say that Africans neɓer had democracy until the coming of the  white man to Africa.”
[45]An tarar da mu da tsarin shugabanci tun a bautar Tsumburbura da Barbushe. Da Musulunci ya zo, aka same mu da mafi kyawon tsari. A ganin cikakken musulmin Bahaushe, dimokraɗiyya ba wani abu be ne, face sabon salon yaƙi da aƙidojin addinin Musulunci. Don haka, Turawan Birtaniya suka zo da salon ta’addanci domin su rusa tsarin da masu bin sa. Gwabzawar da aka yi da su a Satiru 1906 da Burmi da Haɗeja babban misali ne.
[46] Domin cikakken tarihin Gobirawa a dubi,  Gobir, A. S. H. 1982. Kunne Ya Girmi Kaka, Ingantaccen Tarihin Hausa.
[47] Domin cikakken bayanin daular a dubi, Alkali, B. 1968. “Hausa Community in Crisis Kebbi in the 19th Century”, MA thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello Uniɓersity.
[48] Don ƙarin bayani a dubi Nadama, G. 1977. “The Rise and Collapse of A Hausa State: A Social and Economic History of Zamfara”, PhD thesis, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello Uniɓersity.
[49] Domin samun cikakken bayanin Zazzau a dubi, Smith, M. G. 1960. Goɓernment in Zazzau 1800 – 1950. London. International African Institute.
[50] Domin samun cikakken bayani a dubi, Usman, Y. B. 1981. The Transformation of Katsina 1400 – 1883. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello Uniɓersity, Press.
[51] A dubi, Smith, M. G. 1997: Goɓernment in Kano 1350 – 1950. Westɓiew Press, A Diɓision of Harper Collins Publishers.
[52] A dubi, Darryl-ford,”Hausa Goɓernment in Decline: Maraɗi under Ɗanbaskore.” Cikin West African Kingdoms.
[53] Domin samun cikakken bayanin Daura a dubi, Smith, M. G. 1978. The Affairs of Daura. Uniɓersity of California Press, Los Angeles.
[54] A dubi tushen bayani na (43) domin ƙara tabbatar da wannan iƙirarin
[55] Idan garin Bahaushe ya bunƙasa sosai dole a samu Sarkin Ruwa, Sarkin Daji, Sarkin Noma, Sarkin Maƙera, Sakke, Mai Kasuwa, Sarkin Makaɗa,  Sarkin Bori, Sarkin Baƙi, Mai Samari, Sarkin Gwauraye, Sarkin Tsafta, Sarkin Kuwwa, Sarkin Karma, Sarkin Aska(ke), Sarkin Mayu, da dai sauransu. Waɗannan kaɗai za su wadatar da mai mararen rashin samun cikakkiyar dimkoraɗiyya gabanin kowace al’umma ta shigo cikin ƙasar Hausa.
[56] A tsarin dimokraɗiyyarmu, masana abu za su naɗa wanda suka aminta ya jagorance su ga abin da suke a kai. Idan sun daidaita, a kai ga Uban ƙasa, ya yi naɗi. Don haka, maƙera ke zaɓen Sarkin ƙira, manoma ke zaɓen Sarkin noma, runji ke zaɓen Sarkin fawa. Da irin wannan tsari dimokraɗiyyarmu za ta bi da zai fi wanda muke a kai yanzu, na an manta da wurin da aka fito, ba a san wurin da za a dosa ba.
[57]Allah Ya faɗa cewa: “Alhaƙƙu mir Rabbikum falaa ta kuunanna minal muntariina.”
[58] A bayanin Ƙamusun The New Hamlyn Encyclopedic World Dictionary. Ya ce: Truth which is true: The true or actual facts of a case: to tell the truth; 2- conformity with fact or reality ɓerity: the truth of a statement; 3 a ɓerified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle, or the like: mathematical truth; 4- the state or character of being ture; 5- genuineness, reality or actual eɗistence; 6- agreement with a standard rule or the like; 7- honesty, uprightness or integrity; 8- accuracy as of position or adjustment; 9- in truth, in fact, in reality, truly; 10- archaich, fidelity or constancy. p. 1803
[59] Hausawa su ce gaskiya; Kambari, Ngaski; Fulani, Gonga.
[60] A dubi Ƙamusun Hausa. da muka ambata a lamba ta (3) shafi na 371.
[61] Ai ko Bahaushe da aka tambaye shi sunan gaskiya cewa ya yi: “Gaskiya sunanta gaskiya.” Danƙari! Wai! Wato ba sai an fassara ba, ka dai gane.
[62] Na zaɓi wannan bayanin, bayan da na yi dawara cikin ma’anonin gaskiya cikin sauran harsuna da yadda Bahaushe ke kallonta. Da fatar a taya ni gyare-gyare mu kai ga muwafaƙa.
[63]Ina zaton, a nan ne Alhaji Muhammadu Sambo Wali ya samo sunan waƙarsa da muka ambata a lamba ta (37).
[64] Sunan littafin da aka rubuta kan tarihin rayuwarsa: “Gaskiya Nagartar Namiji”.
[65] Mutumin kirki shi ne, mai gaskiya da tabbatar da ita a koyashe, don ƙarin bayanin mutumin kirki a dubi A. H. Kirk-Greene, (2006) “mutumin kirki” the concept  of good man in Hausa, in Eze E.C, African Philosophy An Authology. Blackwell Publishing ltd, UK. Pg 121-130.
[66] Da za a koro maras gaskiya wurin da ya yi rashin gaskiya, zai ruga neman ceto ga jama’a, wai a hana a yi masa ɗanyen aiki, irin na marasa gaskiya.
[67] Ba ni iya tuna haƙiƙanin kalmomin da ya yi amfani da su, bi da bi. Tabbas, maganar haka take a BBC da ƁOA, tsara ta yadda take a haka nawa aiki ne. Da fatar ban ari bakinsa na ci masa tafarnuwa ba, don haka na sakaya sunansa.
[68] Yi nazarin abin da ya faru ga liman lokacin da yake fadar sarki ya ba labarin Ruwan Bagaja da aka musanta shi yaya aka yi? Ya je gida gemu sharaf da hawaye, an ce ya yi ƙarya. Don ƙarin bayani a dubi, Imam, A Ruwan Bagaja, NNPC shafi na 5-6 ya ce:
Ina nan wata rana an taso daga Jummu’a, sai na ga Liman babana ya dawo gida idanu sharaf-sharaf da hawaye. Na tarye shi da kuka, na ce, “Baba, lafiya?” ya ka da baki ya ce, “Ina lafiya, yau sarki ya muzanta ni cikin taro?” Na tambaye shi dalilin haka ya ce, “Wai don yau ana cikin fadanci, ya ce ɗansa Yarima ba ya lafiya, sai a kwantar a tayar. Ni kuwa na ce na ji an ce da za a samu Ruwan Bagaja a wani gari, da mutanen garin nan duk sun huta da masassarar zamni. Daga wai na faɗi ‘yar wannan, sai sarki ya harzuƙa, ya ce wai ba’a nake jan shi da ita. Ya ce wai in ba shegantaka ba, da shaƙiyancin da na saba, ina na taɓa ganin wanda ya samu Ruwan Bagaja a duniya?”
[69] Ai wannan ita ce falsafar karin magana da ke cewa, kana haihuwan ɗa, amma ba ka haihuwan halinsa. A wajen makaɗan fada, rashin gaskiya na daga cikin makaman da ake yi wa ‘ya’yan sarauta habaici da shi.
[70] Marigayi Malam Shehu Naliman Sakkwato Limamin Masllacin Sarkn Musulmi Bello yana fassara kalmar “hasara” da “ruɓushi”. Ya ce hasara Larabci ce, a Hausa ana ce da ita ruɓushi. Yana yawan furta haka a tafsirin da yake yi da karantarwar da yake yi a Soro (zaure). Allah Ya gafarta masa.
[71] Wai mai farautar neman abu yau ga shi yana sayar da shi. Abin da kake so, in an ba ka amanarsa ka kiyaye.
[72] Babban matakin tsare gaskiya shi ne, a guji son rai.
[73] Akwai sa ran mai haƙuri ya zamo mai gaskiya. Rashinsa (haƙuri) na fitar da kwaɗayi fili sai a yi rashin gaskiya.
[74] Gaskiya kan sa a naɗa agola sarauta a aje ‘ya’yan asali.
[75] Abin nufi, a kowane lokaci aka yi saɓani faɗin gaskiya ɗaci gare ta ga wanda ya rasa ta.
[76] Idan babu gaskiya cikin magana Basakkwace ke cewa “ɗumi” na kawai, wai, ƙarya ce.
[77] Wannan na ɗaya daga cikin falsafar Bahaushe na ƙoƙarin gano asalin abubuwa. Yana cewa gaskiya ita ta yi duniya, duk ran da aka rasa mai ita a duniya, duniya za ta tashi.
[78] Za aka ji ya ce:”Ka ji farar gaskiya”. Idan an faɗe ta wurin da  ba a so, ya ce, “Danƙari! Ka ji baƙar gaskiya da ba sa so.”
[79] Kassu Zurmi da Gagarugaru ya yi masa yadda yake so na gaskiya ya ce:
Rannan Garugaru yai mani daɗi 
Tamkar na dama zuma na sha.
Ashe gaskiya zaƙi gare ta, in ji makaɗa Kassu Zurmi.
[80] Ko a zance akan ce, ba a iya ƙure mai gaskiya. Ke nan gaskiya tsawo gare ta.
[81] Tattare da irin yabon da Bahaushe ke yi wa giwa bai ba ta sunan gaskiya ba. Cika ido daban, gaskiya daban.
[82] Ƙwazon zaki bai sa aka ba shi sunan gaskiya ba. Don haka, ƙwazo daban, gaskiya daban.
[83] Dalilina na yin wannan hasashe tun kafa jamhuriyya ta farko a wannan ƙasar kowane zamani sai an ce, gara jiya da yau. Zamanin su Tafawa Ɓalewa ba ya misaltuwa da na su Shagari ga ko’ina zamanin su Shagari ya fi na Obasanjo tsarki ga komai. Zamanin Obasanjo ya ɗara na ‘Yar’aduwa ga tsaro da dattako. Zamanin ‘Yar’aduwa ya fi na Goodluck adalci, tsaro da kwatanta gaskiya. Ba mu san na gaba yadda za a yi ba. In aka ja baya ga yadda ake a yau, to, ba mu san yadda za ta kasance ba.
[84] Sarkin Aljan ya tarar yara uku na faɗa. Ya kama ɗaya, ya karya wuya. Ya kama ɗaya, ya ƙwaƙwale ido. Ya kama ɗaya, ya jefa matacciyar rijiya, ya ce: Ba don na zo rabo ba  da faɗa ya ɓaci”.
[85] Uwar Daɗi: Jakadiyar Sarki ce, ta fito fada babu zane a ka, babu diko, da ta laluba kai, ta ji wayau, sai ta kwance maɗauri ta rufe kai, ta bar ƙasa ba komai.
[86] Magabata sun ce, idan kai na wurgawa gora na wurgawa ƙarshenta za a haɗu. Na tsinci wannan a bakin Marigayi Jafar Muhammad Adam (Allah Ya gafarta masa).
[87] Duk mai hankali ya dubi siyasar Nijeriya ya san da ƙarshen tika-tika tik! Sare-saren hauka zubar da yawu.
[88] Al’adunmu, da addininmu, su ya kamata a narka su zama ruwan dimokaraɗiyyar da za mu sha. Al’adun kowa aka zo muna da su, sai sun saɓa wa irin gaskiyar da muka gada.
[89] A dubi halin da Iraƙi take ciki. Yaya makomar Afghanistan? Ina zaman lafiya a Libiya? Yaya aka kwashe a Misra? Me Syria take ciki? Wa ya more a Mali? Ina wurin zama a Somaliya? Idan muna son ƙasarmu ta tsira da waɗannan musibu mu koma ga gaskiya.
[90] Ai don haka Bamaguje ke cewa, Tsafi gaskiyar mai shi. Masu saukakken addini suka ce, Allah gatan bawa. Masu karin magana suka ce, zama lafiya ya fi zama ɗan sarki. Masu hangen nesa suka ce, da duk aka yi kuren gaskiya shiri ya koma sabo, domin duk shirin da aka yi ba da ita ba, ba shiri ba ne.

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